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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2016; 4(1): 373-378 Indigenous technical knowledge in aquaculture sector: A literature review

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A review of literature was conducted to bring together information available on the indigenous practices followed by aqua farmers in various parts of the world. The information was grouped under the different steps of aquaculture starting from site selection for pond construction to fish health management. In addition, aquaculture practices based on indigenous knowledge like the periphyton-based aquaculture and various integrations of aquaculture are discussed.
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2016; 4(1): 373-378
ISSN: 2347-5129
(ICV-Poland) Impact Value: 5.62
(GIF) Impact Factor: 0.352
IJFAS 2016; 4(1): 373-378
© 2016 IJFAS
www.fisheriesjournal.com
Received: 16-11-2015
Accepted: 18-12-2015
Barlaya Gangadhar
Regional Research Centre,
ICAR- Central Institute of
Freshwater Aquaculture,
Hesaraghatta Lake Post,
Bangalore-560089, India.
Narasimhan Sridhar
Regional Research Centre,
ICAR- Central Institute of
Freshwater Aquaculture,
Hesaraghatta Lake Post,
Bangalore-560089, India.
Kannur Hemaprasanth
Regional Research Centre,
ICAR- Central Institute of
Freshwater Aquaculture,
Hesaraghatta Lake Post,
Bangalore-560089, India.
Magadi Raghunath
Regional Research Centre,
ICAR- Central Institute of
Freshwater Aquaculture,
Hesaraghatta Lake Post,
Bangalore-560089, India.
Pallipuram Jayasankar
ICAR - Central Institute of
Freshwater Aquaculture,
Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar,
Orissa-751002, India.
Correspondence
Barlaya Gangadhar
Regional Research Centre,
ICAR- Central Institute of
Freshwater Aquaculture,
Hesaraghatta Lake Post,
Bangalore-560089, India.
Indigenous technical knowledge in aquaculture sector:
A literature review
Barlaya Gangadhar, Narasimhan Sridhar, Kannur Hemaprasanth,
Magadi Raghunath, Pallipuram Jayasankar
Abstract
A review of literature was conducted to bring together information available on the indigenous practices
followed by aqua farmers in various parts of the world. The information was grouped under the different
steps of aquaculture starting from site selection for pond construction to fish health management. In
addition, aquaculture practices based on indigenous knowledge like the periphyton-based aquaculture and
various integrations of aquaculture are discussed.
Keywords: Aquaculture, Traditional practice, Fish breeding, Fish feeding, Integrated aquaculture
1. Introduction
Aquaculture remained as the fastest-growing food production sector in the last decade. Asia
has been the center of aquaculture production for decades and currently, more than 90 percent
of the total aquaculture production comes from Asian countries, China being the biggest
producer in the world [1]. Interestingly, more than 70 percent of the total aquaculture
production comes from small-scale farmers, who are also the major contributors of small-scale
innovations and adaptations of aquaculture technologies. In many countries of the world, the
adaptation of indigenous technologies has resulted in the development of sustainable and
environmentally friendly aquaculture practices and hence helped the farmers to increase
aquaculture production during the past decade [2, 3]. In this paper, we have attempted to enlist
some of the indigenous knowledge practiced by fish farmers.
2. Methodology
The topic of the review was searched in Google database with different key words related to
the subject and with the literature available with us. Personal contacts were also made with
experts to collect information. The experiences gained by the first author during interaction
with farming community as a part of extension service were also included. The information
thus received was utilized for writing this article.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. ITKs in aquaculture practice
Aquaculture is the controlled production, propagation and rearing of aquatic organisms of
highly economic value in a controlled environment such as ponds, channels and enclosures,
using a higher density of cultured aquatic organisms than normally found in nature. Many rural
farmers have applied indigenous knowledge in various stages of aquaculture in order to meet
their livelihood necessities.
3.1.1. Pond construction and maintenance
i. Site selection: The fish farmers of Assam hill district are reported to have selected low-
lying areas near the home for fish pond. These ponds can be used as multipurpose ponds
for bathing, cloth and utensil washing in addition to fish culture [4]. They preferred to
construct embankment ponds to the dugout ponds considering economy.
ii. Soil quality: In order to test the suitability of soil in terms of water retention, a mud ball is
prepared from the soil where the pond is to be constructed. If the ball does not break, the
soil is considered to have enough water holding capacity, hence suitable for pond
construction (Saha and De, unpublished).
