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Review on Natural Lip Balm



Cosmetics are incredibly in demand since historical time. These days focus shifted more towards naturally derived cosmetic products. Among all cosmetic products, lip balm formulations are most widely used to enhance the beauty of lips and add glamour touch to the makeup. Lip balms offer a natural way to maintain and promote healthy lips. Current cosmetic lip products are based on use of enormous chemical ingredients with various side effects. Hence in this work, an attempt has made to study natural ingredients used to formulate natural lip balm. This article reviews on the essential ingredients used for natural lip balm along with their merits and limitations. The natural lip balm can made using naturally occurring base, oils, extract, color and flavoring agents which can be evaluated for their resistance to temperature variations, pleasant flavor, and smoothness during application, adherence and easy intentional removal, etc.
International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
ISSN 22777172
Review Article
Review on Natural Lip Balm
Mayuri Kadu1, Dr Suruchi Vishwasrao1,*, and Dr Sonia Singh1
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Alard College of Pharmacy, Sr. No. 50, Marunje Road, Hinjewadi, Pune,
Maharashtra, India, 411057
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; Dr Suruchi Vishwasrao. E-Mail:;
Tel.: +91-020-66523763
Received 08 April 2014; accepted 03 August 2014
Cosmetics are incredibly in demand since historical time. These days focus shifted more towards naturally derived cosmetic
products. Among all cosmetic products, lip balm formulations are most widely used to enhance the beauty of lips and add
glamour touch to the makeup. Lip balms offer a natural way to maintain and promote healthy lips. Current cosmetic lip
products are based on use of enormous chemical ingredients with various side effects. Hence in this work, an attempt has made
to study natural ingredients used to formulate natural lip balm. This article reviews on the essential ingredients used for natural
lip balm along with their merits and limitations. The natural lip balm can made using naturally occurring base, oils, extract,
color and flavoring agents which can be evaluated for their resistance to temperature variations, pleasant flavor, and
smoothness during application, adherence and easy intentional removal, etc.
© 2014 Universal Research Publications. All rights reserved
Key words: natural lip balm; herbal cosmetics; natural ingredients
1. Introduction
Cosmetic plays a significant role in today’s life style.
Moreover current trend is going green in almost all industries
including cosmetics to adopt more natural way of life. The
preferable choices are natural food, herbal medicines and
natural curing practices for healthy life and also there is much
demand for the organic vegetable products. The usage of
herbal cosmetics has been increased to many folds in
personal care system [1]. Natural products have been used for
folk medicine purposes throughout the world for thousands of
years. Many of them have pharmacological properties such as
antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytostatic effects. They
have been recognized as useful for human medicine [2].
Herbal extracts are cultivated all over the world and is prime
name in horticulture sector. Cosmetics made up of herbal
extracts for skin care and hair-care are very popular for their
reliability [3-5].
Herbal cosmetic products include various formulations. The
word herbal indicates safety as compared to synthetic
products which are having various adverse effects on human
health [3-7]. Coloring lips is the ancient practice to enhance
the beauty of lips and to give glamour touch to the face make
up. For this the choice for shades of color, textures, lusters
have been changed and became wider. This can be observed
from the lip jelly, lip balm, lipstick marketed in hundred of
sheds of colors to satisfy the demand [8]. This work was
intended for extensive study of natural lip balm. This was
based on the comprehensive literature search of natural lip
balm, significance of natural excipients along formulation
and evaluation of lip balm. These products are evaluated for
organoleptic properties like color, odor, spread ability, pH,
melting point, skin irritation and product consistency [8-10].
The color of a product also provides an indication of product
quality and freshness. Natural colors are however, less toxic
compared to synthetic colors [11].
2. Difference between lip and regular skin structure
The lips are more attractive than the regular skin. Generally
the top corneum layer of regular skin has 15 to 16 layers
mainly for protection purpose. The top corneum layer of the
lip contains about only 3 to 4 layers and very thin compared
to typical face skin. The lip skin contains very few melanin
cells. Because of this, the blood vessels more clearly appear
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International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
through the skin of the lips that gives a lovely pinkish color
of the lips. The lip skin has no hair follicle and no sweat
glands. Therefore it does not have the sweat and body oil in
protecting the lip from outside environment [9,10,12].
