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Abstract

Research indicates that teachers’ conceptions of and approaches to teaching with technology are central for the successful imple-mentation of educational technologies in higher education. This study advances this premise. We present a 10-year longitudinal study examining teachers’ conceptions of and approaches to teaching and learning with technology. Nine teachers on an online Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy and a Master of Pharmacy programme at a Swedish university were studied using a phenomenographic approach. Results showed clear differences between novice and experienced teachers. Although novice teachers initially held more teacher-focused conceptions, they demonstrated greater and more rapid change than experienced colleagues. Experienced teachers tended to exhibit little to no change in conceptions. Supporting conceptual change should, therefore, be a central component of professional development activities if a more effective use of educational technology is to be achieved.

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... Thus, there is a latent need to invest in the continuous professional development of teachers in relation to technologies, either on the part of those in which digital illiteracy interferes in their teaching methodology, that is, those who are less collaborative and less open to changes and technological developments, or those who, on the other hand, demonstrate involvement and skills in the use of technologies [40], Marcelo-García et al. [41] requiring, therefore, continuous training to accompany all the technological development that occurs in the scope of teaching learning. In this orientation, Willem et al. [14] say it is urgent to provide higher education teachers with regard to the implementation of teaching and learning technologies. ...
... Although knowledge and use and ICT are considered a premise for the good performance of students in active life, complete knowledge is only achieved with active participation and accompanied by the pedagogical aspect that teachers are able to imputate to the teaching/learning process, in addition to the knowledge in educational technology that they, too, must be accredited [40]. ...
Conference Paper
The confinement caused by the spread of the disease COVID-19 transformed the way of teaching in the education sector during confinement, leading to the intensification of the development of virtual learning. This includes the use of many educational tools, applications, and Websites at zero cost for its users, the emergence of the STEM (STEAMeducation is a revolutionary approach that respects the particularities of students allowing them to develop different skills simultaneously, streamlining and optimizing teaching to make it much more complete) lockdown digital school and the emergence of remote education. Although knowledge and use and information and communication technologies (ICT) are considered a premise for the good performance of students in working life, complete knowledge is only achieved with active participation and accompanied by the pedagogical aspect that teachers are capable of impute to the teaching/learning process, which does not always happen because not all students and teachers are equipped with these technological tools, or even due to social and cultural reasons. Regarding the advantages and disadvantages of using technology to teach and learn, we will see that the use of technologies is a competitive advantage for students while they are in the education system and for those who need those same technologies in the performance of their profession. Still and in order to analyze the technologies at the service of education, as well as the goals foreseen for the coming years, we verified that action plans must be introduced that, covering a significant number of the active population, provide external and independent training fromthe education system. Compulsory education that makes contact with ICT by interested parties a reality.
... Thus, their confidence in the use of technology in teaching increased. Even a brief period of pedagogical training can have a positive effect on teacher beliefs (Vilppu et al., 2019), and novice teachers seemingly change their beliefs and concepts faster than experienced ones (Englund et al., 2017). ...
... Lack of experience in distance teaching emerged as a crucial factor for competence change, whereas respondents with previous experience in distance teaching showed no improvement. This result supports earlier findings that experience increases feelings of competence (Al-Awidi and Alghazo, 2012; Englund et al., 2017;Han et al., 2017). However, changes in feelings of competence were not related to teacher beliefs about distance teaching, as earlier studies suggest (Chen, 2010;Kim et al., 2013;Jwaifell et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This study examines, using a cross-sectional approach, the digital competence of academic teachers at a time when teaching shifted to digital distance learning at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers from different academic fields at a large multidisciplinary Finnish university (N = 265) responded to a questionnaire about the purposes for which they use digital tools in teaching, how they evaluated their competence at distance teaching during the lockdown of March-May 2020 and their beliefs about distance teaching. The respondents used digital tools in teaching mostly for delivering information. According to their evaluations, their competence in distance teaching increased during the early stages of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, but their beliefs about distance teaching did not relate to the feelings of competence. Respondents with no experience in distance teaching before the lockdown evaluated their competence as having increased more than did respondents with previous experience. The implications of the findings for understanding competence development are then discussed.
... Carr (1999) suggested organizations must use early adopters to persuade and train others in the organization. Englund et al. (2017) found inexperienced and new teachers to be more accommodating and open to new technologies than experienced teachers. Institutions can benefit in the long run by focusing on novice teachers early in their careers. ...
... Research on faculty adoption trends of different technologies can provide insights into strategies to promote acceptance among faculty members (Jacobsen, 1998). Englund et al. (2017) affirmed research would help universities develope strategies that can facilitate the implementation of educational technology in improving student learning. Researchers need to adopt new research methodologies and methods for a better understanding of the issues involved in educational technology (Jacobsen, 1998). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, to identify and encapsulate the enablers that can facilitate technology integration in higher education and second, to understand and analyze the interplay between technology agility enablers. Design/methodology/approach The study used the Total Interpretive Structural Modeling (TISM) approach to construct a theoretical model of the technology agility enablers in higher education and MICMAC analysis for ranking and segregating the enablers based on their dependence power into four categories: Autonomous, Dependent, Linkage and Independent. Findings The study helped identify eight technology agility enablers, with the Covid-19 pandemic as the most significant enabler. The Covid-19 pandemic has catalyzed the diffusion of technology across the education sector in India, including tertiary higher education. The study revealed government initiatives and institutional commitment as other enablers that can promote technology agility in higher education. Practical implications The results of this study would assist the policymakers and management of universities and colleges in understanding the important enablers that can facilitate technology integration in higher education. Originality/value Research in the past on technology adoption in higher education has looked into each enabler in isolation. This research provides a comprehensive view of the enablers and has attempted to establish a multidirectional interplay between the enablers.
... Each focus group followed the Delphi method, which normally uses a series of structured questionnaires to solicit a consensus agreement from a group of experts (reviewed in Okoli & Pawowski 2004). Our focus groups were run using a modified version of the Delphi method based on in-person discussion cycles to generate consensus (Dick, 2000). This method is useful for developing consensus in problem-solving activities (Dick, 2000. ...
... Our focus groups were run using a modified version of the Delphi method based on in-person discussion cycles to generate consensus (Dick, 2000). This method is useful for developing consensus in problem-solving activities (Dick, 2000. Participants were introduced to the topic and warmed up by brainstorming strategies for buying a new car. ...
Conference Paper
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Universities are increasingly requiring the use of text-matching software (e.g., Turnitin, Urkund) for assessment. Even so, teaching staff may be resistant to using new technology for a variety of reasons. This study aimed to determine specific strategies and recommendations for improving uptake and correct usage of text-matching software at universities by gathering the experiences of training staff who have combatted resistance to new technologies. Two focus groups with 22 participants across five universities used a modified version of the Delphi method to come to consensus on their top five recommended strategies, which included: offering "out of the box" materials, using evidence, fostering champions, providing training and support to teaching staff, ensuring consistent messaging, building relationships, and offering student-facing support. These strategies may help university trainers improve the adoption of text-matching software, though more research is needed to determine the relative effectiveness of different strategies. See full proceedings at https://2020conference.ascilite.org/proceedings/
... Los resultados de estos estudios muestran en general un rápido desarrollo tecnológico, con un incremento de funcionalidades didácticas. Sin embargo, hasta antes de la pandemia, el desarrollo de los usos pedagógicos se veía aun en un estado incipiente, los EVA eran frecuentemente utilizados como un repositorio de documentos (Costa, Avelos, & Teixeira, 2012; Costa, Celis, Castillo & Espinoza, 2019;Englund, Olofsson, & Price, 2017). ...
... Estos resultados confirman los observado en investigaciones anteriores que muestran el incipiente uso de las aulas virtuales antes de la pandemia (Costa, et. al, 2012;Costa et al., 2019;Englund, Olofsson, & Price, 2017). ...
Article
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This project is an exploratory and descriptive study that aims to understand how higher education institutions are facing the challenge of implementing undergraduate distance learning during the health crisis. A case analysis of the trainings implemented in 19 undergraduate career courses of three universities (two Chileans and one French) is implemented. In-depth interviews are conducted with 19 teachers, 49 students and 5 institutional heads. The results provide pedagogical recommendations for the integration of technologies in times of crisis and an analysis model to accompany the development of undergraduate hybrid training programs.
... In the 1994 field definition, it is explained that educational technology is theory and practice in the design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning (Xie, & Rice, 2021). With the development of educational science and technology, Association educational communication and technology (AECT) put forward the definition of the field in 2004, namely educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources (Englund, Olofsson, & Price, 2017 Instruction, October 2022 • Vol.15, No.4 efficient, and interesting, as well as being able to improve performance. This definition also discusses ethics in using technology in educational practice as an effort to facilitate the educational process and improve educational performance (Oke, & Fernandes, 2020). ...
... The definition of the field of educational technology in 1994 explains the area of the field of educational technology activities through theoretical studies and research, as well as trying to emphasize the existence of processes and products in the application of educational technology. The definition formulates five areas or fields of work for educational technology, which include: design, development, utilization, management, and assessment (Englund, Olofsson, & Price, 2017). Based on the 2004 definition by AECT, it can be illustrated as follows: After the researchers observed previous research related to parenting patterns, the relevant research can be detailed as follows: ...
Article
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Empowering children to study at home with diverse parenting patterns during the Covid-19 pandemic is a challenging experience for parents of elementary school students. This study aims to determine changes in parenting patterns used by parents of elementary school students after undergoing online learning of parenting patterns with the method of sharing experiences. This study uses the concurrent embedded research method where both qualitative and quantitative data are being collected at the same time. The descriptive qualitative method is embedded within the quantitative method, with a pre-experimental one group pre-test and post-test design. Data collection techniques used questionnaires, observations, and interviews with Chi-Square non-parametric inferential statistical analysis techniques and descriptive qualitative. The research setting was online learning, which was carried out during the Covid-19 pandemic, where parents of elementary school students were more likely to accompany their children to study at home. The results showed that online learning with parenting experience-sharing methods can change the understanding of parenting patterns of students whose parents were initially more dominant in the permissive type, to become more dominant in the authoritative type. This study's findings imply that future research would benefit from examining the differential, nonlinear, and interactive components of authoritative parenting can affect school achievement.