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
iii. Outlet: Farmers of Assam hill district used hollow
bamboo fitted at a certain height from the bottom as out-
let pipes. The end of the bamboo facing the ponds is
blocked with stone and clay soil [4].
iv. Protection of pond dyke: During pond construction, the
top of the pond is made wider than the bottom as it can
better withstand the force of water (Saha and De,
unpublished). In places experiencing heavy rainfall, most
dykes are prone to erosion and damage. Farmers plant
plantation crops like coconut, papaya or vegetable crops
with creeping vine like cucumber, gherkin etc. or turf with
fodder grass. In Manipur, farmers use pond dykes for
Colocasia plantation at 3000 nos. ha-1, which is used as a
vegetable in many parts of India [5].
3.1.2. Fish breeding and seed transportation
i. Breeding: Knowledge on dry and wet bundh systems of
fish breeding and spawn production has been recorded
from farmers (Saha and De, unpublished). Breeding in
bundh including Bangla bundh with hormonal injection is
a very cheap and effective method practiced by the
farmers in many parts of West Bengal. These bundhs are
most economical and very much tuned to the
environment.
Farmers in West Bengal were reported to use proper doses
of the extract of water-immersed catechu (Acacia catechu)
and myrobalan (Myrobolus indica) nut in hatching pool,
to make the eggshell hard [6]. This is known to help in
shell hardening and prevent immature release of
hatchlings, enabling higher hatching rates.
In Tamil Nadu, the practice of covering the rostrum of
brood stock of freshwater prawn with plastic tube has
been reported (TNAU). This is done to avoid damage of
packing material during transport.
TNAU also recorded that some fish breeders use banana
leaves for deposition of eggs and teak leaves to maintain
acidic pH in the ornamental fish tanks during breeding
egg layers and place carrot/ potato slices and banana peels
in ornamental fish larval rearing tanks to enhance the
formation of live feed Infusorians.
ii. Seed collection: Collection of spawn of murrells like
Channa punctatus, which moves in shoals and
periodically comes to the surface for breathing in natural
waters using bamboo sieve/mosquito net/ cloths is
reported to be a practice during monsoon in Assam [4].
iii. Seed transportation: Saha and Chowdhary [7] have
described the traditional method of transporting fry and
fingerlings in hundis, practiced in Bengal. A traditional
hundi is an earthen vessel, but later aluminum hundis were
introduced. Though the hundis are of variable sizes, they
are generally of two types, the smaller one has 22 cm
mouth diameter and 23 l capacity carried as a head load
and the other larger one has 23 cm diameter and 32 l
capacity used for transport by rail or bicycle or as slings.
The hundis are filled with water from the same source as
the fry and are stocked at 50 000 in the smaller and 75 000
in the larger ones. About 58 g of fine silt is sprinkled over
the water surface in the hundi. During transport, the
hundis are shaken periodically. Basu [8] had reported that
addition of silt coagulates the suspended organic
pollutants. Saha and Chowdhury [7] have observed that
management practices like addition of silt, removal of
sediments by mopping them up with a rough cloth rope
and partial exchange of water permitted transport up to a
duration of 30 hrs. Saha et al. [9] demonstrated that
pulverized earth and activated charcoal tend to absorb
carbon dioxide and ammonia from the medium,
consequently increasing the survival of fry.
Use of around 50 ml of rice beer for every 10 l of water in
aluminum hundis, which probably acts as an anesthetizer
has been reported in Assam during seed transport [4].
However, traditional methods of transporting fish seed in
hundies (earthen or aluminum pots) resulted in heavy
mortality of fish seed [10].
3.1.3. Seed stocking
i. Weed fish eradication: Mahua oil cake is used for killing
unwanted fish. This later gets converted into organic
manure enhancing pond fertility, reducing the quantity of
cow dung to be applied subsequently.
ii. Bird scaring: The first author of this article has recorded
the use of audio/video tapes/coloured plastics for bird
scaring in several fish farms of Karnataka.
iii. Testing the seed quality and species identification: To
test the quality of seeds, farmers keep a few of them in the
water taken in a plate and rotate the water with finger.
Those seeds which swim in the opposite direction are
considered as healthy seeds (Saha and De, unpublished).