3. Anatomy of lips
The lips serve as organs of prehension, suction and speech. It
is composed of the skin, superficial fascia, orbicularis muscle
and the muscles inserted around it (areolar tissue & mucous
membrane). The margins of the lips are covered with dry, red
mucous membrane, continuous with the skin and containing
numerous vascular papillae and touch corpuscles. The
mucous membrane internally is reflected from the upper and
lower lip upon the gums, and in the median line forms two
folds of superioris and inferioris [10,12].
The areolar tissue or submucous layer contains the coronary
vessels which completely encircle the buccal orifice near the
free margin of the lips. The coronary vessels are the superior
and inferior coronary arteries which arise from the facial. The
superior coronary is larger than the inferior, and anastomoses
with its fellow of the opposite side and gives off a small
artery to the septum arteriaseptinasi. Compression of this
artery will sometimes control nasal hemorrhage [12]. The
superior labial or coronary vein begins as a plexus in the
orbicular is muscle of the upper lip, passes with the coronary
artery and drains into the facial vein a little below the alae of
the nose of the veins which drain the lower lip the inferior
coronary empties into the facial a little below the superior
labial; but the chief branch from the lower lip descends as a
rule to the submental vein, thence to the facial or often to the
anterior jugular [9,10,12].
The nerves supplying the lower lip are derived from the
mental which emerges from the bone through the mental
foramen and sends large twigs to the mucous membrane, the
integument and the fascia of the lip and chin. Some of the
lymphatic vessels of the lips pass to a gland just above the
body of the hyoid bone, while others pass to the sub
maxillary glands. The labial glands are in the submucous
layer of the lips around the orifice of the mouth. They secrete
a mucous fluid. Mucous retention cysts develop when the
ducts of these glands become occluded [12].
4. Lip Disorders
4.1 Swelling: An allergic reaction can make the lips swell.
The reaction may be caused by sensitivity to certain foods or
beverages, drugs, lipstick, or airborne irritants. When a cause
can be identified and then eliminated, the lips usually return
to normal. But frequently, the cause of the swelling remains a
mystery. A condition called hereditary angioedema may
cause recurring bouts of swelling. Nonhereditary conditions
such as erythema multiforme, sunburn, cold and dry weather,
or trauma may also cause the lips to swell [13].
4.2 Sun Damage: Sun damage may make the lips, especially
the lower lip, hard and dry. Red speckles or a white filmy
look signal damage that increases the chance of subsequent
cancer. This type of damage can be reduced by covering the
lips with a lip balm containing sunscreen or by shielding the
face from the sun's harmful rays with a wide-brimmed hat
4.3 Inflammation: With inflammation of the lips (cheilitis),
the corners of the mouth may become painful, irritated, red,
cracked, and scaly. Cheilitis may result from a deficiency of
vitamin B2 in the diet.
4.4 Discoloration: Freckles and irregularly shaped brownish
areas (melanotic macules) are common around the lips and
may last for many years. These marks are not cause for
concern. Multiple, small, scattered brownish black spots may
be a sign of a hereditary disease called Peutz-Jeghers
syndrome, in which polyps form in the stomach and
intestines. Kawasaki disease, a disease of unknown cause that
usually occurs in infants and children 8 years old or younger,
can cause dryness and cracking of the lips and reddening of
the lining of the mouth.
4.5 Sores: A raised area or a sore with hard edges on the lip
may be a form of skin cancer. Other sores may develop as
symptoms of other medical conditions, such as oral herpes
simplex virus infection or syphilis. Still others, such as
keratoacanthoma, have no known cause [13].
5 Application of Lip Balm
Lip balms are formulations applied onto the lips to prevent
drying and protect against adverse environmental factors.
Numerous lip balms of chemical origin are currently
available in the market from companies like The body shop,
Nivea, Himalaya, Blistex, etc. The cosmetic literature reports
limited data on this type of formulation, although references
related to lipstick apply because it is a cosmetic form similar
to lip balm. This similarity extends to include organoleptic
and stability requirements such as resistance to temperature
variations, pleasant taste, innocuousness, smoothness during
application, adherence and easy intentional removal [14]. Lip
balm should not be considered equivalent to the lip gloss,
with the former being a product intended for use by both men
and women [14 &15].
