BookPDF Available

A Referencce Grammar og Ibanag: Phonology, Morphology, & Syntax

Authors:

Figures

i
DEDICATION
To my JOSH & JESH. . .
ii
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
[ ] - phonetic representation
/ / - phonemic transcription
‘ ’ - free translation
: - inside [ ] represents vowel length
- morphemic glottal stop
΄ - stressed vowel/syllable
- - affix boundary
= - clitic boundary
* - ungrammatical utterance
-an - a morpheme preceded by a hyphen is a suffix
mag- - a hyphen preceded by a morpheme is a prefix
-in- - a morpheme in between hyphens is an infix
pan- - an - an example of a circumfix
1 - 1
st
person
2 - 2
nd
person
3 - 3
rd
person
A - core argument referring to agent
ABS - absolutive case
AG - agent
ADJ - adjective
BEN - benefactive
CAU - causative
CM - case marker
COM - comitative
COMP - complementizer
COMPA - comparison particle
CONT - continuative
DEF - definite
iii
DEM - demonstrative
DET - determiner
DIS - distal
DUR - durative
ERG - ergative
EXI - existential
EXI.NEG - negative existential
FUT - future particle
HON - honorific
IMP - imperfective
INCH - inchoative
INS - instrument
INT - intensifier
INTR - intransitive
ITER - iterative
LIG - ligature
LOC - locative
NEG - negative
NEGV - negative verb
NR - non-referential
NOM - nominalizer
NP - noun phrase
O - other core argument, the object
OBL - oblique
PAR - particle
PAT - patient
PERF - perfective
PERS - personal
PLU - plural marker
PRO - process
R - reduplication
iv
REC - recent past
REL - relativizer
REM - remote past
S - single argument
ST - stative
TEMP - temporal
TH - theme
TL - topic linker
TRAN - transitive
e - exclusive
i - inclusive
p - plural
s - singular
(C) - contraction
(P) - proverb
(R) - riddle
(c) - conversational
(w) - written
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 ........................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1
1.1
Ibanag: the language and the people .............................................. 1
1.2
Objective of the study ....................................................................... 4
1.3
Theoretical Orientation ..................................................................... 4
1.4
Setting of the Study .......................................................................... 6
1.5
Orthography ..................................................................................... 7
1.6
Previous Publications on Ibanag ...................................................... 8
1.7
The research gap ........................................................................... 11
Chapter 2 ......................................................................................................... 12
PHONOLOGY .................................................................................................. 12
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 12
2.2 The vowels............................................................................................. 12
2.3 The diphthongs ...................................................................................... 15
2.4 Stress ................................................................................................... 15
2.5 The consonants ..................................................................................... 16
2.5.1 The stops ........................................................................................ 17
2.5.2 The fricatives ................................................................................... 19
2.5.3 The affricates .................................................................................. 21
2.5.4 The liquids ........................................................................................ 21
2.5.5 The trill ............................................................................................ 22
2.5.6 The glides ........................................................................................ 22
2.5.7 The nasals ....................................................................................... 23
2.6 Consonant germination .......................................................................... 24
2.7 Sandhi ................................................................................................... 25
2.8 Summary ............................................................................................... 26
Chapter 3 ......................................................................................................... 27
MORPHOLOGY ............................................................................................... 27
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 27
3.2 Vowel Loss ............................................................................................ 28
3.3 Vowel Change ....................................................................................... 28
3.4 Diphthong Change ................................................................................. 29
3.5 Consonant Change ............................................................................... 31
3.6 Metathesis ............................................................................................ 32
3.7 Reduplication ......................................................................................... 33
3.7.1 Nouns .............................................................................................. 33
3.7.2 Adjectives ........................................................................................ 34
3.7.3 Verbs ............................................................................................... 34
3.7.4 Other lexical categories .................................................................. 35
3.8 Summary ............................................................................................... 36
vi
Chapter 4 ......................................................................................................... 37
CLAUSE TYPES .............................................................................................. 37
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 37
4.2 Non-verbal clauses ............................................................................... 38
4.2.1 Nominal predicate clauses .............................................................. 40
4.2.2 Adjectival clauses ............................................................................ 44
4.2.3 Existential predicate clause ............................................................. 45
4.2.4 Prepositional predicate clauses ....................................................... 46
4.2.5 Locative clauses .............................................................................. 46
4.3 Verbal clauses ....................................................................................... 48
4.3.1 Intransitive construction .................................................................. 49
4.3.2 Transitive construction .................................................................... 52
4.4 Summary ............................................................................................... 55
Chapter 5 ......................................................................................................... 56
NOMINAL MARKING SYSTEM ....................................................................... 56
5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 56
5.2 Constituent order ................................................................................... 56
5.3 Determiners ........................................................................................... 58
5.3.1 Number of determiners ................................................................... 59
5.3.2 Case of determiners ........................................................................ 63
5.4 Demonstratives ...................................................................................... 69
5.4.1 Spatial demonstratives .................................................................... 69
5.4.2 Temporal demonstratives ................................................................ 71
5.5 Summary ............................................................................................... 73
Chapter 6 ......................................................................................................... 74
PRONOMINALS .............................................................................................. 74
6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 74
6.2 Personal pronouns ................................................................................. 74
6.2.1 Absolutives ...................................................................................... 78
6.2.2 The ergatives .................................................................................. 84
6.2.3 The obliques .................................................................................... 87
6.2.4 The genitives ................................................................................... 90
6.2.5 Multiple referents ............................................................................. 91
6.2.6 The possessives ............................................................................. 91
6.3 Demonstratives ...................................................................................... 92
6.3.1 Spatial demonstratives .................................................................... 93
6.3.2 Locative demonstratives.................................................................. 95
6.3.3 similative demonstratives ................................................................ 97
6.3.4 Mental demonstratives .................................................................... 98
6.4 The non-referential na ......................................................................... 100
6.5 Anaphoric and cataphoric reference .................................................... 101
6.6 Indefinite pronouns .............................................................................. 102
6.7 Summary ............................................................................................. 102
vii
Chapter 7 ....................................................................................................... 104
NOMINALS .................................................................................................... 104
7.1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 104
7.2 Number of Nouns ................................................................................. 104
7.2.1 The plurality marker ira ................................................................. 104
7.2.2 Reduplication ................................................................................ 105
7.3 Gender of nouns .................................................................................. 110
7.4 Morphological formation of nouns ........................................................ 111
7.4.1 Bare Nouns ................................................................................... 112
7.4.2 Derived nouns ............................................................................... 117
7.5 Nominalization of verbs ...................................................................... 132
7.6 Borrowed Nouns .................................................................................. 134
7.7 Summary ............................................................................................. 135
Chapter 8 ....................................................................................................... 136
ADJECTIVES ................................................................................................. 136
8.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 136
8.2 Morphological properties of adjectives ................................................. 138
8.2.1 Monomorphemic adjectives ........................................................... 139
8.2.2 Derived adjectives ......................................................................... 140
8.2.3 Inflected adjectives ........................................................................ 146
8.2.4 Gender of adjectives ..................................................................... 154
8.3 Syntactic properties of adjectives ....................................................... 155
8.3.1 Predicate in a non-verbal clause ................................................... 155
8.3.2 Modifier within a NP ...................................................................... 156
8.4 Semantic properties of adjectives ........................................................ 158
8.4.1 Dimension ..................................................................................... 158
8.4.2 Physical property ........................................................................... 159
8.4.3 Value ............................................................................................. 160
8.4.4 Color ............................................................................................. 161
8.4.5 Human propensity ......................................................................... 162