Kalitha et al. [4] have recorded that farmers distinguishing
fry of catla from rohu and mrigal by its bigger head and
their preference of fingerlings to fry since they grow
quickly.
iv. Stunted seeds: Andhra Pradesh farmers have developed
the technique of using stunted seed that are aged but have
not attained a weight proportionate to their age, and
stimulating their rapid growth in a limited period of time
by compensatory growth effect [11].
3.1.4. Fish feeding
i. Fish feeding using gunny bags: Andhra Pradesh farmers
have developed a simple feeding method called “the bag
feeding technique” whereby the feed is kept in feed bags
with small perforations that may be arranged in two to
three rows. Indian major carps have the habit of browsing,
sucking the feed through perforations [11].
ii. Supplementing common salt with feed: Another
indigenous practice followed by Andhra farmers is the use
of common salt in feed [11]. Studies conducted at College
of Fisheries, Mangalore with carps have revealed the
growth promoting potential of NaCl [12-14].
iii. Use of agriculture by-products as fish feed: Some
farmers are reported to feed partially fermented maize,
poultry offal and chopped dead poultry birds to the
African catfish for high growth (Saha and De,
unpublished). Many farmers in Bangladesh were found to
use kura, the red powdery coating of rice under the husk
as feed. Other food sources include cow dung, poultry
waste, choker (the remains of wheat grains) obtained after
the extraction of aata and oil cake [15]. Chowdhury [16] had
observed that farmers in Lalmonirhat, north-west
Bangladesh, frequently grind up the intestines of livestock
and feed it to fish. In Joydebpur, termites are a frequently
cited problem by farmers. It is reported that the local
women and children collect up the mounds which are then
thrown into fish ponds. Carp, particularly rohu, catla and
Thai saputi appear particularly fond of termite eggs.
Feeding fish with other on-farm resources like grass,
azolla have been observed by the first author in some parts
of Karnataka. The addition of banana leaves to ponds
stocked with grass carp was recorded by Islam [15]. Grass-
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
fed fishponds are reported mainly from China and
Thailand [17, 18]. In a polyculture pond, the poorly-digested
excreta from grass carp serve as fertilization for the pond
ecosystem and also as direct feed for other fish species.
The inclusion of grass carp as ‘grass bio-processor’
enables the use of near-pond grass sources and leads to
marked increases in overall fish production.
3.1.5. Fish health management
i. Dissolved oxygen deficiency: Depletion of dissolved
oxygen especially during morning hours is managed by
farmers through indigenous methods like channelizing
fresh spring water, beating the water with bamboo
pole/banana pseudo stem (TNAU), spraying water with
open containers, making children swim in ponds (Adarsh
G. Pers. Comn.) etc. Saha and De (unpublished) reported
the use of ducks which swim in pond and aerate the water.
ii. Turbidity management: For controlling persistent clay
turbidity farmers in Assam apply paddy straw/pieces of
banana stem [4]. The application of lime to ponds to clear
unclean water and addition of pieces of banana stem was
also recorded by Chowdhury et al. [16] in Bangladesh.
When these substances rot, they will be removed
periodically. To control algal bloom, practices like
spraying cattle urine in considerable quantities [4] or
mixture or red soil and sand on pond surface (Rajesh,
K.M. Pers. Comn.) have been reported to be effective.
Goswami et al. [6] have observed the use of bamboo poles
with toothed prongs or coir rope to remove aquatic weed
(Jahanesbaptistia sp.) from water bodies where Penaeus
monodon (Bagda) is cultivated.
iii. Argulus (fish lice) control: In cases of infection with the
crustacean ecto-parasite Argulus sp., farmers plant
bamboo pieces in ponds. Farmers believe that the fishes
can get rid of Argulus by rubbing their bodies against the
bamboo pieces [4, 6]. In fact, Bamboo poles are good
substrates for Argulus to breed. They colonize on bamboo
poles and lay eggs on them (Hemaprashanth, Pers.
