ChapterPDF Available

Abstract

Autonomy-supportive teaching strongly predicts positive functioning in both the students who receive autonomy support and the teachers who give it. Recognizing this, the present paper provides conceptual and operational definitions of autonomy support (to explain what it is) and offers step-by-step guidelines of how to put it into practice during classroom instruction (to explain how to do it). The focus is on the following six empirically validated autonomy-supportive instructional behaviors that, together, constitute the autonomy-supportive motivating style: take the students’ perspective, vitalize inner motivational resources, provide explanatory rationales, acknowledge and accept negative affect, rely on informational and nonpressuring language, and display patience. For each act of instruction, I define what it is, articulate when it is most needed during instruction, explain why it is educationally important, and provide examples and recommendations of how to put it into practice.
... According to Black and Deci (2000) the principle of autonomy entails that a person in a position of power, such as an educator, empathetically considers the viewpoint of another individual, such as a student, recognizes their emotions, and offers them relevant information and options, while minimizing the utilization of coercion and requests. Reeve (2016) suggests two primary objectives of autonomy support. At one level is to give students learning activities, a classroom atmosphere, and a student-teacher interaction that will support their everyday autonomy. ...
... By introducing students to novel ways of engaging with the learning activity, teachers can encourage students to become more in tune with it. This will increase the likelihood that needs will be met, their interests will be aroused, and their goals will be advanced rather than neglected or declined (Reeve, 2016). ...
... The environment of trust fostered by the teacher trainees led to a change in the decisions and in the traits of the pupils, creating favorable conditions for language learners to take control of all or a portion of their language learning (Chinpakdee, 2020). Not only was the autonomy-supportive environment fostered by providing a curriculum that specifically promotes independent motivation and the satisfaction of students' autonomy requirements, but also by becoming in tune with one's pupils (Reeve, 2016). The results indicate that the teacher trainees fostered a climate of trust in which students felt empowered to make independent decisions in an atmosphere of freedom and pleasure. ...
Article
Full-text available
The scope of this study is to observe features of environmental autonomy support and to identify aspects of autonomy. To this end, a case study was designed and implemented in a state school in the western region of Mexico, with the participation of twelve secondary school pupils, ages 12 to 14, who attended a non-required 40-hour course using the autonomous learning approach. A research journal was kept tracking the whole process, gaining knowledge of autonomous learning and examining the phenomenon in a real-life context. The journals were analyzed with the help of Atlas.ti software, and the researcher made inferences from the resulting data, including environmental autonomy support as well as the reactions of the pupils to the autonomous learning process. The analysis of data reveals the language-learning context and its tendency to foster an autonomy-supportive atmosphere. Data seems to cast light on two major issues: the importance of fostering an environment that encourages autonomous learning-related behavior, and the necessity of providing appropriate scaffolding strategies to assist students in their development of autonomous learning. The study provides valuable insights into autonomy support and autonomous learning in education, but its limitations include a small sample size and potential challenges in generalizing findings to broader contexts.
... The endeavor to deliver teaching in a class setting that advocates students' needs for autonomy and the interaction amongst students and educators is related to the autonomy support outlined by [53]. To be clear, educators' actions and attitudes are crucial components that may be utilized to identify, enhance, and grow learners' innate motivating talents. ...
... To be clear, educators' actions and attitudes are crucial components that may be utilized to identify, enhance, and grow learners' innate motivating talents. According to [53], the main goal of autonomy support is to reaffirm and make clear that the teaching method, class environment, and relationship amongst teacher and student are all conducive to enhancing autonomy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-assessment (SA) can provide students with opportunities to self-evaluate, or make judgments about their learning process and products of learning. Regarding the importance of SA, this survey pursued to examine the effects of practicing SA on Saudi Arabian EFL learners’ resilience, creativity, and autonomy in task supported language learning. To fulfill these objectives, 60 intermediate EFL learners were chosen and separated accidentally into two groups of control and experimental. They were then pre-tested using three related questionnaires of resilience, creativity, and autonomy. Next, the treatment was practiced on the two groups. Eight lessons of Touchstone Book 3 were taught to the experimental group using SAvia applying different tasks. On the other hand, the lessons were trained to the control group without using SA and tasks. The aforementioned questionnaires were re-administered as the post-tests following the completion of all lessons. Independent and paired samples t-test findings displayed that the control and experimental groups performed differently on the three post-tests. In essence, the results showed that the experimental group's resilience, creativity, and autonomy were all improved by the treatment. The research's implications and conclusions were then outlined. The implications of the research can allow students to evaluate their own progress and skill development critically.