To formulate lip balms, it is necessary to balance the
concentration of the main ingredients including butters, oils
and waxes and other excipients [15]. Many people seek
weekly facials, daily skin scrubs, anti-aging lotions, and
many other products to ensure they have healthy and glowing
skin. But with all the attention being given to healthy skin, lip
care is largely forgotten. Natural lip balms offer a natural way
to maintain and promote healthy lips [15]. Lip balms are
often eaten away by the user and hence it is imperative that
health regulators have a microscopic look at the ingredients
that go in to the lip balm. The dyes that contribute to the color
of the lip balm are dangerous to humans on consumption
6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Lip Balm
6.1. Advantages of natural lip balm
International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
a. Lip balms help to protect the natural health and beauty of
the lips.
b. Sun block lip balms are proved to prevent ultraviolet rays
from hurting the lips.
c. They are not gender specific products and both men and
women can use them.
d. Lip balm products help to protect lips affected by cold
sores, chapping and dryness.
e. Contact of the product with the skin will not cause a
sensation of friction or dryness, and should allow the forming
of a homogeneous layer over the lips in order to protect the
labial mucous susceptible to environmental factors such as
UV radiation, dryness and pollution.
f. It refreshed, renewed and also addresses lip-related
symptoms resulting from colds, flu and allergies.
g. The use of natural lip cosmetic to treat the appearance of
the face and condition of the skin [15,17-21].
6.2. Disadvantages of natural lip balm
a) Lip balms made of low quality ingredients can harm
the lips seriously. Such lip balms may dry out the lips
instead moisturizing it.
b) Lip balm addiction is another disadvantage usually seen
with the use of them.
c) Compared to commercially-prepared lip balms,
homemade lip balms tend to stay on the lips for a shorter
duration of time. Thus need to reapply often.
d) Some companies manufacture lip balms considering only
the beauty aspect, ignoring the health benefits and soft
character of the skin. Such products will gradually
damage the natural color, softness and glow of the lips.
e) The naturally derived colors and flavours are more
difficult to obtain and also have issues related to stability
in the products
f) Natural oils have other disadvantages such as greasier,
comedogenic, and less spreadability [15,17-21].
7. Common Ingredients used in Natural Lip Balm
The list of materials used as key formulation ingredients for
natural lip balm given in the Table no.1 as described below
Table No.1 List of Natural Ingredients
Base [15,17-19]
Coloring Agent [15,17-21]
Flavouring Agent [16-19,23]
Cocca butter
Beet root
Bees Wax
Shea Wax
Shea butter
White bees wax
Yellow bees wax
Carnauba wax
Candelilla wax
Rose oil
Mango butter
Avocado butter
Olive wax
Jojoba wax
Olive butter
Sweet Almond butter
Sweet almond wax
Raspberry butter
7.1 Base
Waxes form an important group of ingredients for the
manufacture of personal care products and decorative
cosmetics. Waxes are used in different industries and
products. They are predominately used in candles, but also
find important applications in food, cosmetics and
pharmaceutical industries as thickeners/emulsifiers.
Chemically, waxes are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons
and fatty acids combined with esters. Waxes are harder, less
greasy and more brittle than fats. They are very resistant to
moisture, oxidization and bacteria. There are four categories
of waxes as: (a) Animal Waxes: Beeswax, lanolin,
spermaceti; (b) Plant Waxes: Carnauba, candelilla, jojoba; (c)
Mineral Waxes: Ozokerite, paraffin, microcrystalline,
ceresin; (d) Synthetic Waxes: Polyethylene, carbowax,
acrawax, stearon. The most widely used waxes for cosmetic
products are beeswax, carnauba and candelilla wax[17].
Waxes are esters of a fatty acid and a fatty alcohol. Jojoba oil
is therefore a wax, not oil. Physically, waxes are
characterized by a high melting point (50-100oC). The most
used wax is beeswax which is a good emollient and
thickener. Two other natural waxes often used in cosmetics
are carnauba and candelilla wax. Both are harder and have a
higher melting point making them more stable and suitable
for dry products e.g. lip balm [17].
International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
Cocoa butter is a natural fat that comes from cocoa bean and
it gives a creamy softness to the lip balm. It will nourish and
moisturize lips and help heal chapped and dry lips because it
contains antioxidants [17&18]. Another important and useful
component of lip balm is white beeswax with melting point
62º-64ºC. It usefully binds oils and high melting point waxes.
It is used in 3 to 10% of the total formula. It shrinks on
cooling and thus helps preparation of molded products. At
higher concentration it produces a dull way appearance and
causes the balm to crumble during use.