Comn.). Some farmers also keep old gunny bags
submerged in pond water. Bamboo poles or gunny bags
will be removed periodically and dried to kill eggs of the
Argulus deposited over them.
iv. Leach control: Farmers in Assam are reported to throw
peels of cucumber or leaves of bitter gourd made into
paste form. It is believed that these bitter plant materials
help in eradicating leaches [4].
v. Control of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS):
Application of a paste of turmeric powder and ash of hay
or bamboo to control EUS has been practiced by fish
farmers in Assam. Some farmers even apply branches of
Neem plant into fish ponds [4]. Goswami et al. [6] have
reported the use of a paste made from garlic (2 kg), salt (2
kg), CuSO4 (20 g), KMnO4 (20 g) mixed in 30-50 liter of
water and sprayed over pond water of 0.133 ha pond by
hatchery owners in West Bengal to control EUS. Saha and
De (unpublished) reported the application of a solution of
rotten jaggery on fish for controlling ulcers.
vi. pH control: Toddy (palm sap) is used by shrimp farmers
for pH control [19]. Goswami et al. [6] have reported that
banana pseudo stem can be used to increase pH through
their alkaline secretion by cutting them into pieces and
immersing in pond water. This practice of West Bengal
farmers is reported to minimize protozoan diseases and
Argulus.
vii. Removal of poisonous gas: Raking of the pond bottom by
dragging tree-branches or brick suspended from a rope is
practiced by some farmers for the release of obnoxious
gases trapped inside the soils (Saha and De, unpublished).
viii. Hiding places: Farmers cultivating Australian freshwater
crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus use tyres and bricks as
hiding places [11]. They also use onion bag bundles to
protect and harvest small juveniles from ponds. Use of
bricks/tiles/ tyres as hid outs is also seen in India in prawn
culture ponds.
3.2. Aquaculture practices based on indigenous knowledge
3.2.1. Sticks in the mud- the periphyton-based aquaculture
The acadja practice of West Africa was first described by
Welcomme [20] based on the practices followed in western
African countries to capture fish through trapping by
establishing periphyton-based food production systems
through installing bushy substrates where fish gather to breed,
feed or shelter. These periphyton-based practices have been
developed independently in various geographical locations all
over the world, following a very similar strategy like the katha
fishery in Bangladesh and the samarah fishery in Cambodia.
The idea of exploiting periphyton techniques in ponds, based
on traditional farmers’ practices, has attracted a wide research
interest [21]. Results clearly demonstrate the scope to increase
fish production by using the periphyton system [22]. The
practice originated from indigenous knowledge to attract fish,
and fish farmers have found easy and feasible ways to
understand its principle and apply it in aquaculture. The
farmers in Bangladesh, where the substrate-based fish culture
is more prevalent, believe that shaola (periphyton) can grow
on substrate, and that this can not only be used as fish feed, but
can protect the farmers’ ponds from fish poachers, since it is
difficult to use nets in ponds with substrate. The substrates
used by them are available within their farming systems.
3.2.2. Integrated aquaculture
Integrated fish farming systems such as crop-livestock-fish
culture integration were developed by Chinese farmers
thousands of years ago [23], and they are still playing a major
role as nutrient-recycling strategies in many developing
countries of the world.
i. Paddy-cum-fish culture
Paddy-cum-fish culture is considered among the most basic
type of traditional integrated fish farming system in the world
[11]. Archaeological evidence has indicated the possible co-
evolution of agriculture and integrated aquaculture systems
since more than 8000 years ago in China [24, 25], with numerous
designs and experiences in experimentation and
implementation [26-29]. Usually, a small portion (5-20%) of the
area of the rice field is converted into a trench, a refuge pond,
or both in combination. Trench layouts vary considerably in
their location in the rice fields. The integrated fish-in-paddy
field system functions through the feeding of fish on
organisms (particularly insects and other possible rice pests)
and weeds, and the stirring of the sediment through their
foraging action which leads to nutrient re-suspension [30, 31]. It
has been observed frequently that rice yields increase through
the inclusion of fish [26, 28].
In India, where traditional aquaculture was mainly practiced
along the coastline by fisheries communities, the most ancient
traditional fish farming systems include the bheri system in
West Bengal, the gheri system in Orissa, the pokkali system in
Kerala, the khazan system of Goa and the khar lands or gazani
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
(coastal khar lands) in Karnataka [11].
In West Bengal, where the salinity is either low or lowered by
fresh water discharge diluting the tidal water, the cultivation of
fish is undertaken in paddy fields. The bheri system is
implemented for rice-fish culture or for fish monoculture.
Most bheries are used for fish culture using the Kolkata city
domestic sewage as the feeding source [32, 33]. This technique of
sewage-fed system is considered to be unique, and it is the
largest system under sewage-fed fish culture in the world.