... One of the determining factors for the successful use of technology in learning is the understanding of technology teachers or users (Englund, Olofsson, & Price, 2017). Teachers must have expertise in the use of technology to support learning and improve student understanding (Otero et al., 2005). ...
Article
One of the obstacles using technology is the lack of teacher understanding of technology, therefore this study aims to determine the understanding of lecturers of mathematics education on the integration of technology in learning using the TPACK (Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge) framework, a few of research that applying TPACK in universities. Furthermore, the both effect of gender and age of teaching on TPACK were analyzed on TPACK using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this study are Power point applications are technologies that are widely used by mathematics education lecturers by 40.9%. PCK, PK and CK components have a strong positive effect on TPACK perceptions of mathematics education lecturers. The average value of TPACK components is TK 3.95; CK 4.01; PK 4.08; 4.02 PCK; TCK 4.04; TPK 4.02; TPACK 3.96. For an in-depth analysis of gender and age of teaching factors on the TPACK component. This study found that gender and duration of teaching was no significant influence between the understanding of mathematics education lecturers and the seven components of TPACK.
... Instructors' pedagogical competence in using educational technology is critical [54], as is sculpting good digital citizenship [55]- [58], because transformation does not occur eventually by putting instructors in contact with technology [59]. Undoubtedly, beginner instructors have been found to be more skilled at fast improvement and transformation than more qualified teachers [60], who really quote a scarcity of digital literacy as a disincentive to use more educational technology in classrooms, as well as structural issues such as accessibility and volume of work [61]. ...
Article
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E-learning was a major study area during COVID-19 pandemic. Practically, public and private higher education institutions worldwide have switched from traditional face-to-face teaching to online learning solutions in order to deal with the spread of the coronavirus. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the e-learning solution during COVID-19 crisis. The research data were gathered using a self-administered online survey from Moroccan public university students. Through using the structural equation modeling under the partial least squares (PLS-SEM), the findings reveal that instructor quality has a direct and significant influence on system use and learner satisfaction. Likewise, user satisfaction is positively associated with system quality. Moreover, the e-learning system success is driven by both system use and learner satisfaction. These results are useful for Moroccan University policymakers in order to develop best practices to ensure a successful e-learning implementation.
... The previous section has argued that the development of digital capacity is essential for individuals and organisations, but for educators this can be challenging both as individuals and as members of their organisations. The concept of a digital educator has emerged to indicate the increasing complexity of the ways in which technology mediates educational processes (Englund et al., 2017). We suggest that the concept of a digital educator is not only about technology, tools and uses. ...
Article
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In this paper, we explore academic identity, specifically the identity of the educator in higher education and academics' conceptualisations of the digital educator. We suggest that the concept of a digital educator is not only about technology, tools, and uses. The context for this exploration is academics' participation in an online professional development module, Digital Education, and the "pivot online" (Weller, 2020a) during campus closures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Through qualitative research, we explored participants' sense of teaching identity, whether they had or have a concept of being a digital educator and the extent to which these identities might have shifted while the campus closure continued. We present analysis of their accounts and reflect on the implications of this analysis, particularly in relation to organisational digital capacity defined as "the skills, competencies, attitudes, infrastructure, and resources that enable people to work, live and learn in a world that is increasingly digital world" (National Forum, 2018, p. iv). We consider how higher education institutions will cope with the complex challenges facing us and suggest ways in which the implications of this research could better enable institutions to navigate change and build organisational digital capacity. Implications for practice or policy: • The pivot to online teaching and assessment during the COVID-19 pandemic has had complex effects on professional identities which need to be researched and understood. • Programme teams in campus-based institutions have experienced the erosion of professional norms and relationships. They need support and leadership during the gradual return to campus. • Faculty integrated technologies rapidly but unevenly into practice; therefore, the ongoing building of digital capacity and the shift towards post-digital pedagogies needs dedicated support and leadership.
... Currently many devices use haptics to convey information particularly through vibrations which is used to signify when new information is being expressed [2]. Beyond that, numerous other pieces of research have also been carried out in various fields to try and convey information through tactile stimulation with examples ranging from educational learning [3,4], vehicular navigation [5,6], military training [7], and physical therapy [8]. These methods, however, are rudimentary at best and are only capable of providing surfacelevel stimulation such as force and shape, especially when compared to the rich amount of detail that our skin is capable of discerning. ...
Article
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Touch is one most of the important aspects of human life. Nearly all interactions, when broken down, involve touch in one form or another. Recent advances in technology, particularly in the field of virtual reality, have led to increasing interest in the research of haptics. However, accurately capturing touch is still one of most difficult engineering challenges currently being faced. Recent advances in technology such as those found in microcontrollers which allow the creation of smaller sensors and feedback devices may provide the solution. Beyond capturing and measuring touch, replicating touch is also another unique challenge due to the complexity and sensitivity of the human skin. The development of flexible, soft-wearable devices, however, has allowed for the creating of feedback systems that conform to the human form factor with minimal loss of accuracy, thus presenting possible solutions and opportunities. Thus, in this review, the researchers aim to showcase the technologies currently being used in haptic feedback, and their strengths and limitations.
... Recent research also supports this finding. Englund, Olofsson, and Price (2017) found that teachers who were novices in the use of educational technology exhibited a greater readiness to acclimatise to change than their more experienced colleagues. The present study results are in line with recent research by Lapitan, Tiangco, Sumalinog, Sabarillo, and Diaz (2021) who found instructors' lack of familiarity with teaching tools and software to be a major challenge. ...
Article
The development of Covid-19 epidemic into a pandemic led to great changes in education delivery modes around the globe. Online education (OE) began after the closure of education buildings. The unprepared start of OE led to access barriers, challenges, and opportunities for improvement. This work explores the scope of OE during COVID-19 in Pakistani institutions offering the degree of Chemical Engineering. A mixed-method approach was followed with a sample of 10 teachers and 1200 students from public and private sector universities. Teacher data came from semi-structured interviews by email, while students’ views of their learning experiences were collected through an online survey. The learners' responses showed that the unprecedented and unprepared shift to online course delivery lowered their motivation and interest in learning and they do not perceive the present practice as useful for several reasons. However, the teachers believed that the transition to OE helped the continuity of education, though they had to face technical, personal, social, learning-management-related, and other barriers they were not adequately equipped to deal with effectively. The results imply the need for a rapid preparation phase to enhance the effectiveness of OE during a crisis. The results may assist academics and policymakers in revising decisions regarding the great education migration to OE.
... In addition to technical and internet issues, data privacy and security are factors that make the online learning process less effective. However, there are several advantages obtained that students are motivated to learn independently, low costs, convenience, and flexibility [11], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22]. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the order of life in various aspects of life, including the field of education in Indonesia. AIM: The purpose of this study was to explore student perceptions and acceptance of the advantages and disadvantages of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic and analyze the factors that influence these perceptions. METHODS: The research is in the form of a survey using Google forms about the perception and acceptance of online lectures during the COVID-19 pandemic for nursing students at universities in Indonesia, a questionnaire sent through WhatsApp and held from July 1, 2021 to July 30, 2021. RESULTS: The many of respondents aged 17–19 years (50%) with Diploma-students (62.9%). The most of them have intermediate-level skills in using information technology (82.2%). The platform that is often used is Zoom meeting. The advantages of online learning are that students state that they can study from home (22.2%) and easily access online sources of material (19.9%) and can obtain recordings of each lesson (18.6%). Constraints that are often faced are technical problems (24.6%), very minimal interaction with lecturers (18.4%), and very minimal interaction between students (17.5%). Age and skills in using technology, information and communication have a significant effect on students’ perceptions of online learning (p < 0.05). Most respondents have a negative perception (52.2%) about online learning. CONCLUSION: Although there are several advantages to online learning, students’ perceptions of the learning process are negative, meaning that they are happier and still want face-to-face learning.
... It is also important to be flexible while incorporating emerging technologies as part of course deliverables. Some faculty are hesitant to adopt new technology (Englund et al., 2017). Further, not all students are tech savvy and some might find it difficult to submit a particular assignment using a new piece of required software. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, I recall and reflect on teaching virtually an undergraduate group processes class during the COVID-19 pandemic. I explain the parameters and expectations I had for the class, in addition to reflecting on their effectiveness. I end the chapter with teaching tips based on knowledge attained from teaching the course in a new format.
... MR refers to the fusion of the real world and the virtual world, including AR and augmented virtuality (AV) (Flavián et al. 2019). Visualization technologies, such as VR, AR, and MR, have been used in simulation training systems in different fields, such as in military training (Alexander et al. 2017;Mao and Chen 2021), building safety (Moore and Gheisari 2019), education and training (Akçayır and Akçayır 2017;Englund et al. 2016;Nincarean et al. 2013), surgical simulation (Gallagher et al. 2005;Khor et al. 2016), and mental health treatment (Chicchi Giglioli et al. 2015;Riva and Serino 2020). The simulation training system using visualization technology can provide participants with a simulation training environment similar to the real situation. ...
Article
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Major natural disasters have occurred frequently in the last few years, resulting in increased loss of life and economic damage. Most emergency responders do not have first-hand experience with major natural disasters, and thus, there is an urgent need for pre-disaster training. Due to the scenes unreality of traditional emergency drills, the failure to appeal to the target audience and the novel coronavirus pandemic, people are forced to maintain safe social distancing. Therefore, it is difficult to carry out transregional or transnational emergency drills in many countries under the lockdown. There is an increasing demand for simulation training systems that use virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality visualization technologies to simulate major natural disasters. The simulation training system related to natural disasters provides a new way for popular emergency avoidance science education and emergency rescue personnel to master work responsibilities and improve emergency response capabilities. However, to our knowledge, there is no overview of the simulation training system for major natural disasters. Hence, this paper uncovers the visualization techniques commonly used in simulation training systems, and compares, analyses and summarizes the architecture and functions of the existing simulation training systems for different emergency phases of common natural disasters. In addition, the limitations of the existing simulation training system in practical applications and future development directions are discussed to provide reference for relevant researchers to better understand the modern simulation training system.
... It has been claimed that academics tend to use technology to support or reinforce their conception of teaching (Gonzalez, 2009;Englund, Olofsson and Price, 2017). "The teacher's perspective on the use of technology derives to a greater extent from their approach to teaching" (Laurillard, 2010, p.424). ...