Candelilla wax has a melting point 65º-69ºC and can be is
used in 5-10% of formulation. A mixture of candelilla wax
and beeswax is very good for making lip balm. If candelilla
wax is used to a little in a excess than beeswax the product
gets a smooth and glossy appearance. On the other side
carnauba wax increases the melting point of the base and
hardens the lip balm therefore used in very small amounts. It
brings an attractive luster to the products [19].
7.2 Oils
Oils and fats are differing in their physical forms; generally
the latter are solid at room temperature. Both fats and oils are
chemically glycerol esters composed of glycerol and fatty
acids and are also called as triglycerides.
Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated, thereby
determining the stability and property of the oil. Oils with a
high degree of saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic
and stearic acids) include coconut oil, cottonseed oil, and
palm oil. Oils with a high degree of unsaturated fatty acids
(oleic, arachidonic, linoleic acid) are canola oil, olive oil,
corn oil, almond oil, safflower oil, castor oil and avocado oil.
Saturated oils are more stable and do not become rancid as
quickly as unsaturated oils. However, unsaturated oils are
smoother, more precious, less greasy, and better absorbed by
the skin. Natural butters like shea butter, avocado butter or
cocoa butter are not true butters but natural fats. In general,
natural butters are excellent emollients and thickeners and
dependent on the type may have various additional properties
(e.g. antioxidant & and soothing properties in shea and
avocado butter due to phenolic compounds) [17 &18].
The oil mixture is required to blend properly with the waxes
to provide a suitable film on the applied lip skin. An ideal
mixture is one which enables the product to spread easily and
produces a thin film with good covering power [18].
Sunflower or olive oil, both oils will give a great gloss to lips
[17]. Castor oil is used in many lip balm because of its good
qualities, though now days some other oils or solvents are
being used. A refined grade castor oil is of good color and is
odorless and tasteless. Castor oil is a very good plasticizing
agent. An antioxidant is to be added to the castor oil against
rancidification though it is not as prone to rancidification as
other vegetable oils like olive oil or almond oil [19].
Jojoba oil is known for its skin-softening properties which
can prevent lips from dehydrating. While wolfberry seed oil
is renowned for its moisturizing and skin conditioning
properties. Rosehip oil is excellent for maintaining then
natural moisture balance in skin. Vitamin E is a well-known
antioxidant that plays an essential role in the lip balm base.
Peppermint essential oil energizes and revitalizes skin.
Cinnamon essential oil is an excellent antioxidant. Lavender
essential oil is soothing and nourishing to skin. And
grapefruit essential oil is light and refreshing for dry lips [13-
15]. Almond oil is pale yellow oil with slight characteristic
odour. It consists of glycerides chiefly of oleic acid with
smaller amounts of other acids namely, linoleic, myristic and
palmitic. It has emollient properties [18].
7.3 Coloring Agent
Colorants or coloring agents are mainly used to impart a
distinctive appearance to the Cosmetic products [17, 24-26].
Color has been used in cosmetics since early times. Basically,
a desire to buy a cosmetic product is controlled by three
senses namely sight, touch and smell. As such as, color is an
important ingredient of cosmetic formulations [18]. The color
is imparted to the lips in two ways; (a) By staining the skin
with a solution of dyestuff which can penetrate the outer layer
of the lip skin, (b) By covering the lips with a colored layer
which serves to hide any skin roughness and give a smooth
appearance. The first requirement is met by soluble dyes and
the second one is met is insoluble dyes and pigments which
make the film more or less opaque. Modern lip balms contain
both to achieve the combined effect. The colors should be
from the list of certified dyes under the drugs and cosmetics
act [19]. The naturally occurring colors from different plant
and fruit sources are listed in Table number 2.
The colorant derived from natural source should be nontoxic
with no physiological activity. It should be a definite
chemical compound because then only its coloring power will
be reliable, its assay will be practicable and easier. Its
tinctorial (coloring) power should be high enough so that
only small quantities would be sufficient for use. Colorants
should be unaffected by light, tropical temperatures,
hydrolysis and microorganisms and therefore they must be
stable on storage [23-26].