8.4.6 Speed, quantification, age, and difficulty ....................................... 163
8.4.7 Position, qualification, similarity ..................................................... 164
8.5 Summary ............................................................................................. 165
Chapter 9 ....................................................................................................... 166
VERBS ........................................................................................................... 166
9.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 166
9.2 Focus ................................................................................................... 166
9.2.1 Actor focus .................................................................................... 167
9.2.2 Goal focus ..................................................................................... 168
9.3 Transitivity............................................................................................ 173
9.3.1 Intransitive ..................................................................................... 174
9.3.2 Transitive ....................................................................................... 176
9.4 Aspects of verb .................................................................................... 177
9.4.1 Perfective aspect ........................................................................... 178
viii
9.4.2 Continuative .................................................................................. 179
9.4.3 Imperfective aspect ....................................................................... 180
9.5 Verbal classes ..................................................................................... 181
9.5.1 Stative verbs ................................................................................ 183
9.5.2 Inchoative verbs ............................................................................ 184
9.5.3 Process verbs ............................................................................... 186
9.5.4 Grooming verbs ............................................................................. 188
9.5.5 Meteorological/ambient verbs ....................................................... 189
9.5.6 Motion verbs .................................................................................. 191
9.5.7 Body posture verbs ....................................................................... 192
9.5.8 Bidirectional verbs ......................................................................... 193
9.5.9 Ditransitive verbs ........................................................................... 194
9.5.10 Causative verbs .......................................................................... 195
9.5.11 Reciprocal verbs ......................................................................... 196
9.5.12 Activity verbs ............................................................................... 197
9.5.13 Comitative verbs ......................................................................... 199
9.5.14 Pretense verbs ............................................................................ 202
9.5.15 Utterance verbs ........................................................................... 205
9.5.16 Perception verbs ......................................................................... 207
9.5.17 Emotion verbs ............................................................................. 208
9.5.18 Cognition verbs ........................................................................... 209
9.5.19 Potentive verbs ........................................................................... 210
9.5.20 Desiderative verbs ...................................................................... 215
9.6 Summary ............................................................................................. 216
Chapter 10 ..................................................................................................... 217
ADVERBS ...................................................................................................... 217
10.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 217
10.2 Adverbial particles ............................................................................. 217
10.2.1 Ngana.......................................................................................... 217
10.2.2 Gapa, emphatic and additional information particle .................... 220
10.2.3 Paga, confirmation particle .......................................................... 221
10.2.4 Lagu, particle of consequence .................................................... 224
10.2.5 Labbi, particle of urgency ............................................................ 225
10.2.6 Kari, interrogative and imperative particle, assertion particle ...... 225
10.2.7 Naku an, optative particle ............................................................. 227
10.2.8 laman, particle of limitation .......................................................... 227
10.2.9 Noka, future particle .................................................................... 228
10.2.10 Balattan, particle of surprise ...................................................... 229
10.2.11 Gare, particle of reason ............................................................. 230
10.2.12 Tamma, particle of confusion .................................................... 230
10.2.13 Gabbalaman, particle of emphasis ............................................ 231
10.2.14 Gamma, negative particle .......................................................... 231
10.3 Adjuncts ............................................................................................. 232
10.3.1 Adjunct of manner ....................................................................... 232
10.3.2 Locatives ..................................................................................... 233
ix
10.3.3 Temporals ................................................................................... 234
10.3.4 Adverb of frequency .................................................................... 235
10.3.5 Adverb of simultaneity ................................................................. 237
10.4 Summary ........................................................................................... 237
Chapter 11 ..................................................................................................... 238
NUMBERS ..................................................................................................... 238
11.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 238
11.2 Cardinals ........................................................................................... 238
11.3 Ordinals ............................................................................................. 240
11.4 Mulitiplicatives .................................................................................... 242
11.5 Distributives ....................................................................................... 244
11.6 Limitatives .......................................................................................... 244
11.7 Fractions ............................................................................................ 246
11.8 Spanish numerals .............................................................................. 247
11.8.1 Clock time ................................................................................... 248
11.8.2 Dates ........................................................................................... 249
11.8.3 Percentages ................................................................................ 249
11.8.4 Prices .......................................................................................... 250
11.8.5 Age expressions .......................................................................... 250
11.9 Summary ........................................................................................... 251
Chapter 12 ..................................................................................................... 252
EXISTENTIALS ............................................................................................. 252
12.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 252
12.2 Existential use .................................................................................... 252
12.3 Possessive use .................................................................................. 254
12.4 Locative use....................................................................................... 255
12.5 Other uses of egga and awan ............................................................ 257
12.5.1 Egga/awan in identificational constructions ................................. 257
12.5.2 Egga/awan in non-identifiable constructions .............................. 258
12.5.3 Egga/awan with particles............................................................. 258
12.6 Summary ........................................................................................... 260
Chapter 13 ..................................................................................................... 261
CONNECTORS .............................................................................................. 261
13.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 261
13.2 The Topic Linker ay ........................................................................... 261
13.3 Conjuncts ........................................................................................... 263
13.3.1 Anna ............................................................................................ 263
13.3.2 Ngem........................................................................................... 265
13.3.3 Onu ............................................................................................. 266
13.3.4 Tape ............................................................................................ 267
13.3.5 Sonu kua ..................................................................................... 268
13.3.6 Anne ............................................................................................ 268
13.3.7 Ta ……………………………………………………………………..269
x
13.3.8 Megafu ........................................................................................ 270
13.3.9 Nu ……………………………………………………………………..271
13.3.10 Adde .......................................................................................... 272
13.3.11 Maski ......................................................................................... 273
13.3.12 Namegafu .................................................................................. 275
13.3.13 Ligue ......................................................................................... 275
13.3.14 Lagud ........................................................................................ 276
13.3.15 Turi ............................................................................................ 276
13.3.16 Sonu (mabalin) .......................................................................... 277
13.4 Ligatures ............................................................................................ 278
13.4.1 Nga ............................................................................................. 278
13.4.2 Na ……………………………………………………………………..278
13.5 Summary ........................................................................................... 279
Chapter 14 ..................................................................................................... 280
INTERROGATIVITY ....................................................................................... 280
14.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 280
14.2 Yes/No Questions .............................................................................. 280
14.2.1 Answering Yes/No Questions ...................................................... 281
14.2.2 Answering Yes/No Negative Questions ...................................... 281
14.3 Alternative Questions ......................................................................... 282
14.4 Confirmation Questions ..................................................................... 283
14.5 Information Questions ........................................................................ 283
14.5.1 Anni ‘what’ questions .................................................................. 284
14.5.2 Sinni ‘who’ questions .................................................................. 285
14.5.3 Ngatta ‘why’ questions ................................................................ 286
14.5.4 Sitaw ‘where’ questions ............................................................... 287
14.5.5 Sonu anni ‘when’ questions......................................................... 288
14.5.6 Kunnasi ‘how’ questions .............................................................. 289
14.5.7 Piga ‘how much/many’ questions ................................................ 290