Conference Paper
Learning technologies are increasingly common in higher education institutions, but academics are frequently unsure how best to use these. Staff development activities focussed on technology skills are not sufficient for academics to design sound technology-based educational experiences. This research study explores this problem, seeking to increase understanding on how academic developers can support academics to make pedagogically-informed uses of learning technologies. An exploratory case study methodology was used for this 44-month research study. The data collection included class teaching observations, document analysis, semi-structured interviews and forum postings during a professional development (PD) course. The first phase of research involved the development and testing of a class teaching observation schedule, to understand current practice. The second phase of research included class teaching observations and interviews with participating academics to identify their learning needs. These research activities informed the design, development and delivery of the first part of a PD course. The final phase of research involved (a) interviews to understand the participants’ experience of the first part of the course and to identify their expectations for the remaining part of the course and (b) the delivery of the remaining part of the PD course. A thematic analysis of the participants’ forum posts and mid-course interviews led to the identification of five themes. The main contributions of this research study are related to (a) the process of academic development for learning technology use, and (b) the process of studying academic development. This study shows how the teaching development of academics can be addressed through flexible and just-in time academic development, and engaging academics in activities related to their teaching context. The student experience of technology-based teaching, the course learning resources and activities, the facilitator’s guidance, the diversity of participants’ experiences and peer discussions support academics to develop pedagogically-informed positions on teaching and learning technologies. Methodologically, the thesis suggests that researchers should use a diversity of data collection tools to gather and analyse evidence about academic development.
... Furthermore, environmental bias is better under control and study settings are fully replicable when user studies are implemented with VR technology (Miller 2016). In addition to studies, there is an increasing number of use cases where users explore virtual environments, such as gaming (Zyda 2005), rehabilitation (Meldrum et al. 2012), and education (Englund et al. 2017). ...
Article
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We present a new reorientation technique, “hyper-reoriented walking,” which greatly reduces the amount of physical space required in virtual reality (VR) applications asking participants to walk along a grid-like path (such as the most common layout in department stores). In hyper-reoriented walking, users walk along the gridlines with a virtual speed of twice the speed of real walking and perform turns at cross-points on the grid with half the speed of the rotation speed in the physical space. The impact of the technique on participants’ sense of orientation and increase in simulator sickness was investigated experimentally involving 19 participants walking in a labyrinth of infinite size that included straight corridors and 90° T-junctions at the end of the corridors. Walking accuracy was assessed by tracking the position of the head mounted display, and cyber-sickness was recorded with the simulator sickness questionnaire and with open questions. Walking straight forward was found to closely match the ideal path, which is the grid line, but slight errors occasionally occurred when participants turned at the T-junctions. A correction algorithm was therefore necessary to bring users back to the gridline. For VR experiments in a grid-like labyrinth with paths of 5 m in length, the technique reduces required size of the tracked physical walking area to 3 m × 2 m.
... Importantly, undergraduate science education has changed dramatically since the passing of this legislation (6)(7)(8). Chalkboards were replaced with transparencies, which have been replaced with PowerPoint slides. National recommendations for best practices in college education have promoted the transition from teacher-centered to student-centered learning, which changes the role of the student from passive listener to active contributor (9,10). ...
Article
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ABSTRACT The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in nearly all universities transitioning their in-person courses to online instruction. Recent work from our research team conducted in Spring 2020 established that the immediate transition to online learning presented novel challenges for students with disabilities: students were unable to access previously established accommodations and there was a lack of information from Disability Resource Centers (DRCs) about adapting accommodations to online environments. In this study, we aimed to determine the extent to which these issues still were present 1 year later. In Spring 2021, we conducted a survey of 114 students with disabilities who were registered with the DRC and taking online science courses at a public research-intensive institution. We used our previous interviews with students to develop closed- and open-ended questions to assess the extent to which students with disabilities were being properly accommodated in their courses, document any new accommodations they were using, and elicit any recommendations they had for improving their experiences in online science courses. We used logistic regression to analyze the closed-ended data and inductive coding to analyze the open-ended data. We found that more than half of students with disabilities reported not being properly accommodated, and this was more likely to be reported by students who experienced new challenges related to online learning. When students were asked what accommodations they would have wanted, students often described accommodations that were being offered to some students but were not universally implemented. This study summarizes recommendations for making online science learning environments more inclusive for students with disabilities.
... This agenda affects the teachers' self-understanding in terms of pedagogy, values and professional and personal narratives (McNaughton & Billot, 2016). It also challenges teachers by introducing significant role ambiguity in unanticipated ways (Englund et al., 2017), for example when the teacher steps into an embodied presence via video or avatar in online environments depending on both teacher judgements and what the technology offers. This raises questions about the dualism of online and offline presence (Bolldén, 2016). ...
Article
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Worldwide, the Covid-19 pandemic has transformed teaching contexts rapidly. Studies on the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic have largely focused on students’ learning and well-being. In contrast, little is known about how emergency online teaching affects teachers. The aim of this study was to examine how disrupted teaching contexts during the Covid-19 pandemic affected academic teacher identities in health science education. Interviews were conducted with 19 experienced lecturers in health science education from two universities. Interview data were analysed using systematic text condensation. The established codes were compared across interviews to identify common themes and subsequently synthesized into descriptions of the emerging phenomena. Findings indicated that a form of embodied teacher identity, i.e. internalized teaching practices turned into dispositions, constituted a basic pedagogical condition and a resource for the teachers, and that the sudden change in the teaching context caused a loss of teacher identity. This identity loss was related to an incorporated understanding and use of the teacher’s sense of the classroom (subtheme 1), non-verbal feedback from students (subtheme 2) and reciprocal visual contact (subtheme 3). Data also indicated that teachers’ ability to adapt their teaching to students’ needs while teaching and teachers’ motivation and job satisfaction may have suffered. Universities should carefully consider how to cultivate sustainable and adaptive teacher identities compatible with the increasing digitalization of learning environments. Teaching is an embodied affair, and teacher identities are sensitive to structural changes in teaching contexts.
... Hal ini melibatkan pengguna lebih mengarah profesional daripada pengguna pribadi sehingga hal ini dapat juga dapat menciptakan interaksi antar pengguna dan membantu pengguna dalam melakukan praktik dalam bidang pendidikan. Ini merupakan hal yang cukup penting bagi pengguna untuk menggunakan dan memahami dalam penggunaan teknologi web 2.0 yang merupakan bagian strategis para mahasiswa dalam proses pembelajarannya agar hasil pembelajaran yang ingin dicapai merupakan hasil yang baik (Englund et al., 2017). Penggunaan teknologi web 2.0 ini mendukung para mahasiswa dalam proses pengembangan ilmu pengetahuannya seperti cara menyelesaikan permasalahan, berpikir kritis dan meningkatkan kemampuan berkomunikasi (Instefjord & Munthe, 2017). ...
Article
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p>This study aims to examine the positive influence of web 2.0 strategic support, web 2.0 technology use, absorptive capacity, learning CSR against social entrepreneurship, Whereas the sampling technique for this study determined as a non-probability sampling with purposive sampling technique. Samples were taken in the amount of 266 respondents who have been committed as students who are studying and learning about entrepreneurship. The data were collected by distributing electronic questionnaires Likert scale through social media with Google Form. Moreover, this research uses Partial Least Square - Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) for the statistical analytic method. This study also uses a descriptive type of research with quantitative data. The test results from this study concluded that the specified variables are positive influence on each other. BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRACT Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh positif dukungan strategi web 2.0, penggunaan teknologi web 2.0, daya serap, pembelajaran CSR terhadap kewirausahaan sosial. Sedangkan teknik pengambilan sampel untuk penelitian ini adalah non - probability sampling dengan teknik purposive sampling . Sampel yang diambil sebanyak 266 responden yang telah berkomitmen sebagai mahasiswa yang sedang belajar dan belajar tentang kewirausahaan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menyebarkan angket elektronik skala Likert melalui media sosial dengan Google Form. Selain itu penelitian ini Partial Least Square - Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) untuk metode statistik analitik. Penelitian ini juga menggunakan jenis penelitian deskriptif dengan data kuantitatif. Hasil uji dari penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa variabel yang ditentukan saling berpengaruh positif. </p
... According to Chen et al. (2020) AR-based teaching motivates learners and increases their self-efficacy and promotes their achievements (Lo & Hew, 2020). The use of Ed-tech technology such as ARGbased education in this study boosted the participants' understanding of the grammar structure of giving and asking for instructions which is in line with the results of other Ed Tech-enhanced studies (Englund et al., 2017). According to Chang and Hwang (2018), AR-based activities develop students' collaboration for developing activities as they interact with their peers. ...
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The application of augmented reality games (ARG) as an emerging innovative technology has become a significant component of instructional learning contexts in recent years. ARG-based education as a form of student-centered learning situates students in a learning environment that integrates virtual elements with physical environments through three-dimensional pictures and videos on mobile devices for educational purposes. To connect the use of digital tools into the language classrooms and allow learners to view the real world, this study examined the viability of ARG-enhanced education on English foreign language (EFL) learners’ learning of giving and asking for directions in flipped and blended contexts. The study involved 60 EFL elementary students of homogenous English proficiency, organized into two comparative and one control group, with 20 participants in each group. For the pre-test, an 18-item multiple-choice test with one written and oral question was administered to assess the learners’ knowledge of asking for and giving directions. After taking the pre-test, the two comparative groups received 16 sessions of ARG-enhanced education (one with a blended and the other with a flipped classroom approach), while the control group received placebo instructions. The flipped group received the instructional materials preceding the online group, while the blended group received instruction in both online and face-to-face classes. The control group received instruction in a face-to-face context. After 8-weeks of treatment sessions, all participants of the study took the post-test. According to the results, both flipped and blended groups receiving ARG-enhanced education performed better than the control group in learning how to give and ask for directions. The results of this study may pave the way for EFL teachers and students to use ARG-based technology in online and traditional classes.