Colorants should not affected by oxidizing or reducing agents
and pH changes and also should not interferes with the tests
and assays. Water soluble colorants are equally desirable with
oilsoluble and spiritsoluble colors. The most important
characteristic of colorants is compatibility with other
ingredients and medicament. It should be free from
objectionable taste and odour and must be readily available
and inexpensive [23-26]. The examples of natural colorants
are obtained from beet root, saffron, turmeric,etc. Saffron is
dried stigma of flowers of the plant Cross Sativuslinne. It is a
perennial plant and is grown in Kashmir in India. It is also
cultivated in Spain, France, Greece and Iran. The principle
coloring agent in saffron is crocin. Crocin is yellow powder, a
glycoside in nature and easily soluble in water [18].
International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
Table No.2 Common Color and Associated Food [21]
Plant sources
Eggplant, blackberry, purple, cabbage,
plum, blueberry, raisins, prunes, purple
grapes, figs
Lutein, zeaxanthin, resveratrol,
Vit. C, flavanoid, ellagic acid,
Avocado, cucumber, spinach, kale,
broccoli, snow pea, zucchini, artichoke,
lettuce, kiwi
Lutein, zeaxanthin, Vit. C,
calcium, folate, carotene
Cauliflower, mushrooms, parsnip, potato,
ginger, onions, jicama, banana, garlic,
Ancillin, Potassium, Selenium
Papaya, pineapple, apricot, pumkin, peach,
peach, carrot, orange, corn
carotene, zeaxanthin, flavanoid,
vitaminC, Potassium
Lycopene or
Cranberry, beet, tomato watermelon,
strawberry, pomegranate
Ellagicacid, quecertin,
Hesperidin , etc.
Table No.3 List of Flavour
Masking Flavour
Butterscotch, maple
Wild cherry, walnut, chocolate-mint, licorice
Fruit, berry, vanilla
7.4 Flavouring Agent
Flavours or flavouring agent are usually required to mask the
four basic taste sensations. Flavour refers to a mixed
sensation of taste, touch, smell, sight and sound, all of which
involve a combination of physiochemical and physiological
actions that influence the perception of substances. With the
expansion of technology in the flavour industry, many
artificial or imitation flavours have been created. The creation
of an acceptable flavour is more of an art than a science [23].
Flavourants are selected on the basis of the taste of the drug
or other ingredients need to be incorporated. The following
Table number 3 shows the masking flavor with respect to
different taste.
Flavours used in lip balm should not contain any ingredient
which may be irritating or toxic. These should have good
taste and should be able to mask fatty odour of the base [18].
Flavouring agents are an essential component to mask the
odour of the fatty or wax base as well as to impart an
attractive flavor. They are normally used in the concentration
range of 2-4% of total formulation. Flavour should be stable
and compatible with the other constituents of the lip balm.
The flavours should not be very strong as to clash with or
overpower other flavors that may be used concurrently with
the lip balm. Perfumes of the fruit flavor type have been
advocated as well. Also something edible can be used [19].
The commonly used flavours are apricot, strawberry,
raspberry, cherry, honey, etc. Honey has the capacity to serve
as a natural food preservative [20].
8. Method of Lip Balm Preparation
The details of general method of lip balm preparation are
described in this section. Select appropriate ingredients for lip
balm formulation from Table number 1. Initially melt the
accurately weighed amount of waxes in hot water bath in
descending order of their melting point with continuous
stirring/heated till it melts completely [24]. Then coloring
agent dissolved in oil or water depends on solubility and add
to the mixture of melted waxes. Finally add flavouring agent
like honey, vanilla which are also act as a preservative and
continuously stirred to get a homogenized mixture. The
mixture should be stirred vigorously until a smooth emulsion
form. Then, this mixture could be poured into clean and
lubricated moulds and allow them to cool to achieve
contraction of the waxes to facilitate easy removal of the
balm [24 & 25]. Recently the work also patented on the
preparation of botanical butter stick lip balm cosmetics [27].
9. Evaluation parameters for lip balm
Quality of a lip balm product can be assessed by the product
performance. Therefore significance of evaluation parameters
of any product is abundant. It helps to maintain the stability
along with the purity and uniformity of product. The main
evaluation parameters of lip balm products are described in
this section. The appearance of cosmetics products plays
paramount role from consumer’s perspective. This includes
color, odor and texture of the product [17]. By visualizing in
10x magnification under microscope color and appearance
can be characterized, while odor can be compared by the
International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
group of evaluators.
The spreadability of lip balm can be tested by applying the
formulated lip balm on glass slide at room temperature to
observe uniformity in the formulation of protective layer and
whether the stick fragmental deformed or broke during
application for appropriate results of different formulation.