14.5.8 Makikwa ‘whose’ question ........................................................... 290
14.5.9 Other morphologically complex interrogatives ............................. 291
14.5.10 Questions as Social Formulas ................................................... 294
14.6 Summary ........................................................................................... 295
Chapter 15 ..................................................................................................... 296
NEGATION .................................................................................................... 296
15.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 296
15.2 Predicate negation ............................................................................. 296
15.2.1 Non-verbal clauses ..................................................................... 296
15.2.2 Verbal clauses ............................................................................. 298
15.3 Existential negation ............................................................................ 299
15.3.1 Existential possessives ............................................................... 299
15.3.2 Existential locatives ..................................................................... 300
15.4 Negative responses/expressions ....................................................... 301
15.5 Summary ........................................................................................... 302
xi
Chapter 16 ..................................................................................................... 303
SYNTACTIC PROCESSES ........................................................................... 303
16.1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 303
16.2 Antipassivization/Detransitivization .................................................... 303
16.3 Relativization ..................................................................................... 305
16.4 Clefting .............................................................................................. 307
16.5 Pseudo-clefting .................................................................................. 307
16.6 Topicalization ..................................................................................... 308
16.7 Summary ........................................................................................... 309
Chapter 17 ..................................................................................................... 310
CONCLUSION ............................................................................................... 310
17.2 Summary ........................................................................................... 310
17.2 Directions for future study .................................................................. 312
Glossary of Terms ………………………………………………………………….314
References ………………………………………………………………………….317
Appendices ………………………………………………………………………….324
xii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1. Sample revision of Spanish orthography…………………………….. 8
Table 2.1 Distribution of vowel sounds ........................................................... 12
Table 2.2. Phonemic consonant chart of Ibanag ............................................. 16
Table 2.3. The /k/ - /g/ distinction between Ibanag and Itawes. ....................... 18
Table 3.1. Ibanag-Agta comparison ................................................................ 27
Table 3.2. Ibanag-Yogad comparison ............................................................. 27
Table 3.3. Ibanag-Agta comparison ................................................................ 28
Table 3.4. Diphthong –ay + ku change ........................................................... 30
Table 3.5. Diphthong –aw + ku change ........................................................... 30
Table 3.6. Diphthong –ay + mu change .......................................................... 31
Table 3.7. Diphthong –aw + mu change .......................................................... 31
Table 3.8. Reduplication in nouns ................................................................... 33
Table 3.9. Reduplication in adjectives ............................................................. 34
Table 3.10. Reduplication in verbs .................................................................. 35
Table 3.11. Reduplication in Adverbs .............................................................. 35
Table 3.12. Reduplication in Numerals............................................................ 35
Table 5.1 Summary of Ibanag determiners ..................................................... 59
Table 5.2. Summary of Ibanag spatial demonstratives.................................... 69
Table 6.1 Summary of Ibanag personal pronouns .......................................... 76
Table 6.2. Ibanag free absolutives .................................................................. 78
Table 6.3. Ibanag enclitic absolutives .............................................................. 82
Table 6.4 Ibanag ergatives .............................................................................. 84
Table 6.5 Ibanag obliques ............................................................................... 87
Table 6.6. Ibanag genitives ............................................................................. 90
Table 6.7. Ibanag possessives ........................................................................ 92
Table 6.8. Summary of Ibanag demonstratives .............................................. 93
Table 6.9. Ibanag indefinite pronouns ........................................................... 102
Table 7.1. CV Reduplication Pattern .............................................................. 105
Table 7.2. CVC Reduplication Pattern ........................................................... 106
Table 7.3. VC/VCV Reduplication Pattern ..................................................... 107
Table 7.4. C
1
V
1
C
2
V
2
Reduplication Pattern .................................................. 108
Table 7.5. The CVCCV Reduplication Pattern .............................................. 108
Table 7.6. Full reduplication pattern .............................................................. 109
Table 7.7. Gender of Nouns .......................................................................... 110
Table 7.8. Gender of nouns through affinity .................................................. 110
Table 7.9. Masculine-Feminine Dichotomy ................................................... 111
Table 7.10. List of Concrete Inanimate Nouns .............................................. 115
xiii
Table 7.11. Body-parts nouns ....................................................................... 116
Table 7.12. Animate non-human Nouns ........................................................ 117
Table 7.13. Abstract ka- Nouns ..................................................................... 118
Table 7.14. Abstract pang- Nouns ................................................................. 119
Table 7.15. Locative ag- Nouns ................................................................... 120
Table 7.16. Locative ka- an Nouns ................................................................ 120
Table 7.17. Locative ka- -an Nouns............................................................... 121
Table 7.18. Comitative Nouns ....................................................................... 122
Table 7.19. Reciprocal Nouns ....................................................................... 123
Table 7.20. Pretense Nouns .......................................................................... 125
Table 7.21. Ownership Nouns ....................................................................... 126
Table 7.22. Ownership-Locative Nouns ........................................................ 126
Table 7.23. Origin-Location Nouns ................................................................ 127
Table 7.24. Origin Nouns .............................................................................. 128
Table 7.25. Instigator Nouns ......................................................................... 128
Table 7.26. Designation Nouns ..................................................................... 129
Table 7.27 Association Nouns .......................................................................130
Table 7.28. Instrumental ag- Nouns .............................................................. 131
Table 7.29 Instrumental pang- Nouns ........................................................... 131
Table 7.30. Summary of nominal Affix........................................................... 132
Table 7.31. Borrowed Nouns ......................................................................... 134
Table 8.1. Morphological properties of adjectives vis-à-vis nouns & verbs.. 139
Table 8.2. Monomorphemic adjectives………………………………………….139
Table 8.3. The na- derived adjectives ........................................................... 140
Table 8.4. The ma- derived adjectives .......................................................... 141
Table 8.5. The maka- derived adjectives ....................................................... 142
Table 8.6. The –in/-in- derived adjectives ...................................................... 143
Table 8.7. The magâ- derived adjectives ...................................................... 144
Table 8.8. The na- verb derivation adjectives ................................................ 145
Table 8.9. The minaC- derived adjectives ..................................................... 145
Table 8.10. Plural adjectives ......................................................................... 147
Table 8.11. The CVC intensified adjectives ................................................... 149
Table 8.12. Adjectives fully reduplicated for intensification .......................... 149
Table 8.13. The C
1
VC
1
reduplicant shape for intensification ......................... 150
Table 8.14. The C
1
V
1
C
2
V
1
reduplicant shape for intensification .................... 151
Table 8.15. Comparative adjectives .............................................................. 152
Table 8.16. Moderate degree adjectives ....................................................... 153
Table 8.17. Adjectives in superlative degree ................................................. 154
Table 8.18. Ibanag loaned adjectives with gender distinction ....................... 155
Table 8.19. Dimension adjectives ................................................................. 159
Table 8.20. Physical property adjectives ....................................................... 159
Table 8.21. Value adjectives ......................................................................... 160
Table 8.22. Ibanag basic colors .................................................................... 161
Table 8.23. Human propensity adjectives ..................................................... 162
xiv
Table 9.1 Summary of affixes of major focus types ....................................... 167
Table 9.2. Patient focus verbs ........................................................................ 169
Table 9.3. Theme focus verbs ........................................................................ 172
Table 9.4. Conjugation of Intransitive verbs .................................................. 177
Table 9.5. Conjugation of transitive verbs ..................................................... 178
Table 9.6. Binary features of Aktionsart verbs ............................................... 182
Table 9.7. Comparison of stative and inchoative verbs ................................. 185
Table 9.8. Ibanag bodily process verbs ......................................................... 186
Table 9.9. Comparison of stative and pretense verbs ................................... 203
Table 9.10. Example of potentive verbs ......................................................... 211
Table 10.1. Temporals as means of adverbial expression ............................ 234
Table 10.2. Adverbs of frequency................................................................. 236
xv
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Map of Northern Luzon, Philippines……………………………………….2
Figure 2. The revised sub-grouping of Cordilleran languages…………………….3
Figure 3. Reduplication pattern for intensification…………………………………149
Figure 4. Structure of NPs with adjectives as modifiers……………………...…...156
1
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
IBANAG refers to the people as well as the language spoken in Northern Luzon,
Philippines (see Figure 1).
Ibanag belongs to the Cordilleran subgroup of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of
the Austronesian language family. Reid (1974, 2006) classifies Ibanag as a member of
the Cagayan Valley sub-group of the Northern Cordilleran Group of Northern Luzon,
Philippines (see Figure 2). The other members of the Cagayan Valley sub-group are
Itawes, Ga’dang, Northern Cagayan Agta, Atta, Yogad, and Isnag. The North-East
Luzon group consists of East Cagayan Dumagat, Kasiguranin, Casiguran Dumagat,
Paranan, Palanan Dumagat (see Figure 3).