In pokkali fields of Kerala, which cover an area of around
12,50,000 ha [34] summer fallow months are utilized for
brackish water aquaculture. These fields are under the
influence of Vembanad backwaters, which are in, turn
controlled by tides. Rice is cultivated in these fields, as they
are flooded during southwest monsoon (June-September). Fish
and prawns are cultured during other periods. Immediately
after the harvest of rice, the fields are leased out for the culture
of fish and prawns. The small fishes and prawns enter the
fields from near shore waters along with high tides. These
fishes feed on the vegetative contents of the left over paddy
plants and weeds. The production of fish and shrimp in such
culture varies from 500 to 1,200 kg/ha. After the prawn
harvest, the water is drained off. Subsequently, the saline
nature of rice fields is nullified because of the monsoon rains
and the fields are again made fit for rice culture. The
traditional paddy varieties used even withstood the flooding by
the 2004 tsunami. The pokkali paddy is a unique variety which
is known to be saline, flood and acid resistant. This organically
grown variety is known for its peculiar taste, high protein
content and medicinal properties.
Apatani paddy-cum-fish cultivation is an indigenous farming
system of North East India. ‘Aptani’s, a progressive
agricultural community and one of the relatively advanced
tribal societies in North East India practice paddy-cum-fish
farming along with shifting cultivation (Jhum) [35]. The system
uses a combination of paddy and fish together with finger
millet (Eleusine coracana) on the bunds separating each plot.
A small pit is dug in each terrace where paddy is grown,
fingerlings are put. When water supply is sufficient in
monsoon season, the whole paddy field is kept under shallow
submergence of 5-10 cm and fishes come out of the pits and
move around the terrace. During water scarcity, fishes run
back to the pits and grow. Fishes get nutrition due to manuring
of paddy field, wash-out from the hill slopes, house and
granary sites and larger surface area for grazing. Studies have
shown the possibility of getting up to 5 t of rice/ha and an
average of 500 kg fish/ha.
The khazan system of paddy-cum--fish culture is practiced
along the coast of Goa and is an example of a community-
managed agriculture-aquaculture integrated ecosystem. The
history of the system dates back to the sixth century [36]. This
system was developed by local farmers who used their
traditional knowledge on climate, tidal cycles, geomorphology,
monsoon precipitation, runoff, sediment dynamics, soil
properties and drainage characteristics of estuarine lands, in
order to develop a suitable practice [37]. The production system
is located in the mangroves, which have been reclaimed using
a system of dykes, canals and gates. The traditional and highly
adapted khazan technology is based on the principle of salinity
regulation and tidal clock. The system is currently under threat
due to urban growth; thus, efforts are being made to preserve
this traditional fish farming technology.
A traditional paddy-cum-fish culture system has been
practiced in mangrove areas of Guinea Bissau (a country in
West Africa) from ancient times and is based on the
integration of the culture of Tilapia spp. and Clarias spp. (both
can tolerate high salinity rates) with rice production [11]. The
system is based on the construction of a main dam and
secondary dykes to regulate the entrance of seawater and to
facilitate the storage of rain water into the rice field, in order to
create a brackish environment appropriate for rice and fish
culture. This “artificial” ecosystem created by rainfall water
mixed with sea water decreases the number of predatory
species less tolerant to low salinity.
The integration of paddy cultivation with fish culture has also
been an indigenous practice followed in other Asian countries.
In Bangladesh, a recent achievement is the control of the
golden apple snail, a rice pest, by the common carp [38]. A
beneficial technology for smallholders has been the use of rice
fields as nurseries for rearing fish fry to fingerlings during the
3-month rice-cropping period [39]. In Indonesia, traditional
systems combined rice and fish culture and the wastes from
this system often flowed downstream into brackish water
aquaculture systems (tambak). The tambaks themselves were
poly culture ponds, often combining fish, vegetables and tree
crops [40].
ii. Integration of Makhana cultivation with fish culture
Integration of Makhana (Euryale ferox) cultivation with fish
culture is reported from Manipur [5]. Indian major carps and
exotic carps, air-breathing fishes like Channa sp. and Anabas
testudineus have been used for culture. Makhana fruits are
tasty, have herbal value, mature and immature fruits serve as
vegetables and the tender leaves and petioles also serve as
vegetables after removing the spiny part. The rhizome of the
plant is used as diuretic and in the treatment of dropsy,
jaundice, scabies and gonorrhoea. Ripe seeds are used in the
treatment of chronic diarrhea. The plants are propagated from
mature seeds. Soaked mature seeds are sown up to the end of
January in a separate pond. Seedlings are transplanted in
culture ponds with a plant to plant gap of 5-6 ft,
accommodating around 700-800 plants/ha. The integration is
reported to give farmer a net profit of around Rs.
