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TRIDENT – Exploration towards new parameters to explore variations in enamel textures

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5th International Conference on Surface Metrology
4th – 7th April 2016, Poznan University of Technology, Poland
TRIDENT – Exploration towards new parameters to
explore variations in enamel textures
Noël BRUNETIERE1, Arthur FRANCISCO1, Cécile BLONDEL2, Anusha
RAMDARSHAN2, Gildas MERCERON2
1 Institut Pprime, UPR 3346, CNRS, Université de Poitiers, Ensma
F86962, Futuroscope Chasseneuil cedex, France
2 iPHEP, UMR 7262, CNRS, Université de Poitiers - F86073, Poitiers, France
corresponding author: noel.brunetiere@univ-poitiers.fr
Keywords: dental tribology, tooth wear, surface texture analysis
Abstract:
The contacts of food on teeth and between teeth during eating leads to wear of
enamel teeth surfaces (Constantino et al., 2015). The development of three
dimensional optical topography measurement devices allows accurately analysing
the surfaces of teeth (Leach, 2011).
During the last years some researches have been carried out to define parameters
able to describe surface textures and correlate them to the diets. Scott et al. (2006)
used scale sensitive fractal analysis (SSFA) to make a multi-scale analysis of teeth
surfaces. Another solution proposed by Schulz et al. (Schulz et al., 2010) is to use
3D roughness parameters defined by ISO (International Organization for
Standardization).
In the framework of the Trident project, the authors explored a set of other
parameters and few here are shown and compared with parameters from the
approaches mentioned above. Teeth of 12 ungulates corresponding to three types
of diets were analysed (Figure 1). Four specimens belong to the warthog
(Phacochoerus), an African wild pig foraging on abrasive and tough
monocotyledonous herbs. Four specimens of the European wild boar (Sus)
represent omnivorous and hard object feeders. Finally, four individuals of the
African giraffe (Giraffa) represent the leaf browsers whose the rate of dental
abrasion is minimal compared to the two other samples. Surfaces were measured
thanks to a white light interferometer (Talysurf CCI, 50x lens, 363x363µm field, <
1nm resolution), and then analysed using the Toothfrax software and the new
parameters we explored here (Figure 1). These parameters are calculated with
fortran written programs developed in our laboratory.
5th International Conference on Surface Metrology
April 4–7, 2016 • Poznan University of Technology, Poland
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5th International Conference on Surface Metrology
4th – 7th April 2016, Poznan University of Technology, Poland
The dental surfaces of the grazing warthog appear to be more anisotropic because
of the scratches leading to high values of epLsar (from toothfrax) and rlxly. The
latter parameter is the ratio of the correlation lengths of the surfaces (equivalent
to Str ISO parameter). The dental wear pattern of hard object feeders is
inhomogeneous and is highlighted by higher values of Asfc (from toothfrax) and
median. Finally the higher disorder level observed on teeth of leaf browsers is
characterized by high values of the lsp parameter; a dimensionless length of the
line connecting second peaks of the autocorrelation function of the surfaces.
In the present work, new parameters are proposed to identify the diet from teeth
surfaces wear patterns, which constitutes an alternative approach and can be used
to corroborate results obtained with usual parameters.
Fig. 1. Teeth surfaces analysis (mean, min and maximal values) for three different food types and
corresponding surface topography
References:
[1] Constantino PJ, Borrero-Lopez O, Pajares A et al. (2016) BioEssays. in press
[2] Leach, R (2011) Optical measurement of surface topography. Springer.
[3] Schulz E, Calandra I, Kaiser TM (2010) Scanning 32: 162–182.
[4] Scott RS, Ungar P, Bergstrom TS et al. (2006) J. Hum. Evol. 51: 339–349.
5th International Conference on Surface Metrology
4th – 7th April 2016, Poznan University of Technology, Poland
TRIDENT – Surface sampling as diet discrimination
enhancement
Arthur FRANCISCO1, Noël BRUNETIERE1, Emilie Berlioz2, Anusha
RAMDARSHAN2, Gildas MERCERON2
1 Institut Pprime, UPR 3346, CNRS, Université de Poitiers, Ensma
F86962, Futuroscope Chasseneuil cedex, France
2 IPHEP, UMR 7262, CNRS, Université de Poitiers - F86073, Poitiers, France
corresponding author: arthur.francisco@univ-poitiers.fr
Keywords: dental tribology, tooth wear, surface texture analysis
Abstract:
Since almost three decades, dental microwear has been used as a dietary indicator,
Walker et al. (1978). It is commonly accepted that scratches are the result of
abrasive grassy diets, that pits mainly result from the consumption of fruit/seeds
and that leaves and soft diets produce lower enamel wear. Thanks to progress in
microscopy and interferometry, smaller surface details are caught, which makes
more accurate fractal analyzes possible. Scott et al. (2006) have proposed several
fractal parameters whereas Schulz et al. (2010) have tested the more “industrial”
parameters from the ISO 25178 norm in conjunction with the fractal parameters.
In the present work, the authors propose a complementary approach using an
enlarged set of parameters: height parameters, spatial parameters and fractal
parameters. The dental facets of modern ungulates including the African grazing
hartebeest antelope (Alcelaphus buselaphus; N=15), the European leaf browsing
moose (Alces alces; N=15) and the African fruit browsing duiker (Cephalophus
silvicultor; N=15) were scanned (200 × 280µm) using the Leica DCM8 confocal and
interferometric optical profiler.
Instead of solely performing the surface texture analysis over the whole scan
surface, we also generate a set of 1024 [512×512 points = 66×66 µm] areas for
every scan. Thus, for the 45 individuals and for all parameters mentioned above,
we generate Mean, Median, 5%- and 95%-quantiles, Minimal and Maximal values
and the Mean of the 10 highest values and Mean of the 10 lowest values over the
1024 automatically generated areas. Surfaces were first treated using a 2nd order
polynomial process or using an 8th order polynomial process.
5th International Conference on Surface Metrology
April 4–7, 2016 • Poznan University of Technology, Poland
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Book
The measurement and characterisation of surface topography is crucial to modern manufacturing industry. The control of areal surface structure allows a manufacturer to radically alter the functionality of a part. Examples include structuring to effect fluidics, optics, tribology, aerodynamics and biology. To control such manu­facturing methods requires measurement strategies. There is now a large range of new optical techniques on the market, or being developed in academia, that can measure areal surface topography. Each method has its strong points and limitations. The book starts with introductory chapters on optical instruments, their common language, generic features and limitations, and their calibration. Each type of modern optical instrument is described (in a common format) by an expert in the field. The book is intended for both industrial and academic scientists and engineers, and will be useful for undergraduate and postgraduate studies.
  • P J Constantino
  • O Borrero-Lopez
  • A Pajares
Constantino PJ, Borrero-Lopez O, Pajares A et al. (2016) BioEssays. in press
  • E Schulz
  • Calandra I Kaiser
Schulz E, Calandra I, Kaiser TM (2010) Scanning 32: 162-182.
  • Rs Scott
  • P Ungar
  • Ts Bergstrom
Scott RS, Ungar P, Bergstrom TS et al. (2006) J. Hum. Evol. 51: 339–349. 5 th International Conference on Surface Metrology April 4–7, 2016 @BULLET Poznan University of Technology, Poland
  • R S Scott
  • P Ungar
  • T S Bergstrom
Scott RS, Ungar P, Bergstrom TS et al. (2006) J. Hum. Evol. 51: 339-349. 5 th International Conference on Surface Metrology April 4-7, 2016 • Poznan University of Technology, Poland