1.1 Ibanag: the language and the people
Ibanag (also Ibanak, Ybanag, or Ybanak) is spoken by approximately 500,000
people who come mainly from Cagayan and Isabela. Ibanag-speaking cities/towns of
Cagayan include Tuguegarao, Aparri, Solana, Piat, Lallo, Iguig, Pamplona, Abulug,
Camalaniugan, and Peñablanca. McFarland (1980) reports that Ibanag is the dominant
language in Santa Maria and Cabagan and the minor language in San Pablo, Tumauini,
Santo Tomas, Reina Mercedes, Ilagan, San Mariano, Angadanan, Gamu, Naguilian,
and Magsaysay. Additionally, Gordon (2005) puts Ibanag on the 18
th
slot of the top 20
most popular or spoken languages of the Philippine archipelago.
Ibanag comes from the root bannag ‘river’ which probably refers to the people
who settled along the coast of now Cagayan River surrounding Northern Luzon. Hence,
the earliest Ibanag speakers are the settlers along Cagayan River who have eventually
spread throughout the province. Older generation resource speakers narrate that
Ibanag speakers then enjoyed some sort of supremacy over the non-speakers of the
language, specifically, the Itawes group. Ibanag was then considered the prestige
language in the province.
2
Figure 1. Map of Northern Luzon, Philippines.
3
Cordilleran
Meso Cordilleran
Northern Cordilleran
Alta South Central Cordilleran
Cagayan Valley North-East
Luzon
south cordilleran central cordilleran
North-Central Cordilleran
Nuclear Cordilleran KLA-ITG
ALTS ALTN KLN IBL PNG ILT ISI IFG BLW BON KNK KLA ITG ILK ART GAD ITW AGTCC
IBANAG
ATT YOG ISG DGTEC KAS DGTCDGTP
Figure 2. The revised sub-grouping of Cordilleran languages (Reid, 2006)
EC East Cagayan Dumagat GAD Gaddang IWK Iwak
ALTN
IBG.
Ibanag
KAR
Karao
ALTS
Southern Alta
IBL
Inibaloi
KAS
Kasiguranin
ART Arta IFG Ifugao KLA Kalinga
ATT Atta ILK Ilocano KLN Kalanguya
BLW Balangaw ILT Ilongot KNK Kankanaey
BON
Bontok
ISG
Isnag
MAL
Malaweg
DGTC Casiguran Dumagat ISI Isinai PNG Pangasina
DGTEC East Cagayan Dumagat ITG Itneg PRN Paranan
DGTP. Palanan Dumagat ITW Itawis YOG Yogad
4
With the status of Ibanag, it was taught in elementary public schools for quite
sometime. Itawes speakers would have to learn the Ibanag vis-à-vis the other lessons
taught in school. With the influx of Ilocano and Tagalog, too, from neighboring regions,
Cagayan has become a melting pot, not only of cultures, but of languages as well.
Ibanag people then had to interact to diverse languages in their day-to-day life.
With the complexity of sociolinguistic situation in the Philippines, the number of
monolingual Ibanag speakers has noticeably reduced. The predominance of English and
Tagalog in the media and education has considerably influenced the native Ibanag
speakers.
1.2 Objective of the study
The present dissertation aims at providing a groundbreaking analysis of the
language, illustrating the intricacies of Ibanag in as clear and comprehensive a manner
as possible. As should a reference grammar do, this study deals with the phonology,
morphology and syntax of the language. The grammar of the various lexical categories
is carefully explicated focusing on their semantic, morphological, and syntactic
properties.
1.3 Theoretical Orientation
As opposed to early studies on Philippine languages that exploit linguistic
theories such as Pike’s (1963) and Longacre’s (1964) tagmemics model (cf., Hidalgo &
Hidalgo 1971; Porter 1977; Reid 1966; Reid 1970), or Chomsky’s (1965) generative
grammar (cf. Mirikitini 1972), or Fillmore’s (1968) case grammar (cf. McKaughan 1958),
or Van Valin’s (2001) Role and Reference grammar (cf., Aragones 2003) or Perlmutter
and Postal’s (1977) Relational grammar (cf., Bell 1976; Wimbish 1987), the present
study is basically free from any linguistic theory and uses eclectic approach in
describing the features of the language.
As for the structure of clause types, I modify Dixon and Aikhenvald’s (2000)
discussion on core arguments and peripheral arguments (also called “adjuncts”). Core
5
arguments are distinguished from peripheral arguments in that core arguments must be
stated (or be understood from the context) for a clause to be acceptable whereas
peripheral arguments or adjuncts are less dependent on the nature of the head of a
clause. This means that they may or may not be included in the sentence to indicate
place, time, cause, purpose, and so on. The modification that is made in this study,
however, is the use of basic terms such as ‘subject’, ‘object’, etc. Particularly, the term
‘indirect object’ is not used in this study; instead, benefactive’ or ‘beneficiary’ is used.
For further explanation of core and peripheral arguments, see chapter 4.
The case-marking system in this study uses the ergative-analysis’ system which
is the current trend in Philippine linguistics. Diachronically, the ergative-absolutive
analysis begins with various works employing the Relational Grammar theory. Payne
(1982) defines ergative as “a term traditionally used to describe systems of nominal
case marking where subjects of intransitive clauses are marked the same as direct
objects, while subjects of transitive clauses are marked differently” (p.76). Dixon
(1994), likewise, explains that “the term was first used to refer to the case marking on
constituents of a noun phrase: ‘ergative’ is the case marking transitive subject,
contrasting with another case originally called nominative’ but nowadays ‘absolutive’
marking intransitive subject and transitive object” (p.1). Bickford (1998:269) simply
defines it as “subject of a transitive clause.” Absolutive, on the other hand, is defined
simply as the subject of intransitive clauses and the object of transitive clauses.
To illustrate the intransitive and transitive dichotomy, consider examples (1) and
(2) below. In (1), the core argument pronominal kami ‘we’ is encoded as absolutive’
and the peripheral argument sine movie’ is encoded as ‘oblique’; hence, this
construction is intransitive. On the other hand, (2) exhibits an ergative agent mi ‘we’
and an absolutive theme sine ‘movie’; hence, this construction is transitive. For further
description and analysis of intransitive and transitive clauses, refer to Chapter 4 (clause
types), Chaptern 5 (nominal marking system), and Chapter 9 (verbs).
(1) Naggiraw kami ta sine.
nag- giraw kami ta sine
{PERF-INTR}- watch ABS.1pe OBL movie
We watched a movie.’
6
(2) Giniraw mi i sine.
-in- giraw mi i sine
{PERF-TRAN}- watch ERG.1pe ABS movie
We watched the movie.’
The discussion or analysis of other topics is adapted from various works. For
instance, in pronominals, I have distinguished the term ergative and genitive. Since
these two cases have the same forms but different functions, I maintained in this study
that ergatives refer to the agents, whereas genitives refer to possessors. This is further
elucidated in Chapter 6 (pronominals).
Since Ibanag has intrinsic characteristics, these can only be described using
typological approach. Whaley (1997) defines typology as “the classification of
languages or components of languages based on shared formal characteristics’ (p.7).
She further clarifies that typology is not a theory of grammar but an approach. There
are three significant propositions of typology: i) it involves cross-linguistic comparison;
ii) it classifies languages or aspects of languages; iii) it examines formal features of
languages. In this study for instance, there are items or particles that can only be
classified as belonging to a particular category when compared cross-linguistically or
when the function is described. This approach is particularly applied in Chapters 10,
11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, respectively.
1.4 Setting of the Study
The setting of the study is Tuguegarao City, the capital town of Cagayan and the
regional center of Region II, otherwise known as Cagayan Valley. There are some
reasons for choosing Tuguegarao as the setting of the research. First, with 49
barangays comprising the city, it has the biggest population among all the towns in
Cagayan. As of 2000, Tuguegarao had a total population of less than 100,000 making it
the premier Ibanag city. Second, being the regional center of Cagayan Valley,
Tuguegarao is considered the center of education, commerce, industry, and politics.