... In addition to these developments, the concept of making delivery more studentcentered and engaging has led to multiple bodies of research and informed changes in practice for faculty (Ertmer, 1999;2005;Dismore, Turner, & Huang, 2019). It is claimed that "the pressure to review and revise the curriculum is unceasing" (Bajada, Kandalbinder, & Trayler, 2019, p. 465) and measurable interaction within courses, particularly through technological and perceived innovative methods, is frequently found in institutional goals and staff development initiatives (Abbad & Jaber, 2014;Englund, Olofsson, & Price, 2017). These initiatives have been further promoted with an increase in accredited teacher development schemes that aim to show higher standards of T&L (Fry, 2006). ...
... We posit that the rate at which a child transitions between mental models can be accounted for within the RAF model. One aspect of conceptual change is the ability to reconcile ontological commitments with learned facts or general misconceptions about the world (Brown, 1992;Chi, 2008;Englund, Olofsson, & Price, 2017). In some cases, these facts might be easily reconciled based on the order in which MRs enter the graph, but in other cases, flexibility of thought may play a substantive role. ...
Article
In reflexively autocatalytic foodset (RAF)-generated networks, nodes are not only passive transmitters of activation, but they also actively galvanize, or “catalyze” the synthesis of novel (“foodset-derived”) nodes from existing ones (the “foodset”). Thus, RAFs are uniquely suited to modeling how new structure grows out of currently available structure, and analyzing phase transitions in potentially very large networks. RAFs have been used to model the origins of evolutionary processes, both biological (the origin of life) and cultural (the origin of cumulative innovation), and may potentially provide an overarching framework that integrates evolutionary and developmental approaches to cognition. Applied to cognition, the foodset consists of information obtained through social learning or individual learning of pre-existing information, and foodset-derived items arise through mental operations resulting in new information. Thus, mental representations are not only propagators of spreading activation, but they also trigger the derivation of new mental representations. To illustrate the application of RAF networks in cognitive science, we develop a step-by-step process model of conceptual change (i.e., the process by which a child becomes an active participant in cultural evolution), focusing on childrens' mental models of the shape of the Earth. Using results from (Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992), we model different trajectories from the flat Earth model to the spherical Earth model, as well as the impact of other factors, such as pretend play, on cognitive development. As RAFs increase in size and number, they begin to merge, bridging previously compartmentalized knowledge, and get subsumed by a giant RAF (the maxRAF) that constrains and enables the scaffolding of new conceptual structure. At this point, the cognitive network becomes self-sustaining and self-organizing. The child can reliably frame new knowledge and experiences in terms of previous ones, and engage in recursive representational redescription and abstract thought. We suggest that individual differences in the reactivity of mental representations, that is, their proclivity to trigger conceptual change, culminate in different cognitive networks and concomitant learning trajectories.
... Communication -is the purposeful exchange of thoughts and information within the framework of human social activity. The addressee strives for the addressee to be able to understand him/her and thus fulfill the main purpose of the communication -to convey information (Englund, Olofsson, & Price, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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The image of the city acquires special prominence in Modernist literature. The urban cityscapes simultaneously serve as real geographical areas and universal symbols in works of great modernist authors. This is especially true about James Joyce’s Dublin - the permanent setting of the works by the great Irish modernist. A collection of short stories “Dubliners” belongs to the early period of James Joyce’s creativity and its title highlights the importance of Dublin for the collection- the capital of Ireland is not a mere setting, but the unifying factor, the main image of the collection. Joyce represents the capital city as the centre of paralysis, or hemiplegia, affecting its citizens, despite their age. The paper discusses the importance and symbolic meaning of the city in the text. Joyce manifests naturalistic precision while mapping his city. The meandering of the characters around the streets of Dublin acquires symbolic importance - circular routs and the characters’ futile attempts of breaking the circle demonstrate the inability of Dubliners to escape the paralysis of their physical, cultural, religious existence. I try to explore the role of Dublin in shaping the fates of its citizens and the methods, used by Joyce to depict the main city of Ireland, which is just “wearing the mask of capital,” remaining deeply provincial in every aspect of its existence. Key Words: Dublin, paralysis, capital, chronotope, inability
... The students themselves maintained that they appreciate constant access to the internet facility, visual learning environments, slides and lecture notes, online activities for submission of assessments. More so, (Englund et al., 2017) maintained that digital technology in higher education has the possibility of transforming teaching and learning. Although, there are still a few pieces of evidence about the long-promised revolution in higher education. ...
Article
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Digital technology can be observed in every aspect of our today's society. It serves as the primary instrument needed in building knowledge societies for quality education. Although, excellent teaching in higher education requires the sound knowledge of the subject and a right way of imparting the experience to the students. Economics teachers often face the problems of the best ways to help students understand the fundamental economic phenomena and the application of relevant economics terms to real-life situations. However, to overcome such issues calls for the need to discover new and appropriate teaching methods which should be in alignment with the needs and possibilities of economics students in higher education. To this effect, an appropriate pedagogical model is designed for the enhancement of teaching and learning of economics in higher education, especially in this era of the new-normal brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic which has disorganised the entire globe with unanticipated changes in every aspect of the society, including the educational sector in which the need/impact of digital technology cannot be overemphasised. The pedagogical model would lead to active, creative, collaborative, and highly engaged digital experiences for economic students in higher education.
... Yet practical courses require faceto-face learning practices (Isaeva et al., 2020;Siripongdee et al., 2020). In this regard, technological enterprises have developed several online platforms to integrate technology into all facets of life (McLoughlin and Lee, 2010;Englund et al., 2017;Santos et al., 2019). The most frequently used interactive online platforms are Zoom, WhatsApp, WeChat Work, Teams, Skype, and DingTalk (Almahasees et al., 2021). ...
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This study explores the Structured Query Language (SQL) learners’ perceptions in online and face-to-face learning regarding the role of the instructor, clarity in lesson delivery and understanding, and concerns about the shift in learning mode. In parallel, we evaluate the performance of online and face-to-face SQL learners in the final examination. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced educational institutes to shift their activities online. Thus, online learning has been accepted during the pandemic and gradually evolving. The literature on online and face-to-face learning has evaluated limited variables. Yet, in online and face-to-face learning, critical parameters concerning the SQL learners’ perceptions about the role of instructors have not been explored. The present study surveyed the final-year students learning medium-level SQL courses at Bar-Ilan University Israel and the College of Management Academic Studies Israel. Survey questionnaires included demographic information, online learning experience, online learning sources, and ten questions about the learners’ concerns of shifting, effectiveness, adequate instructions, the lecturer’s clarity during instruction, clear understanding of the lesson, instructor’s tools, instructor’s availability, satisfactory response, learning independence, and spending extra time in online and face-to-face learning, separately. This study included 102 online learners and 95 face-to-face learners. All the online learners used Zoom and WhatsApp, and the face-to-face learners used Gmail and WhatsApp. Both online and face-to-face learners were significantly satisfied with the lecturer’s performance, especially with the clarity in lecture delivery, instructor availability, and satisfactory response from the lecturer. In addition, online learners agreed upon the effective way of learning, clear understanding of the lesson, independence, and spending extra time. In contrast, face-to-face learners were more satisfied with the tools of the lecturer and dissatisfied with the dependence on the lecturer. Female students attending face-to-face learning were more concerned about the shift in the mode of learning. Further, online learners performed better in written examinations and face-to-face learners in oral examinations. Notwithstanding, advancements are still required to redesign the online learning environment for critical thinking in higher education.
... So far, teachers in German Higher Education have mostly drawn on assimilative learning tasks in digital environments leading to a reinforcement of teacher-led instead of student-centered learning activities (Bond et al., 2018). Thus, training in subject-specific pedagogical competence to implement learning designs is crucial (Englund et al., 2017;Kirkwood, 2009;Kirkwood & Price, 2005;Ng, 2012;OECD, 2018). ...
Article
Open access article availabe from: https://www.ph-vorarlberg.ac.at/forschung/ueberblick/fe-edition This article explores the foreign language learning potentials that selected digital tools hold with respect to teaching about U.S. structural racism. Teaching complex topics like structural racism in online learning environments requires highly competent foreign language teachers and high-quality online learning materials. These demands and resulting digital teaching innovations have a significant effect on how university-based (foreign language) teacher training should be structured in the future (Amhag et al., 2019). To address these demands, we have integrated distance teaching as a mandatory element in foreign language teacher training at the Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt (Stadler-Heer & Böttger, 2021). This article presents exemplary online lessons on the topic of structural racism which were developed, tested, and evaluated by pre-service teachers in two remote university teacher training courses. Drawing on the principles of task-based language teaching, the presented digital lesson materials aim to foster secondary school students’ intercultural communicative competence.
... They argue that these macro-level institutional cultures profoundly impact "approaches to teaching and learning in ways that are generally unacknowledged" (Fanghanel & Trowler, 2008, p. 311). A lack of institutional recognition of the time and support needed for the work of learning and accompanying identity development by academic teaching staff constitutes a barrier to the development of "best practices" for educational technology integration (Englund et al., 2017;Gregory & Lodge, 2015). Similarly, structural factors at the departmental level such as policies that complement wider university policy are also necessary for change in practices (Trowler et al., 2005). ...
Thesis
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Teachers across a wide range of educational, geographic and practice contexts are being confronted with technologies that have the potential to both disrupt and transform their classrooms, relationship to students, and their own understandings of themselves as professionals. As educational technologies become more integrated into the teaching and learning of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) at universities, developing better understandings of why and in what ways teachers implement and use them can support this integration in constructive ways for both teachers and learners. This thesis explores the idea that interrogating teachers’ ideas about who they are, their identities, may shed light on how they perceive, engage with, and choose whether and to what extent to adopt technologies in the context of their educational practice. This approach may also be useful in supporting EAP teachers’ learning and integration of technology in ways that enhance their practice and relationships to students. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), this study explores the experiences of university EAP teachers using Moodle in their teaching practice. It seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the identities they construct within the context of the language centre of a large European research university. This research also explores the construct of identity as a means of understanding educational technology adoption and use, an approach that has not been widely explored to date, as well as the usefulness of IPA as a methodology suitable for interrogating such experiences within the field of Education. Over the course of a single semester, six EAP teachers took part in focus groups and individual interviews and provided written narratives through which they shared their experiences and individual journeys, their aspirations, frustrations, and changes in their teaching practices. Using IPA data analysis, these narratives together were used to create idiographic sketches of each participant and to develop a detailed analysis of both convergence and divergence of themes across the participants. The study found that participants’ experience of educational technology is always viewed in light of their teaching practices and their relationships to students. It also suggests that professional precarity and beliefs in unsubstantiated myths such as the “digital native” may constitute barriers to teachers’ educational technology integration. These findings support a useful role for identity, conceived as a holistic model incorporating various aspects of a teacher’s being and doing, in not only understanding but also supporting these technology-related practices. The results generate recommendations for practice, including first and foremost that professional learning and support for technology integration begin with teachers, their ideas about themselves, and their concrete practices rather than the technologies themselves. Keywords: Educational Technology, English for Academic Purposes (EAP), Higher Education Teaching, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), Language Teacher Identity, Teacher Identity, Technology Integration
... Secondly, it is required to have the support and promotion of the university administration to form an overall digital transformation environment in the university. The lack of digital knowledge and skills also hinders the use of technology in the classroom and some other problems; young teachers, who are new to the profession, are believed to be able to adapt to rapid change and development rather than experienced teachers (Englund et al., 2017). ...