... This raises the question of whether non-riding education in BW and LC at the riding school is considered important and valuable within this group and whether the education available meets the needs of this group. To facilitate internalization, practitioners such as riding teachers can provide rational that is relevant to the riders and autonomy support, i.e., take the perspective of the learner, be open and accepting (48,76). ...
Article
Full-text available
Many horse enthusiasts have insufficient knowledge about horse behavior and welfare (BW) and learning and human-horse communication (LC), which poses a risk for both horse welfare and human safety. The main objective of this study was to investigate why riding school pupils participate or do not participate in non-riding education in BW and LC, using Self-determination theory (SDT). SDT posits that the quality of motivation is related to the individual's basic psychological needs. A convenience sample of 568 riding school pupils from Finland and Sweden completed an online questionnaire. The results showed that forty percent of the riding schools offered education in BW, and thirty-two in LC. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents participated in education in BW, and twenty-five in LC at their riding school. The respondents were autonomously motivated to participate in education, i.e., they would participate because it is interesting and personally important. Perceived needs satisfaction at the riding school predicted autonomous motivation to participate. Education was offered to a greater extent in Swedish riding schools and Swedish respondents participated more often, as well as experienced more autonomous motivation, relatedness and competence satisfaction compared with Finnish respondents. To our knowledge, this study is the first to explore riding school pupils' motivation towards non-riding education.
... The importance of autonomy in students has attracted the attention of educators [11], being a fundamental aspect of the mission and vision of schools [12]. Since the teacher is a fundamental element in creating an adequate educational environment [13], support for autonomy-understood as instruction through a way of teaching that appreciates, supports, and vitalizes needs [14]is recognized as a facilitator of the students' autonomous behaviours [15]. This is backed up with Self-Determination Theory (SDT; [16,17]). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of emotional intelligence between the perception of autonomy support from physical education teachers and self-esteem (positive and negative) in secondary-school physical education students. The study design was observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional. In total, 1069 secondary-school physical education students participated (Mage = 14.55; SD = 1.54) (51.2% female; 48.8% male). The following scales were used: The Learning Climate Questionnaire adapted to Physical Education (i.e., autonomy support), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (i.e., emotional attention, emotional clarity, and emotional repair), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (positive self-esteem, negative self-esteem). A structural equation model was performed with the latent variables controlled by age, sex, and the students’ educational centre. The main results indicate that the explained variance was 37% for positive self-esteem and 26% for negative self-esteem. In addition, autonomy support directly predicts emotional intelligence (p < 0.05) and positive self-esteem (p < 0.001). On the other hand, all indirect effects of autonomy support on self-esteem across emotional intelligence were significant at p < 0.001. Finally, emotional clarity and emotional repair had a mediating effect on self-esteem, and it improves the total effect of autonomy support on positive self-esteem with values of � Beta = 0.14 and Beta� = 0.19, respectively, and a value of � �Beta = 0.07 and � �Beta = 0.06 for negative self-esteem. The findings reveal the necessity to improve emotional clarity and emotional repair in secondary-school students in improving positive self-esteem through the perception of autonomy support from the physical education teacher.