7
Hence, Ibanag speakers from Tuguegarao are generally educated which facilitates
description of the language. Third, the Tuguegarao Ibanag is the variety that I am most
exposed to.
1.5 Orthography
Earlier works on the language (cf. KWF, 1997; Tsuchida, Yamada, Constantino,
& Moriguchi 1989; Verstraelen, 1973) utilize a Spanish orthography. Examples that are
drawn from these works have been realigned with the current orthography of the
language.
In this work, the orthography is based on the recommended spelling conventions of the
translator’s committee for the Bible. The suggestions below provide consistency in the
spelling conventions especially for written works such as the bible. These are
summarized as follows:
a. Spelling should represent the actual pronunciation as much as possible;
b. Spelling of Ibanag should be as close as possible to spelling in other
languages;
c. The system of spelling should be as easy as possible to learn; it should be
consistent and non-innovative as possible;
d. The system of spelling should be useful for all subdialects of Ibanag
e. The alphabet should be as easy as possible to type.
Note that these rules in spelling can only be applied in written samples. The
spoken samples are not bound to follow any rules, whether phonological or
morphological.
In this study, samples that are taken from other published works which follow the
Spanish orthography are revised. Some example of revision madde in this study are
shown in Table 1.1 below:
8
Table 1.1 Sample revision of Spanish orthography
Spanish Orthography
Revised
Gloss
quittalappo kittalappo ‘very industrious’
guitaddangngan gitaddangngan ‘kept on standing’
Lappao lappaw ‘flower’
y cofun i kofun ‘a friend’
baguitolay baggitolay ‘unmarried man’
batu y balay cu batu i balay ku my house is made of
stone
1.6 Previous Publications on Ibanag
Early studies on Philippine linguistics, which are century-old, have focused on
comparative linguistics. Of these various studies, Ibanag has always been one of the
languages being studied. Blake (1906) compares the phonology, articles, and pronouns
of at least 15 different languages across the archipelago, including Ibanag. Likewise,
Conant (1908, 1912) also includes Ibanag in his investigation of the “F” and V” and the
pepet law of Philippine languages. In his 1908 work, he emphasizes the consonant
doubling as a distinct feature of Ibanag. Similarly, Viray (1941) studies nasal
assimilation, nasal substitution, and nasal accretion in Tagalog, Cebuano, Hiligaynon,
Iloko, Samar-Leyte, Bikol, Pangasinan, Pampangan, Ibanag, and Ivatan. The analysis
of these four studies is done on the lexical level only. Conversely, Constantino (1965)
examines sentence patterns of 26 Philippine languages including Ibanag. Llamzon
(1968) also includes Ibanag in his collection of words and phrases of three Philippine
languages (the two other being Tagalog and Ilokano).
Tharp (1974) compares the phonology, case marking particle system, and
pronominal system of seven Northern Cordilleran languages: Ilokano, Ibanag,
Gaddang, Yogad, Agta, Atta, and Casiguran Dumagat. With the inclusion of seven
languages and the focus of investigation (being pronouns, determiners and sounds), the
analysis was done on the lexical level only. There were no sample utterances or texts
9
to illustrate the alleged diversity. As Tharp explains, some, if not most, of the samples
were taken from word lists and dictionaries published during that time.
The work of Tsuchida, Yamada, Constantino, and Moriguchi in (1989) offer a
comparison of grammatical features of six Batanic languages (Imorod Yami, Iranomilek
Yami, Itbayat, Ivasay Ivatan, Isamorong Ivatan, and Babuyan) and two Cordilleran
languages (Ilokano and Ibanag). In this work, 590 sentences of different types are
compared for grammatical features: i) simple or basic sentences, ii) compound and
complex, iii) causatives, iv) showing syntactic functions and forms of various particles,
v) negations, vi) imperatives, vii) interrogatives, viii) pronominals, ix) deictics, x)
sequences of personal pronouns, xi) special forms and use of deictics and personal
pronouns, xii) numerals, xiii) fraction terms, xiv) price terms, xv) common expressions
and greetings, and xvi) inflections of verbs. A list of the restricted class morphemes
such as the personal pronouns, demonstratives, interrogative particles, enclitics, and
conjunctions is also provided. A number of examples used in this study are drawn from
this work.
Although Tsuchida et al.’s work went beyond the lexical level, as opposed to
Tharp (1974), they failed to provide an analysis of the structure of Ibanag. The work,
though, provides a list of earlier studies or manuscripts that are unpublished. As for
Ibanag, Tsuchida et al. include at least four works (Bugarin, 1854; McFarland, 1970a,
1970b; Tsuchida, 1962).
For a period of time, Ibanag has been among the foci of comparative linguistics
in the Philippines.
The earliest published linguistic work on Ibanag dates back approximately eight
decades ago. Brandes and Sheerer (1927-28) deal with a specific issue in the
phonology of Ibanag, that is, the sandhi (assimilation of sounds at juncture) of the
language. On the other hand, Verstraelen (1973) offers a morphosyntactic analysis of
the language utilizing a rather complicated set of linguistic formulas which can only be
understood by those who have sufficient background on linguistics. Although
Verstraelen’s work is considered the first linguistic analysis of the syntax of Ibanag, it
offers very little chance of understanding the complexities of the language. Also, the
topics are not systematically arranged and very few sentences are used to describe
10
each morphosyntactic feature. With the complexity of the formulas, probably only
structural linguists can understand Verstraelen’s analysis of the language.
Although only a few scholarly journals that dealt solely with the language have
been published, a considerable number of graduate theses and dissertations have
focused on Ibanag.
Ibarbia (1969) comes up with an Ibanag-English dictionary compounded with a
brief description of the pronunciation, morphology, syntax, and orthography of the
language. On the other hand, Bauza (1972) describes the structure of the language
based on its phonology, morphology, and syntax. Although the work has attempted to
deal with the aspects of grammar, the treatment lacks in depth analysis of the features
of the language. As a follow-up, Bauza (1996) provides a brief description of the
phonology, morphology, and the parts-of-speech taxonomy of Ibanag lexical items. The
work, however, does not provide a description of the intricacies of the language.
Additionally, the syntax of the various lexical categories in Ibanag is not explicated.
Examples are provided but there are no explanations provided for whatever linguistic
phenomenon the language might have exhibited. In addition, the data for analysis
come mainly from spoken register. Hence, some characteristics of the language have
inadvertently been neglected.
Besides the linguistic aspect of Ibanag, the folk and religious literature has also
been the subject of studies of some theses and dissertations. Bangan (1976) and Del
Rosario (2000) explore Ibanag and Cagayan folk literature in general. Dayag (1993), on
the other hand, deals with the form and metaphors of pasyon, a Filipino Lenten song
that depicts the sufferings and death of Christ. Likewise, these works append authentic
Ibanag literary pieces in their papers which yield possibilities for investigation of their
grammatical features.
The Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (1997) comes up with a compilation of Ibanag-
Filipino lexicon, which is more of a guide to speaking Ibanag. Unlike Ibarbia’s (1969),
this compilation is not accompanied with description of the pronunciation, morphology,
and the like, but only common utterances.
11
1.7 The research gap
The current literature on Ibanag confirms the observation of Liao (2006). In her
study, she has clearly outlined the development of Philippine linguistics in the last 25
years as a sequel to the studies of Constantino (1971), McKaughan (1971), Reid
(1981), and Quakenbush (2005). Liao underscores the pressing need to document
major and minor languages in the Philippines. And since the vast majority of studies in
Philippine languages are done by non-Filipinos, she emphasizes the demand for Filipino
linguists to be involved in the documentation of Philippine languages. Additionally, she
highlights that in the last 25 years, there had been 14 M.A. theses and 16 Ph.D.
dissertations written about Philippine-type languages, but only one of them was written
by a Filipino (i.e., Daguman 2004). She strongly recommends that reference grammars
on minor, as well as major, languages, zeroing in on Ibanag and Itawes of Cagayan
Valley sub-group, be written. In addition, she stresses that only few detailed reference
grammars have appeared in the past 25 years. These include Rubino’s (1997) A
reference grammar of Ilocano, Ruffolo’s (2004) Topics in the morpho-syntax of Ibaloy,
Northern Philippines, and Daguman’s (2004) A grammar of Northern Subanen. This is
the research gap that the present study addresses.