... Evidence shows that experience is an important factor. A Swedish 10-year longitudinal study on teachers providing technology-supported education found that novice teachers initially had more teacher-focused conceptions but exhibited a faster and more profound shift towards studentcentred conceptions than more experienced colleagues (Englund et al., 2017). ...
Book
Digital Teaching for Linguistics re-imagines the teaching of linguistics in a digital environment. It provides both an introduction to digital pedagogy and a discussion of technologically driven teaching practices that could be applied to any field of study.
Chapter
The proliferation of technology and the increasing number of online higher arts programme offerings imply that artist educators need to develop a wider range of pedagogical competencies for studio-based and online teaching. Consequently, artist educators’ support needs for technology-enhanced learning are also becoming more complex. Learning innovation in higher education institutions is typically driven though the programmes of dedicated support units. The professional development workshops that they organise can help lecturers to create new forms of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) or strategies for technology-enhanced learning that are viable within their institutional contexts. However, support units also need to create a support system that sustains these kinds of innovation. This chapter suggests that the perspective of TPACK creation can help the support units of the higher education institutions in the arts to integrate their programmes as pathways for institutional knowledge creation. It examines the support programmes of NAFA’s educational technology unit through the theoretical vocabulary of TPACK and distils five TPACK creation pathways. The TK-driven, TCK-driven, TPK-driven and holistic reconstruction pathways take place as the support unit introduces artist educators to new technologies, supports technical development of online resources, consults with them to explore the pedagogical affordances of technology tools and works with them as design partners to redefine course-wide technology-enhanced pedagogies, respectively. Support units can also develop TPACK through the context-building pathway by curating institutional-specific pedagogical practices and stimulating grounds-up dialogue at different institutional levels. How educational technology support units can support different groups of artist educators to create TPACK and its implications for the arts in higher education are discussed.
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Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is a theoretical concept that describes teachers’ know-how for technology-enhanced learning as the synthesis of their technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge. It is found that TPACK is best created through teacher engagement in lesson design projects. The professional development programmes can better help teachers to create student-centred strategies for technology-enhanced learning through the use of different kinds of lesson design support. This chapter describes the design of a professional development workshop that supports NAFA artist educators to engage in TPACK creation through the use of design rubrics, scaffolding questions, TPACK Activity Types, technology modelling, and one-to-one technology mentoring. The workshop was attended by 31 artist educators. Analysis of the 17 implemented lesson designs that were voluntarily shared by the artist educators for research purposes showed that the professional development workshop supported its participants to create three approaches for technology-enhanced learning—Evaluating Understanding, Representing Understanding, and Representing Understanding and Inquiry. These are manifestations of the unique forms of TPACK that the participants created through workshop participation that was found to be more strongly influenced by their current ways of teaching with technology rather than their artistic discipline. The considerations for supporting artist educators’ TPACK creation through professional development workshops are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter articulates the essence of educating the artist and highlights the theoretical, pedagogical, and contextual dimensions that influence technology-enhanced pedagogical practices in the arts at higher education. The notion of using technology for educating the artist appears incongruent to the predominantly studio-based approaches of teaching artistic practices. However, these kinds of long-standing pedagogical practices are slowly being disrupted by the proliferation of technologies in both society and educational institutions. With the forced global migration to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for artist educators to have a repertoire of technology-enhanced pedagogical practices within their teaching toolkit is even more acute. This chapter sets the framing of the book as an inquiry about the possibilities of teaching and learning the arts in higher education with technology. It outlines how the book chapters are being organised to stimulate conversation among artist educators about possible pedagogical models, as well as inform higher education institutions about the contextual strategies needed to support the creation of technology-enhanced pedagogical practices in the arts.
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A fundamental responsibility of higher education institutions, across disciplines, is to develop student research skills. The exponential growth of digital scholarship, however, challenges traditional definitions of research. There is a need for deeper understanding of the ways in which students can develop and implement academic research skills and digital research skills simultaneously. This qualitative study explored graduate student engagement in scholarly digital storytelling, a technology-enhanced assessment, across multiple disciplines at a research university in the United States. Findings suggest that students developed the essential research skills of autonomy and flexible thinking along with multimodal research skills throughout the semester-long process of creating scholarly digital stories. Implications for utilizing technology-enhanced assessments, such as scholarly digital storytelling, in higher education are discussed.
Article
Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore resilience among nursing faculty during the COVID-19 pandemic and to examine associations or differences that may exist among variables and between groups. Background: Nurse educators' resilience has been identified as an important characteristic because of the challenges involved in nursing education. It is important to explore resilience among nurse educators to determine which factors promote or inhibit this important characteristic. Method: This correlational research study used an online survey to explore factors related to resilience among nurse faculty during the COVID-19 pandemic. Correlational analyses were used to determine the relationship between various resilience constructs and select demographic variables. Results: Findings indicated that higher levels of resilience were associated with age (ρ = .21, p < .001), experience teaching online (r = .22, p < .001), and professional development related to online teaching (M = 80.7, SD = 11.0), t(276) = 2.41, p = .017. Conclusion: Resilience and related characteristics have the potential to assist nurse educators in adapting successfully to stressful circumstances. It is crucial that schools of nursing develop programs to enhance or develop resilience among nurse educators. Support and training in the area of online education are also of paramount importance.
Chapter
This chapter provides readers an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of technology integration in higher education. As technological innovations continue to advance, faculty are provided ample opportunities to enrich their curriculum to further enhance student engagement and learning. Further, the inclusion of technology promotes student retention and provides them access to real-world content. Innovations in technology have resulted in a plethora of tools that can be incorporated into today's classrooms. However, faculty are often hesitant to integrate technological tools given security, accessibility, and access considerations. Further, faculty may perceive technology as disruptive to their classrooms resulting in distracted learners who experience lower academic gains.
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People vary in the way in which they perceive, process and react to environmental factors, and some are more or less sensitive than others. There is a dearth of research investigating the possible impact that environmental sensitivity has in the postsecondary education context. To address this gap in literature, the following research question was posed: What impact does environmental sensitivity have on student learning in tertiary education? To answer this question a two-stage mixed methods research project was undertaken. The first stage involved two studies which used snowball recruitment via social media, and subject inclusion criteria were current or previous postsecondary education experience. Participants completed on-line surveys. Study One is the design, development and validation of a self-report instrument measuring postsecondary students’ perceptions of their learning success, and participants completed the Perceived Success in Study Survey (PSISS) and associated demographic questions. Two phases were undertaken to check for reliability of results, n=225 and n=237. Reliability statistics found a high level of internal consistency, and principal component analysis identified five factors: Intellectual Stimulation, Generic Skills, Work-life Balance; Commitment to Learning and Learning Community. The PSISS was found to be a comprehensive measure of overall success for postsecondary learners. The participants in Study Two (n=365) completed the PSISS and the 12-item Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS-12, Pluess et al., 2020) and related demographic questions. Independent T-tests, ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc calculations identified that high sensitivity is positively associated with success-promoting attitudes and strategies as identified on three of the five PSISS factors. It also found positive associations between total scores on the PSISS and the sensitivity subscales of Aesthetic Sensitivity and Ease of Excitation (Smolewska et al., 2006). This study included a response field to register interest in participation in further research. Those who responded, and who rated as highly sensitive on the HSPS-12, were invited to take part in a semi-structured interview, leading into the second stage of the project. Thirteen Zoom interviews were conducted with participants from a broad range of geographic locations and levels and fields of study in order to exemplify and elaborate on the quantitative findings. Reflexive inductive thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data, and sixteen codes and three themes were identified. Responses were written vi into a semantic narrative, accompanied by pertinent participant quotations, providing a rich and detailed description of participant experience. The results of this study confirmed that there are educational advantages contingent with high sensitivity, including the use of a broad array of metacognitive study and self-care strategies, and the prioritisation of wellbeing and work-life balance. Conversely, it also found that numerous simultaneous study demands can lead to feelings of overwhelm, however, the participants employed a comprehensive array of metacognitive coping strategies to manage these. Low sensory thresholds associated with high sensitivity can present challenges for highly sensitive students who can be negatively impacted by aspects of the physical learning environments including light, noise, indoor environmental pollutants. Additionally, participants highlighted the need for postsecondary institutions to provide education about environmental sensitivity, to allow flexibility in teaching delivery, to explore options to support students who may struggle with group-work and presentations, and to provide assessment accommodations. Overall, the project has identified a number of positive and negative associations between levels of learner sensitivity and student success and suggests that education about environmental sensitivity for students and teaching staff would be helpful for increasing awareness about the benefits and challenges of environmental sensitivity. Institutional commitment to providing optimal physical learning and social environments may enhance the learning experience for all students. Finally, recommendations for policy, practice and institutions highlight elements that will be of benefit to all students, most especially those who sit at the high end of the sensitivity spectrum.
Article
This research explored the perceptions that postgraduate students have of a compulsory subject within a master's degree from a Spanish online university, when using Quizizz. A mixed methodology is used where the qualitative analysis traces the roadmap for the quantitative one, identifying the key themes revealed by a sample of 11 students, which were then used to build a survey launched to 106 students. The conclusions are: firstly, Quizizz can maintain the curiosity and attention of the students, improve participation and motivation in the virtual classroom and generate pleasant learning experiences; second, students perceived Quizizz as an engaging and fun platform; third, competitiveness emerged as an important variable driving students' intrinsic motivation, driven by the desire to be among the top ranks in game rankings; and fourth, Quizizz is a valuable tool for reviewing and retaining key concepts and ideas, but not necessarily for improving test scores. Finally, Quizizz has a positive influence over motivation, engagement, and dynamization of the virtual classroom.