... In this line BPNs are determined by the social environment and autonomy support. In this sense, autonomy support consists of giving students the opportunity to make their own decisions (Reeve, 2016) and this variable is one of the most studied factors in the academic context. In this field, the relationship between autonomy support and BPN has been widely studied by different authors (Aguirre et al., 2016;Pérez-González et al., 2019;Gil-Arias et al., 2020;McCurdy et al., 2020) and this autonomy support is known as a facilitator of students' autonomous behaviors (Borg and Alshumaimeri, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Physical Education in the current education system has various objectives,including educating students on the values of physical activity and increasing the physical activity levels of students. Objective The purpose of the present study is to analyze the motivational profiles of students, to understand which profiles have higher levels of responsibility, satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and social relationship needs; intention to be physically active; and perception of autonomy support. Methods A total of 752 students from Primary, Secondary, and Non-compulsory Education (M = 13.809; SD = 1.984, 47.9% boys and 52.1% girls), from different educational centers in Spain, participated in the study, to whom a series of questionnaires were administered to find out their values of the mentioned variables. The results established the existence of four profiles: “high quality,” “low quality,” “high quantity,” and “low quantity” of motivation. Results The results reflect that the students of the “high quality” and “high quantity” profiles had higher values in all the variables in relation to the other two groups (except in amotivation and external regulation), discussing the differential analysis between the four groups. The group with the best results was the “high quantity” profile, as opposed to the “low quantity” profile. In turn, no differences were found according to gender, but according to the educational stage, the Primary Education stage was more related to the more self-determined profiles. Discussion and conclusion Therefore, it is necessary to look for more self-determined motivational profiles from an early age in order to improve levels of responsibility, perception of autonomy, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and the intention to be physically active.
... Personal relevance and active involvement (Principle #3) arises from three theories. Specifically, interesting tasks and personal connections to the material are posited as predictors of mastery goals (achievement goal theory), active involvement and relevance promote high value for tasks (expectancy-value theory), and perceptions of autonomy are supported by giving rationales and connecting the learning material to students' lives (self-determination theory; Reeve, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Students vary in their perceptions of teachers’ motivational supports, even within the same classroom, but it is unclear why this is the case. To enable the design of equitable environments and understand the theoretical nature of motivational climate, this study explored demographic differences in university students’ perceptions of instruction across five large, introductory STEM courses (N = 2,486), along with end-of-semester outcomes. Results indicated that women and students from traditionally underrepresented racial or ethnic groups (Black, Hispanic/Latino/a, or Indigenous students) tended to perceive slightly higher motivational support in their courses compared to men and traditionally overrepresented (white or Asian) students, respectively. However, patterns were not uniform across all courses or variables. Men and women did not significantly differ on end-of-semester interest in any course, but women tended to have lower self-efficacy in some courses and significantly higher grades in programming compared to men. Implications include a caution for researchers against interpreting sample-specific or aggregated evidence of demographic differences as generalizing to broader populations or specific settings.
Chapter
Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that autonomous motivation is a critical condition for optimizing human flourishing. In the school context, autonomy-supportive teaching promotes student learning and well-being. In Asian contexts, however, an indispensable part of classroom instruction seems to relate to control, which is conceptualised as the opposite of autonomy-support. While some researchers interpret Asian teachers’ instructional practices as authoritarian, increasingly more studies have argued that children in collectivist societies indeed benefit from teachers’ ‘control’. Some researchers proclaim that autonomy support is more appropriate in Western contexts while control is more important among Asian teachers. However, other studies claim that the need for autonomy-support is universal. This chapter aims to address this debate by reporting a study of the teaching style of two Hong Kong teachers. The mixed-method study was based on classroom observations and interviews of two teachers regarding their teaching styles, and a survey measured the motivation of 67 junior form students who were taught by the teachers. The coding results of classroom observation indicated that the two teachers have largely embodied autonomy support in their teaching, and that minimal controlling behaviour was found in the teachers. Their classroom practice was dominated by fostering student interest, with relatedness support and promoting mastery learning orientation as the dominant features of the two teacher’s teaching styles respectively. The two teachers’ beliefs and practices showed a strong resemblance to Confucian philosophical ideas, demonstrating the characteristics of being altruistic (jen), self as relational, and self-cultivation. Their students’ motivation was almost equally high in terms of students’ relationships with the teachers, perceived self-efficacy, learning goals, and self-handicapping behaviour (reverse score). The results disagreed with the point of view that Asian teachers are controlling but rather endorses self-otherness as a core cultural norm that makes Asian teachers’ autonomy support and teaching style specific to the Chinese culture. Implications for positive psychology and future research directions are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Two studies tested self-determination theory with 2nd-year medical students in an interviewing course. Study 1 revealed that (a) individuals with a more autonomous orientation on the General Causality Orientations Scale had higher psychosocial beliefs at the beginning of the course and reported more autonomous reasons for participating in the course, and (b) students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy-supportive became more autonomous in their learning during the 6-month course. Study 2, a 30-month longitudinal study, revealed that students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy-supportive became more autonomous in their learning, which in turn accounted for a significant increase in both perceived competence and psychosocial beliefs over the 20-week period of the course, more autonomy support when interviewing a simulated patient 6 months later, and stronger psychosocial beliefs 2 years later.