12
Chapter 2
PHONOLOGY
2.1 Introduction
Phonology refers to the sound system of a particular language. In this section,
the features of the language are described and are exemplified. To illustrate stress, the
diacritic mark (´) is placed on top of the stressed vowel phoneme. As for phonemic
glottal stops, the voiced receives (^) while the voiceless receives (?). For the
morphemic glottal stop, the symbol (‘) is used. Likewise, period (.) is used to syllabicate
the words and colon (:) is used to show a lengthened pronunciation. The brackets ([ ])
are used for phonemic transcription.
2.2 The vowels
In contrast with other Philippine-type languages which demonstrate less than five
vowels, e.g., Cebuano has only three, Ibanag has six vowels. These are the high front
/i/, the mid-front /e/, the low central /a/, the mid-central /ə/ or the schwa, the low back /o/
and the high back /u/.
Table 2.1. Distribution of vowel sounds
Front Center Back
High
/i/ /u/
Middle
/e/ /ə/
Low
/a/ /o/
As Conant (1912) has earlier observed, /a/ is the most dominant vowel in Ibanag.
As evident in the examples below, there is apparently a preponderance of the vowel a in
the language. The vowel /a/ in Ibanag resembles the a in ‘father’.
13
ababba [?a.bab:.bá] ‘short’
aggayaman [?ag:.ga.yá.man] ‘playground’
galanggatangan [ga.láŋ:.ga.tá.ŋan] ‘not worthy buying’
mattala-talakag [mat.ta.la:.ta.la.kág] ‘become lazy’
The vowels /e/ and /i/ are usually spoken interchangeably, especially by the
Visayan speakers. In Ibanag, this phenomenon never occurs. These two phonemes
are distinct sounds which means that one is never confused from the other.
espeho [?es.pé:.ho] ‘mirror’
eskwela [?es:.kwé.la] ‘school’
dinengdeng [di.neŋ.déŋ] ‘boiled vegetables
kulamemmeng [ku.la.mé:.meŋ] ‘wrinkles
The vowel `i' is pronounced as a high front vowel. Unlike English where there are
many possible variants of the phoneme, the /i/ in Ibanag nearly resembles the i in ‘rip’.
girigiri [gi.ri.gí:.ri] ‘scraps of cloth’
ammiribirang [?am.mi.ri:bi.ráŋ] ‘dragonfly
anninni [?an:.nín.nî] ‘rag’
The phonemes /o/ and /u/ are also usually uttered interchangeably, not only by
Visayan speakers but also by the Ilocano speakers. The vowel /o/ and /u/ are both
produced by the back open unrounded at the low and high tongue positions,
respectively.
kokkoban [kok.kó:.ban] ‘to dig a place’
kolo-kolor [ko.lo.kó:.lor] ‘crayons’
duruddunan [du.rud:.du.nán] ‘push’
dumurumug [du.mu.rú:.mug] ‘news’
The phonemic identities of these two vowels may be contrasted in the following
minimal pairs:
ulu [?u.lû] ‘my head’
ulo [?u.lô] ‘blanket’
balu [bá.lu?] ‘my widow’
balo [ba.lô] ‘reply, answer/
galu [gá.lû] ‘twine, rope’
galo [ga.lô] ‘laughter’
14
In the case of some Spanish borrowings, the choice of whether to use /o/ or /u/
has evolved through time. According to the informants
1
, the following loanwords are
originally o-ending. However, some words have eventually become u-ending since
speakers have pronounced them as such.
The following words have consequently received the vowel /u/ in the final
position:
kampu [kám.pu] ‘camp’
espiritu [es.pí.ri.tu] ‘spirit’
gubiernu [gub.yér.nu] ‘government’
husgadu [hus.gá.du] ‘jury’
infiernu [?in.fiyér.nu] ‘hell’
insensu [?in.sén.su] ‘incense’
interu [?in.té.ru] ‘entire’
On the other hand, the following words have retained their final vowel /o/:
baryo [bár.yo] ‘barrio’
bawtiso [báw.ti.so] ‘baptize’
disipulo [di.sí:.pu.lo] ‘disciple’
insulto [in.súl:.to] ‘insult’
milagro [mi.lág:.ro] ‘miracle’
paralitoko [pa.ra.lí.ti.ko] ‘paralyzed’
The schwa sound /ə/ is produced in the mid-central part of the tongue. Note that
Ibanag does not draw heavily on schwa sounds, as compared to Ilocano (cf.
Vanoverbergh, 1955). To illustrate the difference of /ə/ from /a/, Bauza (1972) provides
the following minimal pairs
2
:
lappag [lap.pəg] ‘slap’
lappag [lap.pág] ‘swelling’
abbag [?ab.bəg] ‘crosswise’
abbag [?ab.bág] ‘the other side’
1
Special thanks go to one of my informants - Ms. Benjamina Quilang, a member of the Translation
Committee for the Ibanag Bible. The project was under the auspices of Philippine Bible Society, Manila,
Philippines.
2
Present-day speakers do not recognize the distinction of these minimal pairs. Apparently, such
occurrence is true among the older generation only.
15
bannag [ban.nəg] ‘numbness’
bannag [ban.nág] ‘tiredness’
kannag [kan.nəg] thickness’
kannag [kan.nág] scab over a wound’
2.3 The diphthongs
Bauza (1972) contends that there are six diphthongs in Ibanag, namely the high
front /iy/, the mid front /ey/, the low central front /aw/, the low central back /ay/, the mid
back /oy/ and the high back /uw/. However, only two of these identified diphthongs are
apparent in the current observation and analysis of the language. These are the /aw/
and the /ay/, respectively.
lappaw [ l a p . pá w] flower’
sitaw [ si . t á w ] ‘where’
furaw [ f u. r á w ] ‘white’
poray [ p ó. r a y ] ‘anger’
nalelay [ na . l é. l a y] ‘withered’
tolay [ t ó. l ay ] ‘person’
The occurrence of the diphthongs /iy/. /ey/, and /uw/ is probably evident in
loanwords but not in native words.
2.4 Stress
The pattern of stress in Ibanag is sometimes unpredictable. Primary and
secondary stress is usually true for polysyllabic words.
Stress falls on the last syllable if the penultimate syllable is closed, i.e. the last
vowel is preceded by two consonants or a consonant followed by a glottal stop. The
following examples illustrate stress on the final syllable.
amang [ ? a .m á ŋ ] ‘ghost
awan [ ? a . w á n ] ‘none’
dakal [ d a .k á l ] ‘big’
ayong [ ?a . yó ŋ ] ‘monkey
dagun [ d a . g ú n] ‘year’
bitun [ b i . t ú n] ‘star’
16
Open penultimate syllable usually gets the stress. The vowels may or may not
get the glottal stop mark. Consider the following examples.
tappe [ t a p . pê ] ‘pat’
gabi [ ga . bí ] ‘night’
futu [ f u. t û] ‘heart’
avu [ ?a . v û] ‘hair’
daga [ dá . ga ] ‘blood’
dana [ dá . na ] ‘old’
kallo [ k á l :. l ô] ‘mercy
2.5 The consonants
Consonants are classified according to point of articulation and manner of
articulation. There are 19 identified consonant sounds in Ibanag, among these are /f/,
/v/, /z/, and /j/. As opposed to some Philippine type languages where these consonants
only appear in borrowed words, just like in Hiligaynon (Wolfenden 1971), Ibanag uses
these consonants heavily in their native words. The table below summarizes the Ibanag
consonants.