Article
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Learning environments ensure successful implementation of the learning process but not always the effective design of the e-learning objects (ELOs) and moreover, search and adaptation. A technological solution for the design of the learning objects, repositories, and the semantic web is needed. There are many open educational resources, but not many platforms assure the possibility to adapt learning objects. The existing developed multifunctional platforms do not ensure the effective ELOs adaptation as well as the process of design and adaptation in the multifunctional environment. They do not have an automatic search of ELOs in the semantic web, which is directly targeted to the specific objects in repositories of open educational resources and do not allow for adaptation of the already developed ELO by automatically assigning reusable objects. The structure of the papers consists of the literature review and overview of existing practices, research methodology, research results description and conclusions provided by authors. The objective of the research is to suggest, to teachers, a model for effective e-learning objects design, automatic search and adaptation processes in the multifunctional environment by developing a platform based on semantic technologies for e-learning objects design and adaptation.
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El artículo describe las concepciones de las competencias digitales docente de las instituciones educativas. El objetivo fue describir las concepciones, características e importancia de las competencias digitales en el desempeño de los docentes. Se recogió información de revistas indexadas en la base Scielo, Scopus, comprendidos entre los períodos de años 2001 al 2020. Se hizo revisión teórica de artículos y fuentes secundarias, bajo la metodología de revisión sistemática de artículos encontrados en las bases de datos cuyos resultados demuestran que las competencias digitales tienen una incidencia en el desempeño de los docentes del Perú.
Chapter
We are witnessing how digital technologies can be used to transform everyday life – launch new or grow incumbent companies, change teaching and learning environment, and research. The latest literature research has overwhelmingly positively assessed the use of digital technologies in higher education, indicating certain challenges in this regard. In the modern era, higher education institutions need to evolve steadily, following the digital transformation. Overall, the emphasis is on the encouragement and promotion of digital technology in the learning process. However, a small number of research papers addressed the learning environment’s digital transformation in the past decade. With the aim of contributing to a relevant topic, this paper presents a systematic literature review of related articles published on learning environment digital transformation in ten years. Accordingly, significant and eminent results are discussed, together with guidelines for future research.
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Many parts of our lives are now heavily influenced by technology. Technology is an essential complement to creative instructional techniques. Due to multimedia and network interactivity, students are taking on new roles as participants rather than observers in their learning process. The study's purpose was to evaluate how pleased individuals were with simulation software and whether they would utilize it as a foundation for technology adoption in higher education, mainly teaching higher electronics that deals with automation processes such as greenhouse automation. The study utilized the Modified TAM and DeLone & McLean IS Success Model in determining the respondents' acceptance of simulation-based learning for instruction. Functional constructs from the Modified TAM and D&M IS Model were then validated based on the product quality model ISO/IEC 25010. The research results using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), Cronbach Alpha, and Bartlett's test validated the study's consistency. The majority of the respondents agreed that simulation-based learning is acceptable. The behavioral intention and attitude toward using technology were confirmed by the acceptance of using a simulation software platform in teaching-learning higher electronics. On the other hand, the study recommended that needs be assessed, that suitable orientation be provided, and that technology be evaluated. Since technology is continuously improving and becoming more accessible, further studies incorporating a bigger pool of specialists from diverse sectors and continuous research may be advantageous.
Conference Paper
Taking into account the findings on the digital divide in Vietnam (Do et al. [1]), as well as the methodology of digital transformation in higher education in Germany (Bond et al. [2]) and the direction of a human rights-based approach (Peeraer and Van [3], Kristin and Ingunn [4]), we carried out this research on the association between digital transformation in education and human rights. The research will first analyze a university’s digital transformation status in a mountainous region of Vietnam, where the majority and ethnic minorities are evenly distributed. The research also specifies the 4A requirements of educational access, which include availability, accessibility, acceptability, and adaptation based on the existing state of institutions, infrastructure, and lecturer and student individual characteristics. The findings of the research are intended to draw practical lessons, offer recommendations, and equip instructors and students with skills as digital citizens in the modern age, as well as policy proposals in the sectors of education and human rights. This research also addresses some of the shortcomings of earlier research on identifying behavioral trends in the usage of digital technologies on a limited basis.
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Resumo: Introdução: As atuais Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN) dos cursos de graduação em Medicina visam atualizar e transformar a escola médica brasileira incentivando currículos interdisciplinares e o uso de métodos ativos de ensino. O desafio de reduzir a adoção de aulas expositivas tende a impactar tanto discentes quanto docentes, que podem ser resistentes às mudanças quando estas não são apoiadas em pesquisas com a devida reflexão crítica. Desenvolvimento: Neste artigo, apresentamos um protocolo desenvolvido pela equipe do Núcleo de Apoio Pedagógico e Experiência Docente da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Brasília em que se utilizam dois questionários para a realização de estudos quali-quantitativos que visem avaliar a motivação e a percepção de docentes e discentes em relação aos distintos métodos de ensino e aprendizagem. O protocolo foi criado para auxiliar a compreensão da dinâmica, dos desafios e das expectativas acerca do processo de ensino e aprendizagem. Conclusão: Coletar, analisar, descrever, interpretar e divulgar dados sobre a motivação e a percepção de docentes e discentes relacionadas aos distintos métodos é importante para fundamentar ações que visem promover a melhoria do ensino. O protocolo apresentado neste artigo pode ser aplicado em cenários diversos e poderá contribuir para o processo de desenvolvimento de um ensino médico mais alinhado às DCN.
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El propósito de esta investigación es diseñar y validar un cuestionario para medir las percepciones, actitudes y comportamientos del profesorado universitario res- pecto a su práctica docente y su relación con los estudiantes en el marco del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES); considerando ciertos conceptos imprescindi- bles para el desempeño académico incardinados con el objetivo 4 de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS). El cuestionario se orienta a cumplir una doble finalidad, por un lado, posibilitar vías para incrementar la calidad de los procesos de enseñanza- aprendizaje mediante el autodiagnóstico de los docentes, y, por otro lado, orientar un camino de mejora continua e innovación metodológica y competencial. En un primer momento, se elaboró un borrador inicial de cuestionario con 11 dimensiones compues- tas por 72 ítems, que, tras realizar un análisis psicométrico limitado, se redujo a única- mente 2 dimensiones con 20 ítems, que corresponde al cuestionario testado mediante una muestra de 360 docentes de universidades de toda España. La aplicación del análisis factorial sobre las respuestas arrojó tres factores con una alta fiabilidad: for- mación integral, formación en valores, innovación pedagógica y TIC. A la vista de los resultados, cabe inferir que este cuestionario posee una validez clara y fiable para ser utilizado en el ámbito universitario, dado que posee factores conectados estrechamente tanto con los principios del EEES como con el objetivo 4 de los ODS.
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Although the conditions for successful technology integration finally appear to be in place, including ready access to technology, increased training for teachers, and a favorable policy environment, high-level technology use is still surprisingly low. This suggests that additional barriers, specifically related to teachers' pedagogical beliefs, may be at work. Previous researchers have noted the influence of teachers' beliefs on classroom instruction specifically in math, reading, and science, yet little research has been done to establish a similar link to teachers' classroom uses of technology. In this article, I argue for the importance of such research and present a conceptual overview of teacher pedagogial beliefs as a vital first step. After defining and describing the nature of teacher beliefs, including how they are likely to impact teachers' classroom practice I describe important implications for teacher professional development and offer suggestions for future research.
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There are probably more studies of student ratings than of all of the other data used to evaluate college teaching combined. Although one can find individual studies that support almost any conclusion, for many variables there are enough studies to discern trends. In general, student ratings tend to be statistically reliable, valid, and relatively free from bias or the need for control, perhaps more so than any other data used for faculty evaluation. Nonetheless, student ratings are only one source of data about teaching and must be used in combination with multiple sources of information if one wishes to make a judgment about all of the components of college teaching. Further, student ratings must be interpreted. We should not confuse a source of data with the evaluators who use it – in combination with other kinds of information – to make judgments about an instructor’s teaching effectiveness (Cashin, 2003). This paper summarizes the general conclusions from the research on student ratings.
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This article reports the outcomes of a study, undertaken from a phenomenographic perspective, of academics' conceptions of their own growth and development as a university teacher. A range of ways of understanding teaching development emerged, representing in particular a varying focus on development experienced as an increase in: the teacher's comfort with teaching; the teacher's knowledge and skills; and learning outcomes for students. This work builds on previous studies of university teachers' conceptions of teaching, which has been shown to be related to their approaches to teaching and, thus, to student learning outcomes. Relationships between conceptions of teaching and conceptions of growing and developing as a teacher are also presented and discussed.
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This article examines assumptions and beliefs underpinning research into educational technology. It critically reviews some approaches used to investigate the impact of technologies for teaching and learning. It focuses on comparative studies, performance comparisons and attitudinal studies to illustrate how under-examined assumptions lead to questionable findings. The extent to which it is possible to substantiate some of the claims made about the impact of technologies on the basis of these approaches and methods is questioned. We contend researchers should ensure that they acknowledge underlying assumptions and the limitations imposed by the approach adopted in order to appropriately interpret findings.
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Many teachers see major difficulties in maintaining academic standards in today's larger and more diversified classes. The problem becomes more tractable if learning outcomes are seen as more a function of students' activities than of their fixed characteristics. The teacher's job is then to organise the teaching/learning context so that all students are more likely to use the higher order learning processes which "academic" students use spontaneously. This may be achieved when all components are aligned, so that objectives express the kinds of understanding that we want from students, the teaching context encourages students to undertake the learning activities likely to achieve those understandings, and the assessment tasks tell students what activities are required of them, and tell us how well the objectives have been met. Two examples of aligned teaching systems are described: problem-based learning and the learning portfolio.