Article
Full-text available
We tested the educational utility of “teaching in students' preferred ways” as a new autonomy-supportive way of teaching to enhance students' autonomy and conceptual learning. A pilot test first differentiated preferred versus nonpreferred ways of teaching. In the main study, a hired teacher who was blind to the purpose of the study taught 63 college-age participants in small groups the same 48-minute lesson in one of these two different ways, and we assessed participants' perceived autonomy support, autonomy-need satisfaction, engagement (self-report and rater scored), and conceptual learning (self-report and rater scored). Multilevel analyses showed that participants randomly assigned to receive a preferred way of teaching perceived the teacher as more autonomy supportive and showed significantly greater autonomy-need satisfaction, engagement, and conceptual learning. Mediation analyses using multilevel modeling for clustered data showed that this way of teaching enhanced conceptual learning because it first increased students' autonomy. We conclude that “teaching in students' preferred ways” represents a way of teaching that increases students' autonomy, engagement, and conceptual learning.
Article
Full-text available
PurposeOur ongoing program of research works with teachers to help them become more autonomy supportive during instruction and hence more able to promote students’ classroom motivation and engagement. Design/methodology/approachWe have published five experimentally based, longitudinally designed, teacher-focused intervention studies that have tested the effectiveness and educational benefits of an autonomy-supportive intervention program (ASIP). FindingsFindings show that (1) teachers can learn how to become more autonomy supportive and less controlling toward students, (2) students of the teachers who participate in ASIP report greater psychological need satisfaction and lesser need frustration, (3) these same students report and behaviorally display a wide range of important educational benefits, such as greater classroom engagement, (4) teachers benefit as much from giving autonomy support as their students do from receiving it as teachers show large postintervention gains in outcomes such as teaching efficacy and job satisfaction, and (5) these ASIP-induced benefits are long lasting as teachers use the ASIP experience as a professional developmental opportunity to upgrade the quality of their motivating style. Originality/valueOur ASIP helps teachers learn how to better support their students’ autonomy during instruction. The value of this teaching skill can be seen in teachers’ and students’ enhanced classroom experience and functioning.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Article
The institutionalization of education in the modern era removed the processes of learning and cultural transmission from contexts in which children were often guided by adults to whom they were closely attached and from activities of significance in everyday life. Despite the arbitrary nature of modern classroom structures, it is argued that some of the fundamental needs that energized learning prior to compulsory schooling still have relevance within the classroom. The fundamental needs for autonomy and relatedness are highlighted and suggested to be strongly influenced by the quality of interpersonal conditions at home and in school. Several recent studies are reviewed that examine the effects of autonomy support and quality of relatedness with respect to motivational orientations and learning outcomes. It is concluded that the success of cognitive agendas in educational settings is dependent upon affective processes within the classroom and that the creation of an optimal classroom climate serves both learning and developmental goals.