Table 2.2. Phonemic consonant chart of Ibanag
Consonant Class
Labial
Labio
-
dental
Dental
Alveo
-
lar
Palatal
Velar
Glottal
Stops (voiceless) /p/ /t/ /k/ /?/
Stops (voiced) /b/ /d/ /g/
Nasal (voiced) /m/ /n/ /ŋ/
Fricative (voiceless) /f/ /s/ /h/
Fricative (voiced) /v/ /z/
Affricate (voiceless) /ch/
Affricate (voiced) /j/
Lateral (voiced) /l/
Trill (voiced) /r/
Glide (voiced) /y/ /w/
17
2.5.1 The stops
Stops are produced by blocking the air flow then releasing it afterwards. Based
on place of articulation and voicing, stops can be further classified into four: bilabial,
dental, velar, and glottal. Voiceless stops are those that are not articulated with aspiration
(a puff or air) in syllable initial position. As syllable codas (final consonant of the syllable),
they are usually unreleased, not articulated with full force.
2.5.1.1 Bilabial stops
Just like in English, Ibanag bilabial stops are composed of the voiceless /p/ the
voiced /b/. Some examples are presented below.
apan [ ?á . p a n ] ‘get
apape [ ?a . p a : . p ê ] ‘bitter gourd
dupo [ du . p ô ] ‘banana’
kapilya [ ka . p í l :. ya ] ‘chapel’
pasiran [ p a. s i . r á n] ‘shame’
passil [ pa s . sí l ] ‘envy
begal [ bé : . g a l] ‘goiter
bida [ b í: . da ] ‘story
abbay [ ?a b . b á y] ‘female carabao
ubó [ ?ú : . b ô ] ‘buttocks’
kabibi [ k a. b í: . b i ] ‘clam’
mabisin [ m a . b i . sí n ] ‘hungry
2.5.1.2 Dental stops
The dental stops are the voiceless /t/ and the voiced /d/. These are produced with
the tip of the tongue touching the teeth. One notable feature of Ibanag phonology is that
the voiceless /t/ never occurs in the final position.
itoli [ ?i . t ó: . l i ] ‘return’
utun [ ?u . t ú n ] ‘top
tagetay [ t a. g é : .t a y] ‘comb
tagaruli [ t a . ga :. r ú. l i] ‘sin
daping [ da : pí n g ] ‘dirt
darulu [ d a . r ú: . l u ] ‘spinal cord
duddugan [ du d : ? d u : g á n ] ‘stab’
maddulo [m a d : d ú: l o] ‘welcome/come in’
18
2.5.1.3 Velar stops
The velar stops in Ibanag are the voiceless /k/ and the voiced /g/. They are never
aspirated, and in final position are usually unreleased. Because of their phonological
affinity, these two velar stops are often used interchangeably, especially in oral register. In
addition, since Ibanag and Itawes are both spoken in Cagayan Valley (and are 69%
intelligible, as reported by Gordon, 2005), the /k/ - /g/ dichotomy is often the distinguishing
factor. Older generation Ibanag speakers contend that the voiced /g/ is an Ibanag feature
while the voiceless /k/ is attributed to Itawes. Others, however, say otherwise. This study
maintains that /g/ is attributed to Ibanag and /k/ to Itawes. One informant emphasizes that
the language is Ibanag and not Ibanak. I surmise that the discrepancy is purely
phonological, that is, speakers tend to omit the final consonant thus resulting in /k/.
Consider the following examples.
Table 2.3. The /k/ - /g/ distinction between Ibanag and Itawes
3
.
Ibanag Itawes Gloss
afug afuk ‘lime
bitug bituk ‘a hit at the back
lidag lidak ‘edible snail
mattalebag mattalebak ‘pass by
talakag talakak ‘lazy’
kofun [ ?k ó : .f u n ] ‘friend’
talakag [ t a .l a . k á g ] ‘lazy’
pakul [ pa . k úl ] ‘ladle’
makkulle [ m a k : . k ul . l é] ‘to shout’
likuk [ li . k úk ] ‘back’
galo [ g a. l ô] ‘laugh
garsib [ g a r: . s í b ] ‘scissors’
kagi [ k a . g î] ‘say
kageg [ k a . g ég ] ‘broom’
iggo [ ?i g . gô ] ‘tighten
talebag [ t a .l é : . b ag ] ‘pass by
ikirug [i . ki . r úg ] ‘to stir fry
3
This information is supplied by Ms. Marita Iringan, well-versed in both Ibanag and Itawes.
19
2.5.1.4 Glottal stop
Another interesting feature of Ibanag is the preponderance of glottal stop /?/ in the
language. Rubino (1997) surmises that due to human anatomy constraints, glottal stops
never occur voiced. Vowel-initial words in Ibanag have the glottal stop as their initial
consonantal onset.
bagga [ ba g : g â ] ‘rice
appa [ ap : . p â ? ] ‘four
galu [ g a. l û] ‘rope
galo [ g a. l ô] ‘laugh
gare [ ga . r ê ] ‘adverbial particle
To distinguish the glottal stop phoneme from the glottal stop morpheme, the latter
is marked (‘). There is only one morpheme that is represented by the glottal stop mark,
that is the first person singular ergative and genitive ku. This morpheme becomes a
glottal stop when it precedes a word with a vowel final sound (see chapter 5
Pronominals for the discussion of this phenomenon). Some examples are provided
below:
yama + ku = yama=k = yama ‘my father’
takki + ku = takki=k = takki’ ‘my feet’
nobio + ku = nobio=k = nobio’ ‘my boyfriend’
In some cases of o-ending words, the morpheme ku is retained.
bikô ku = *biko=k ; *biko’ ‘my side’
dekô ku = *deko=k ; *deko’ ‘my delicacy’
2.5.2 The fricatives
Ibanag has one native voiceless alveolar fricative [s], and a non-native glottal
fricative [h]. It has been observed that /h/ is not a typical Ibanag phoneme.
The voiceless alveolar fricative is pronounced like the s in `soda'. Like the stops, it
may geminate in certain environments:
20
sikaw [ si . k á w ] ‘you
suddalu [ s ud . dá .l u ] ‘soldier’
sintu [s i n. t ú ] fist-fight
bussi [ bu s . sí ] ‘pregnant’
mabisin [ m a . b i . sí n ] ‘hungry
polbus [ po l :. b ú s] ‘powder
kurus [ k u . . r ús ] ‘cross
One interesting feature of the Ibanag phonology is the propensity towards the
voiced alveolar fricative /z/. When derivational prefixes undergo consonant change, the /z/
is utilized (cf. section 2.3.4 of this chapter). Note that this phenomenon is not a proto-
Austronesian characteristic. This fricative however never occurs in the final position.
zibbo [ zi b :. b ô ] ‘darkness’
zila [ z i .l á ] ‘tongue’
zipping [ zí : . p i ŋ] ‘twins’
tazzi [ t az. z í ] ‘condemnation’
zizzilan [z í z : . z i .l a n] ‘to lick
zizzing [ zí z :. z i ŋ ] ‘wall’
gazzing [ga z . z í ŋ] goat’
maganazzing [m a . ga . n a z: . zí ŋ] afraid’
Before the glide [y] or its counterpart (vowel i followed by another vowel), the
fricative /s/ palatalizes to [sh]:
siémpre [ s h e m. p r e ] ‘of course’
nasion [ na s h ó n ] country
ísyu [ í :. s h u ] issue’
Conant (1908) argues that the labio-dental fricative /f/ in English becomes a pure
labial fricative in Ibanag, as in futu [fu.] ‘heart’. This phenomenon, however, is denied by
present-day Ibanag speakers. They claim that the fricative /f/ in fugak ‘afternoonis the
same as the fricative /f/ in ‘feather. The fricative /f/ does not occur as a final consonant.