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Educational policy aims are very ambitious: from pre-school to lifelong learning they demand improvements in both quantity and quality, which are multiplicative in their effects on teaching workload. It is difficult, therefore, to achieve these aims effectively without rethinking our approach to teaching and learning. Our essentially 19th century model of educational institutions does not scale up to the requirements of a 21st century society. Despite their potential to contribute to a rethink, digital technologies have usually been used in a technology-driven way to upgrade our existing educational models. The paper proposes, therefore, that only lecturers should be responsible for the nature of the pedagogic innovation that is needed if the sector is to be able to adapt to its changing environment. The argument here is for an education-driven approach to the use of digital technologies to achieve our ambitions for education.
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Many teachers see major difficulties in maintaining academic standards in today's larger and more diversified classes. The problem becomes more tractable if learning outcomes are seen as more a function of students’ activities than of their fixed characteristics. The teacher's job is then to organise the teaching/learning context so that all students are more likely to use the higher order learning processes which “academic” students use spontaneously. This may be achieved when all components are aligned, so that objectives express the kinds of understanding that we want from students, the teaching context encourages students to undertake the learning activities likely to achieve those understandings, and the assessment tasks tell students what activities are required of them, and tell us how well the objectives have been met. Two examples of aligned teaching systems are described: problem-based learning and the learning portfolio.
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The very idea of 'thinking about higher education' implies two things. Firstly, that it is worthwhile to think seriously and hard about higher education and secondly that higher education opens itself to complexities and options. We do not often, after all, think seriously and hard about toothpaste or cabbages; typically, they do not warrant hard and serious thinking; and nor do they much open themselves to manifold complexities and options. Higher education, on the other hand, seems to possess features of complexity, worthwhileness, elusivity and options. But what then is it to think seriously about higher education? To what end? And what form should such thinking take? What forms, indeed, has thinking about higher education taken? How, for instance, might the thinking embedded in the chapters in this book be characterised? Just what are the options? And why might thinking now about higher education be especially timely?. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014. All rights are reserved.
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This chapter focuses on supporting university teachers in the UK in the more innovative use of digital technologies. Although the use of these technologies is now widespread and increasing, it is not always optimised for effective learning. It is important that teachers' use of technology should be directed towards innovation and improvement in teaching and learning, and should not merely replicate their current practice in a digital medium. The authors therefore make the case for an online collaborative environment to scaffold teachers' engagement with technology-enhanced learning. The chapter outlines the findings of our recent research into a blended approach to TPD, and use these to identify the requirements for an online collaborative environment: tools for learning design, guidance, and access to relevant resources to support teachers in their discovery of new forms of technology-enhanced teaching and learning. Such an environment, they argue, would provide a framework for a "community of innovation" in which teachers participate both as learners and researchers.
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Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A focus is whether the teachers' reflections on the changes provided an opportunity and stimulus for change in their elearning beliefs and practices. Findings highlight that change in elearning beliefs cannot be presumed to precede change in practices, and that changes in elearning beliefs and practices typically occur following critical unmet expectations, when students' learning preferences conflict with teachers' goals. Furthermore, teachers have sets of elearning beliefs that inform different practices in different contexts. Finally, this study has highlighted the continuing refinement and redevelopment of elearning resources that occur over time. The findings have implications for supporting teachers using elearning.
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The clear and practical writing of Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Researchhas made this book a favorite. In precise step-by-step language the book helps you learn how to conduct, read, and evaluate research studies. Key changes include: expanded coverage of ethics and new research articles.
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Preface Part I. Foundations of Research 1. Science, Schooling, and Educational Research Learning About the Educational World The Educational Research Approach Educational Research Philosophies Conclusions 2. The Process and Problems of Educational Research Educational Research Questions Educational Research Basics The Role of Educational Theory Educational Research Goals Educational Research Proposals, Part I Conclusions 3. Ethics in Research Historical Background Ethical Principles Conclusions 4. Conceptualization and Measurement Concepts Measurement Operations Levels of Measurement Evaluating Measures Conclusions 5. Sampling Sample Planning Sampling Methods Sampling Distributions Conclusions Part II. Research Design and Data Collection 6. Causation and Research Design Causal Explanation Criteria for Causal Explanations Types of Research Designs True Experimental Designs Quasi-Experimental Designs Threats to Validity in Experimental Designs Nonexperiments Conclusions 7. Evaluation Research What Is Evaluation Research? What Can an Evaluation Study Focus On? How Can the Program Be Described? Creating a Program Logic Model What Are the Alternatives in Evaluation Design? Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research Conclusions 8. Survey Research Why Is Survey Research So Popular? Errors in Survey Research Questionnaire Design Writing Questions Survey Design Alternatives Combining Methods Survey Research Design in a Diverse Society Ethical Issues in Survey Research Conclusions 9. Qualitative Methods: Observing, Participating, Listening Fundamentals of Qualitative Research Participant Observation Intensive Interviewing Focus Groups Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research Conclusions 10. Single-Subject Design Foundations of Single-Subject Design Measuring Targets of Intervention Types of Single-Subject Designs Analyzing Single-Subject Designs Ethical Issues in Single-Subject Design Conclusions 11. Mixing and Comparing Methods and Studies Mixed Methods Comparing Reserch Designs Performing Meta-Analyses Conclusions 12. Teacher Research and Action Research Teacher Research: Three Case Studies Teacher Research: A Self-Planning Outline for Creating Your Own Project Action Research and How It Differs From Teacher Research Validity and Ethical Issues in Teacher Research and Action Research Conclusions Part III. Analyzing and Reporting Data 13. Quantitative Data Analysis Why We Need Statistics Preparing Data for Analysis Displaying Univariate Distributions Summarizing Univariate Distributions Relationships (Associations) Among Variables Presenting Data Ethically: How Not to Lie With Statistics Conclusions 14. Qualitative Data Analysis Features of Qualitative Data Analysis Techniques of Qualitative Data Analysis Alternatives in Qualitative Data Analysis Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Ethics in Qualitative Data Analysis Conclusions 15. Proposing and Reporting Research Educational Research Proposals, Part II Reporting Research Ethics, Politics, and Research Reports Conclusions Appendix A: Questions to Ask About a Research Article Appendix B: How to Read a Research Article Appendix C: Finding Information, by Elizabeth Schneider and Russell K. Schutt Appendix D: Table of Random Numbers Glossary References Author Index Subject Index About the Authors
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Following interviews with thirty-nine college lecturers, a questionnaire was developed that identifies two orientations to teaching: knowledge transmission and learning facilitation. Departments with high scores on knowledge transmission discouraged students from adopting a deep approach to study. Departments in which learning facilitation predominated seemed less likely to induce surface approaches.
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eCompetence combines the motivation and capability of faculty members to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). This paper develops a theoretical framework for the concept of eCompetence of academic staff, and it explores principles for the design of respective faculty development measures. A literature review identifies key components and assembles them into a model of action competence which serves as the basis for developing an approach to eCompetence. The concept of eCompetence is specified by contextual factors that teachers face in eLearning scenarios. The paper finally discusses portfolio models to increase the motivation of faculty to use learning technologies for their courses. The main managerial implication of this paper for involved higher education stakeholders is that universities have to create holistic portfolios for faculty development which considerably extend both the scope and the breadth of traditional training measures.
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This position paper focuses on how the new national curriculum for school and the new general plan for teacher education in Norway change the underlying premises for teaching and learning in today's teacher education. This has become particularly pressing as a result of the new educational reform ‘Knowledge Promotion’ in schools, whereby digital competence is now the fifth basic competence in all subjects at all levels, as well as in the new teacher education curriculum in Norway. Against this background, the aim of this position paper is to elaborate on how a digital competence model can function on a micro level to fulfil the intentions from the national and institutional policy level. The research question considered by this paper is whether (and if so, how) a digital competence model for TEs can function as a model on an individual level.
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The links uncovered by research connecting teacher beliefs to classroom practice and student inquiry-based learning are tenuous. This study aims at examining (a) how teacher beliefs influenced practices; and (b) how the influence on practices, in turn, impacted student inquiry learning in a CSCL environment. Through a fine-grained comparative analysis of two cases, this study explores how two teachers with different collections of beliefs enacted the same mathematics lesson on division and fractions in a CSCL environment premised on inquiry principles, and what the connections between different enactments and students’ progressive inquiry process and outcomes were. The findings suggest that the two teachers’ adherence to different beliefs led to different practices, which in turn contributed to different student learning processes and outcomes. We interpret these differences that shaped the students’ opportunities for progressive inquiry in the CSCL environment. We conclude that the teacher holding “innovation-oriented” beliefs tended to enact the lesson in patterns of inquiry-principle-based practices and technology-enhanced orchestration; these patterns interacted with each other to contribute to student inquiry learning and effective use of technology affordances.
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The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were related to each other. The participants were twenty two teachers who have participated in a four-year professional development project funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Specific relations between teachers' beliefs and technology integration practices are presented. The implications for professional development and suggestions for teacher belief change and technology integration are discussed.
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Background: Academic staff have a key role to play in the innovation efforts of universities aiming to exploit the potential of web-based learning technologies. Although learning technologies are an important building block of educational innovation, the eLearning adoption rate of European academic staff appears disappointing. The majority of curricula in European universities are stalled in the traditional pedagogical model of knowledge transmission, which continues to dominate teaching and learning.Purpose: This conceptual paper explores underlying structural and cultural barriers to technology-enhanced innovation in higher education.Sources of evidence: Starting from the underdeveloped state of eLearning in European universities, the paper challenges arguments that visible barriers such as technical issues, budget constraints or lack of interest in technology amongst academic staff represent the actual reasons for the slow advancement of learning technologies in university curricula.Main argument: The paper argues that the lack of faculty interest and engagement for eLearning are visible symptoms for deeply rooted causes, which hinder current innovation efforts of universities. It explores theoretical viewpoints for structural peculiarities of universities, motivational and habitual traits of academic staff, and long-standing cultural values in the academic community in an attempt to understand their impact on technology-enhanced innovation in higher education.Conclusions: The real dilemma for eLearning innovation is caused by macro-level influence factors that even committed universities can hardly overcome at institutional level. University leaders have to take the underlying innovation barriers into account when they try to engage academic staff for the use of learning technologies. With a realistic view on existing limitations, institutional eLearning adoption efforts have to be tailored to serve real learning needs and motivations of academic staff; and they have to consider specific goals and contexts within different universities.