1,78.525/ha/yr.
iii. Other integrations
Trenches in fruit orchards: In the Mekong Delta in southern
Vietnam, farmers implement a system of trenches within their
fruit orchards, usually surrounded by a lateral trench and a
connection to the adjacent rice field [41]. Fish and freshwater
prawns can move between the sub-systems and benefit from
the decomposing rice straw, the fallen fruit and from insects
dropping into the water.
Mangroves and brackish water shrimps: The term ‘forestry-
fish’ co-culture is used for the cultivation of brackish water
fish and shrimps in fenced-off mangrove forests in Malaysia,
the Philippines and Vietnam [42].
Bamboo-fish culture is conducted in China, in which the mud
from fish ponds is used to fertilize bamboo plantations grown
around the ponds. The waste from the processing of the
bamboo shoots is fed into fishponds [17].
Another system previously utilised widely in China is the
combination of aquaculture and mulberry trees growing
adjacent to ponds, in which silkworm droppings and waste
pupae are fed into fishponds along with the washings from
silkworm trays [43, 17, 44].
4. Conclusion
In the coming years, small scale aquaculture (sometime
referred to as ‘rural aquaculture’) is poised to play significant
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
role in increasing freshwater fish production in the country.
This low-input aquaculture system is closely associated with
Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITKs). Though efforts are
made to identify, validate and recommend ITK by some
Governments, much indigenous knowledge remains
undocumented. There is a need to recognize ITK, compile,
value and appreciate their interaction with local communities.
The enhancement of the quality of life of the people who
depend on aquaculture production would be almost impossible
if this rich tradition of ITK is kept to a few people. Therefore,
ITK needs to be incorporated into the zonal research and
development agenda. However, before reliable
recommendations can be made, there is an urgent need to
understand, critically validate and document the different ITKs
so as to integrate the best ones into the farming system.
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... There are other examples of TK incorporated in various other steps of aquaculture, which can provide a model to implement CBE with sustainability and optimum utilization of bioresources. These include TK in pond construction [80À82], breeding [80,81,83], and transportation [84À87], as well as traditional use of natural resources for feeding [80,88À94]. It is a very fruitful technique, which was first employed by the traditional farmers of Manipur [95]. ...
Chapter
Traditional and grassroots knowledge has played a critical role in domestic economies across the globe since ages. This traditional knowledge (TK) develops within indigenous communities through generations of learning, gaining experience of the surrounding, and adapting to the native environment, and it is transmitted from one generation to another. It is the key to sustainable development and growth of the global economy. It harbors the immense potential to sustainably address several environmental, social, and economic concerns arising in both developed and developing economies. Some prominent examples include the use of TK and innovative technologies using microbial and biotechnological processes for dietary supplements to preventive medicines; agro-waste to bioenergy; and many more. Across the globe, several countries, including India, have channelized their TK to create modern amenities such as pharmacy, biofiber for clothing, involved in sustainable development of native communities along with upliftment of economy. United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity which emphasizes the equitable sharing of bioresources has also highlighted its importance not only to those who are directly dependent on it but also at a global scale for modern industries and agriculture if the technology transfer is carried out ethically and sustainably. The technology transfer awareness and its spread to the masses are integral for the upliftment of the global circular bioeconomy
... Nilem fish (Osteochilus hasseltii) is a type of freshwater fish native to Indonesia and belongs to the Cyprinid family which has the potential to be developed as a superior aquaculture product in Indonesia (2). This fish is often cultivated in traditional ponds to intensive systems based on concrete ponds (3). Nilem fish is often used by people in West Java as processed food products (2). ...
... The microbial mineralization of organic manure makes the aquatic ecosystem more fertile and maintains better health compared to the chemical fertilizer in the long term. Application of sewage in fish culture is an age-old practice in China, many South East Asian countries, many parts of Europe, Russia, Middle East and Far East Asia (Edwards 2004;Gangadhar et al. 2016). Domestic sewage-fed fish farming yielded about 7 ton ha -1 year -1 in India (Kumar et al. 2015). ...
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