fun [f ú n] ‘root; stem’
fungan [ f u. ŋ án ] ‘pillow
futag [f ú. t a g ] ‘umbilical cord’
afi [ ? a. f í] ‘fire
daffug [ da f . f ú g] ‘male carabao’
afafu [ ? a. f á. f u] drizzle’
21
The labio-dental fricative /v/, like the alveo-dental /z/, is also dominant in Ibanag
phonology. It does not occur in final position, too.
vulavuga [ v u .l a . v u. g â ] ‘nothing
vuling [ v u. lí ŋ ] ‘blind’
vukig [ v u k í g ] ‘horizon’
davvun [ da v : v ú n] ‘earth
gavva [ ga v : vâ ] ‘suddenly
tuvvug [ t uv: . v û g ] ‘connection’
ikivvu [ i . k i v : . v ú ] ‘mix
uvovug [u. v ó . v u g ] ‘talk
The glottal fricative [h] is apparently not evident in Ibanag. If it does, they are
usually loanwords from languages like Spanish, as shown by the few examples provided.
si [ hú : . s i ] ‘fabric’ (fr. pineapple)
espeho [ ? e s. p é: . h o ] ‘mirror
2.5.3 The affricates
Although there are no native affricate phonemes in Ibanag, they do occur in the
language as a result of palatalization in certain phonological environments, or in foreign
language borrowings.
The voiced alveo-palatal affricate /j/ is exhibited in Ibanag, unlike other Philippine-
type languages. This voiced affricate is produced like the English `j' in `juice'. The /j/ is
represented in the orthography by `dy' or `di + a vowel.'
badyu [ ba . j ú] ‘storm
Dios [j ó s] ‘God
dyaket [ j á. k e y ] ‘jacket’
2.5.4 The liquids
The liquid consonant/l/ is pronounced as a dental lateral in all environments. It
does not have a velarized variant like the English `l' in syllable final position.
22
lallaki [l a l . l á: . k i ] ‘boys’
kallab [k al .l á b] ‘lid
kallua [k al .l u á ] ‘pot hanger’
dakal [ da . k á] ‘big
nagadal [ n a . g á : . d al ] ‘studied
2.5.5 The trill
The consonant /r/, is labeled ‘trilled’ here as opposed to retroflex in English since
it resembles more the ‘rr’ in mirror than the ‘r’ in Spanish ‘araña’ (Rubino, 1997).
riku [r i . k ú ] ‘wealth
renu [ r é : . n u] ‘cleanliness
marake [ m a . r á : k e ? ] ‘bad
annaran [ a n . n á . r a n ] ‘strainer’
dompar [ do m : p á r ] ‘hit
altar [ ? al . t ár ] ‘altar’
2.5.6 The glides
Ibanag has two glides, /w/ and /y/. Both may appear in onset or coda position. The
labio-velar glide /w/ is formed with rounded lips and some obstruction at the velar part of
the mouth.
wagi [ w a. g î] ‘sibling
watay [w á . t a y] ‘ax’
kawe [ k a . wê ] ‘human waste’
nawawan [ na . wá : . w a n ] ‘lost’
nanaw [ na . n á w ] ‘left
taw [ t á w] ‘here
sitaw [ s i. t á w ] ‘where
The palatal glide /y/ is pronounced in Ibanag in the same manner as the `y' in
English `yes.' Also, this is the consonant counterpart of the high front vowel `i.'
yena [ yé . n a] ‘mother’
yatun [ yá . t u n ] ‘that’
laya [ l a. yá ] ‘ginger
23
paggayaman [p ag . g a. yá : m a n ] ‘playground’
gayang [ g á :. y a n g] ‘crow
nalelay [ n a . l é. l a y ] ‘withered’
darelay [ d a . r é. l a y ] hook’
2.5.7 The nasals
Ibanag, as most Philippine languages do, has three nasal consonants: /m/, /n/, and
/ng/. All these are voiced.
The bilabial nasal /m/ is produced by closing the air stream at the lips.
makua [ m a k: . u â ] ‘work
mape [ m a . p ê] ‘bitter’
umay [ ?u . m á y ] ‘to come
amá [ ? a . m á] father
The dental nasal [n] is produced by obstructing the airflow in the mouth and the
tongue pressing the upper teeth, or the alveolar ridge slightly behind the upper teeth.
navuyu [ na .v u . yû ] ‘odorous’
nawag [ ná : . w a g ] light’
lannaw [l a n . n á w] fresh
innagan [ ? i n. n á g: . a n ] ‘to wait’
supan [ s u . p án ] ‘blow
lubban [ l u b . bá n] ‘pomelo
The velar nasal [ng] is formed by obstructing the airflow in the mouth at the velum.
It is equivalent to the English `ng' in `sing.' The velar nasal may appear in syllable initial
position.
ngila [ŋ í : . l a] ‘yellow
ngisi [ ŋ i : . sî ] ‘black
ngamin [ ŋ á: . m i n ] ‘all
mangi [ m a . ŋ î ] ‘corn
mangga [ m á ŋ . ga ] ‘mango
nasingngo [ na . s i ŋ : . ŋ ô] ‘delicious
naraping [ na . r a. pí ŋ ] ‘dirty
24
2.6 Consonant germination
Consonant gemination is probably the most dominant characteristic of Ibanag
phonology and morphology. This phenomenon is also evident in proper nouns such as
names and places in Cagayan. Consider the following examples:
Proper names: Bassig
Taccad
Macasaddu
Macarubbo
Tattao
Places: Cataggamman
Annafunan
Dummon
Gammad
Lallo
Consonant gemination is very evident even in root words.
babbak - ‘to pound
bagga - ‘rice
daddu - ‘feather’
kuttu - ‘hurriedly’
gaggal - ‘saw
barukku - ‘neckerchief’
davvun - ‘earth’
Consonants /k/, /t/, /d/, /m/, or /n/ usually geminate as a result of encliticization:
(2.1) Babbakam=mu yaw.
babbak- an=mu yaw
pound-PAT=ERG.2s DEM/PROX
(You) pound this.’
(2.2) Appak=ku yatun.
apan=ku yatun
get=ERG.1s DEM/MED
‘I will get that.
25
(2.3) Gafutan=na.
gafut-an=na
catch-PAT=ERG.3s
‘S/he will catch.
(2.4) Agaladda yayya.
agal-an=da yayya
call-PAT=da ABS.3s
‘They will call him/her.’
As Rubino (1997) observes, consonant gemination also transcends prefix
boundaries. Whittle and Lusted (1963) call this process ‘sandhi’ in Atta. Brandes and
Sheerer (1927-28) also use the same term in their study. For purposes of clarity, the
assimilation of the initial consonant of the root to the final consonant of the prefix is termed
here as consonant gemination still.
mattura = mag + tura to write’
mazzigu = mag + zigu ‘to bathe’
makkoko = mag + koko ‘to steal’
pallutu = pag + lutu ‘for cooking’
nabbabbal = nag + babbal washed’
ipaffutu = ipag + futu put in one’s heart’
2.7 Sandhi
As earlier mentioned, sandhi refers to the assimilation of sounds at juncture. In
Ibanag, assimilation sometimes results in the deletion of some phonemes. This process
is then called ‘sandhi’ in this study.
In the case of tangabbalay ‘one house’, for instance, the string dday’ is
eventually omitted and the b assimilates with nga.
tangabbalay ‘one house’ = tadday nga balay
26
2.8 Summary
In this chapter, the phonology of Ibanag is described. As explained, Ibanag has
six vowel phonemes, nineteen consonant phonemes, and three diphthongs. Native
words are provided to exemplify the vowel, consonant,