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Studies of student learning have shown that students' conceptions of learning are strongly correlated with their approaches to study. Students who consider learning in quantitative terms are likely to find it very difficult to adopt a deep approach to learning. This study looks at the parallel situation for teachers. It looks at the conceptions of teaching and learning of a group of first year science lecturers, and how those conceptions relate to their approaches to teaching. The results also parallel those found for students. Strong relations are found between conceptions of teaching and approaches to teaching. Relations between conceptions of teaching and conceptions of learning were not so strong, but lecturers with highly developed conceptions of teaching differentiated between teaching and learning in quite different ways to those with less well-developed conceptions. The implications of these results for the practice and development of teaching in higher education are discussed.
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Performance indicators (PIs) in higher education have focused chiefly on research outputs. They have largely ignored the teaching function of universities and colleges. This article outlines the development of a student evaluation instrument designed to measure the teaching performance of academic organisational units. The theory of teaching and learning that underlies the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) is described. The instrument's statistical qualities and its ability to discriminate intelligibly between different courses are discussed in the context of results from national trials in Australian higher education. The principal conclusion reached is that the CEQ offers a reliable, verifiable and useful means of determining the perceived teaching quality of academic units in systems of higher education that are based on British models. Several technical and political issues remain unresolved in its application as a PI.
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It has long been acknowledged that the beliefs of university teachers can have a significant impact on the success of flexible learning innovations in tertiary settings (Errington, 1985, 2001; McDiarmid, 1990; Pajares, 1992; Calderhead, 1996; Richardson, 1996; Hofer & Pintrich, 1997; Tatto, 1998). The infrastructure for the adoption or rejection of such innovation exists as much at the level of beliefs as it does on any physical resources plane. The consequence of this assumption is that what teachers believe is possible within their learning arenas, and what they actually manage to do/achieve, are factors subject to a range of beliefs, central to which are beliefs about teaching and learning per se. This paper discusses the impact of teachers' beliefs on flexible notions of teaching and learning; extricates the issues and challenges facing academic developers and, finally, explores practical ways by which the author and colleagues are currently attempting to address these challenges with their own staff.
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The purposes of this monograph are to provide an overview of findings and of research methodology used to study students' evaluations of teaching effectiveness, and to examine implications and directions for future research. The focus of the investigation is on the author's own research that has led to the development of the Students' Evaluations of Educational Quality (SEEQ) instrument, but it also incorporates a wide range of other research. Based upon this overview, class-average student ratings are: (1) multidimensional; (2) reliable and stable; (3) primarily a function of the instructor who teaches a course rather than the course that is taught; (4) relatively valid against a variety of indicators of effective teaching; (5) relatively unaffected by a variety of variables hypothesized as potential biases; and (6) seen to be useful by faculty as feedback about their teaching, by students for use in course selection, and by administrators for use in personnel decisions. In future research a construct validation approach should be employed in which it is recognized that: effective teaching and students' evaluations designed to reflect it are multidimensional/multifaceted; there is no single criterion of effective teaching; and tentative interpretations of relationships with validity criteria and with potential biases must be scrutinized in different contexts and must examine multiple criteria of effective teaching.
Article
This article proposes that in a context where the roles assigned to academics are increasingly complex, where academic work is visibly managed and monitored with an emphasis on teaching quality and professionalised practices, better understandings of academic identities might emerge from a focus on the teaching dimension of the academic role. It seeks to capture this dimension through a theoretical framework that takes account of the context and realities in which academics operate. It examines this complexity through a set of policy initiatives aimed at enhancing the teaching function in UK universities, and a brief report on a study of 18 UK academics focusing on the nature of academic labour. It argues that the teaching dimension of the academic role cannot be usefully studied from outside the context in which academics evolve and construct their apprehensions of teaching practice, and without paying attention to the degree of agency available to them in the context where they operate. It points to the negative impact of competing initiatives directed disjointedly at teaching and research.
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Argues that both students and teachers form certain perceptions of their teaching and learning situations. Presents a relational model of student learning and teaching context and examines the model in terms of tertiary science education. (CCM)
Article
The conceptions an individual holds about a phenomenon can influence and determine associated behaviours and perspectives. Consequently, they have a bearing upon how learning about a phenomenon is undertaken and how that phenomenon is experienced and applied in context. A phenomenographic research approach was used to gather the expressed experiences of e-learning and professional development for e-learning held by teachers and support staff from institutions across New Zealand. Five conceptions of e-learning (as tool and equipment; as a facilitator of interaction; as learning; as a reduction in distance; and as a collaborative enterprise) and four conceptions of professional development for e-learning (as training; as opening up possibilities; as collaboration; and as relevant and purposeful) were discovered. In this report, we discuss the conceptions, and show how they are interrelated through outcome space. Implications for the professional development of tertiary teachers and teaching support staff are outlined. The study provides some insights for individuals, institutions and those responsible for planning and implementing professional development programmes to help them to support the development and progress of e-learning in appropriate and rewarding directions.
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This research examined a two year project that created technology-intensive classrooms, a learning community of educators, and an intense set of training programs focused on pedagogy first and technology second, including ongoing support for teachers in schools identified as high poverty in one US state. The research sought to understand how participants in this project incorporate the technology and the professional development into their classrooms, and also examined student achievement over the two years through randomly matched classrooms without the technology program. It further sought to examine the ways in which pedagogical beliefs and practices evolved from participation, if at all. Results indicate a change in the pedagogical stance of the educators involved and a small positive impact on student achievement.
Article
This paper makes a case for academic research and writing that looks beyond the learning potential of technology and, instead, seeks to develop social scientific accounts of the often compromised and constrained realities of education technology use ‘on the ground’. The paper discusses how this ‘critical’ approach differs from the ways that educational technology scholarship has tended to be pursued to date. These differences include viewing technology as being socially constructed and negotiated rather than imbued with pre-determined characteristics; developing objective and realistic accounts of technology use in situ; and producing ‘context rich’ analyses of the social conflicts and politics that underpin the use of technology in educational settings. The paper concludes by encouraging academic researchers and writers to show greater interest in the issues of democracy and social justice that surround educational technology.
Article
Abstract Despite huge efforts to position information and communication technology (ICT) as a central tenet of university teaching and learning, the fact remains that many university students and faculty make only limited formal academic use of computer technology. Whilst this is usually attributed to a variety of operational deficits on the part of students, faculty, and universities, this paper considers the wider social relations underpinning the relatively modest use of technology in higher education. The paper explores how university use of computer technology is shaped into marginalized and curtailed positions by a variety of actors. From the ‘writing’ of ICT at a national policy level through to the marginalization of ICT within the lived ‘student experience’, a consistent theme emerges where computer technology use is constructed in limited, linear, and rigid terms far removed from the creative, productive, and empowering uses which are often celebrated by educational technologists. In the light of such constraints, the paper considers how these dominant constructions of a peripheral and limited use of ICT may be challenged by the higher education community. In particular, it concludes by reflecting on current critical thinking about how educational technologists can foster a more expansive and empowered use of computer technology within university settings.
Article
Previous research has established a close link between students'conceptions of learning, approaches to study and learning outcomes.Until recently, there have been few studies of lecturers' approaches toteaching in higher education and their relationship with conceptions ofteaching. This study aimed to characterise the alternative approaches toteaching of university lecturers, and to examine the relationshipbetween lecturers' approaches to teaching and their conceptions of goodteaching. This study adopted an open naturalistic approach. Seventeenlecturers in three departments in a university were selected forinterview based on their rank, years of teaching and industrial orprofessional experience. Lecturers were interviewed individually abouttheir conceptions of good teaching, motivational strategies andeffective teaching. The interview records were then content analysed bythe two researchers of the study. The study found that (a) it waspossible to characterise lecturers' approaches to teaching with onemotivation and five strategy dimensions; (b) the conceptions of teachingof the lecturers were best described by two main orientations oftransmissive and facilitative teaching; (c) lecturers who conceivedteaching as transmitting knowledge were more likely to usecontent-centred approaches to teaching, while those who conceivedteaching as facilitative tended to use learning-centred approaches. Thestudy concludes by suggesting that fundamental changes to the quality ofteaching and learning are unlikely to happen without changes tolecturers' conception of teaching.
Article
This paper describes how research into approaches to university teaching, from a relational perspective, has been used to develop an inventory to measure the key aspects of the variation in approaches to teaching. The Approaches to Teaching Inventory (ATI) is one of several that derive from the research perspective applied by Marton and colleagues in Europe (Marton, F., Hounsell, D., and Entwistle, N. (eds.) (1997). The Experience of Learning, 2nd edn., Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh) to student learning. A feature of these inventories is that they measure the response of a group to a particular context, rather than more general characteristics of individuals in that group. Studies using these inventories have consistently shown relations between students' approaches to learning and the quality of their learning outcome. The question of interest to many university teachers is whether there are relations between the way teachers approach their teaching and ways their students approach their learning. This question was answered in a study published in 1999 that used the ATI to show that teacher-focused approaches to teaching were associated with students' reproducing orientations. Subsequent research revealed that in subjects where teachers adopted more student-focused approaches to teaching, their students adopted a deeper approach to learning. Some recent research using the inventory is reviewed along with an analysis of the validity of the ATI. The current version of the inventory is reproduced in this paper.
Article
Changing lecturers' teaching strategies to improve learning in higher education may mean first having to address the intentions associated with those strategies. The study reported in this paper used a phenomenographic approach to explore the intentions associated with the teaching strategies of first year physical science lecturers. Approaches found ranged from those involving information transmission to those where the intention was to develop learning through conceptual change, but in all approaches, logical relations were found between intention and strategy. The implications for attempts to improve teaching through developing strategies are discussed.
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this chapter uses insights from socio-cultural theory to develop a new analysis of the process of teachers’ pedagogical adoption of ICT. It refutes the common assumption that failure to embed ICT in pedagogy is the result of teachers’ resistance to change, and argues the need for a wider analytic frame that takes into account complex cultural factors and the regulatory frameworks and policies of national education systems. Humans learn to use new tools by, first, attempting to find a ‘fit’ with existing social practices and over time, through experimentation, developing new social practices that take advantage of their affordances. This process is always enabled or constrained by organisational structures, social contexts and established mechanisms of control, such as national curricula and assessment regimes. The chapter provides examples of transformative pedagogies with ICT and draws attention to the common factors which have enabled their success.