The melting temperature and pH of lip balm are also
commonly evaluated by capillary method and pH meter
respectively. Ex-vivo and in vivo tests should be performed
for skin irritation test. The product need to study for the
surface anomalies such as formation crystals on surfaces or
contamination by moulds, fungi etc. There should not be sign
of any surface defects. The lip balm products are evaluated
for perfume and aging stability [18].
10. Conclusion
Due to tremendous demands of beauty enhancing products
cosmetics industry is flourishing. This work has reviewed the
current status of natural lip balm products. This also studied
all aspects of natural lip balm including natural ingredients,
formulation methods, evaluation and applications. Hence it
can be concluded that the extensive literature study has been
performed on the natural lip balm products and shown wide
scope for such products in future.
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patent US20080089916 A1, 2008.
Source of support: Nil; Conflict of interest: None declared
... Lip balm formulation in this research used all-natural ingredients including carrot, virgin coconut oil (VCO) and beeswax. VCO contains vitamin E that acts as an antioxidant, moisturiser and helps to increase the shelf life of oil-based products (Rizvi et al., 2014) while beeswax has a high melting point and more stable (Kadu et al., 2015) as compared to another base like cocoa butter. The formulated lip balms were analysed in the stability test at two different temperatures. ...
... The spread ability test was conducted by spreading the lip balm on the top of the glass slide, and any deformation or breakdown that happened was evaluated using naked eyes as examined by Kadu et al. (2015). This test is important to determine the level of moisturising effect on the user. ...
... All the tested lip balm showed the pH values are in the range of 4-6 after a week and above except for formulation A. The pH of lip balm in chiller condition for formulation A showed pH of 3 in week 1 and 2 which indicated that the lip balm is not suitable to be applied to the lips. As the pH is too acidic, it will cause inflammation to the lips (Kadu et al., 2015). Table 3 shows the spread ability criteria labelled in Table 2 as good (G), intermediate (I) and bad (B). ...
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Moisturising lip balm is an essential cosmetic product to enhance the lips appearance as well as to prevent inflammation or cracked lips. Lip balm with moisturising function formulated using all-natural ingredients is very significant because of the negative side effect awareness among people on using the unnatural or chemically derived ingredients of the lip balm. However, the stability analysis of this natural lip balm must be conducted to ensure the safety of the product as well as to predict the product shelf life. This study aims to evaluate the stability of carrot lip balm in two weeks under room temperature and refrigerator condition. Three lip balms with different concentration of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to carrot (35:65, 38:62, 43:57) were formulated and tested for their physicochemical properties (texture, colour, pH and spread ability) for two weeks. Lip balms with ratios of 35:65 and 38:62 were the best formulations as they presented good result in spread ability criteria in the stability test. From the observations, lip balms showed some changes at different temperature and time because of the degradation of natural ingredients. The product shelf life can be predicted from this stability test.
... Mayuri et al. have reported that using plant extracts in cosmetics is becoming more common and the natural lip balms are made with base oils, extracts, colors, and flavoring agents. They are also evaluated for the variations in the temperature, flavors, and smoothness during their application and for adherence properties [20]. ...
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Environmental pollution is one of the major issues facing all countries throughout the world. Environmental degradation is occurring and creating crises in day-to-day life due to the increasing amount of chemicals used in industries, where even the effluents processed out after treatment also contain some trace elements. Hence the extraction of enzymes using natural methods is an alternative for the production of dye in order to reduce pollution, which in turn helps to nourish and protect the environment for future generations. Hibiscus sabdariffa (L.) is a rich source of anthocyanins that is further enhanced by callus formation and accumulated by increasing the sucrose concentration. Anthocyanin pigments were extracted using acidified ethanol. The dye obtained was screened by GC–MS analysis and its dyeing process used in the textile industry. The study showed certain properties affected the coloring nature depending on the cloth used. The color of anthocyanin pigment depends on the pH maintained and also shows adaptability to varied environmental conditions.
... It also reduces the pain associated with chapped lips. Ingredients used in the preparation of lip balm maintain the lip moist and promote healing of chipped lips [10]. As compare to lipsticks, lip balms are not gender-specific. ...
Lip care products are an integral part of a day-to-day lifestyle. These impart the colour and protect the lips from the external environment. The major function of lip balm is to protect and moisturize the lips. A variety of lip care products are available in the market. The main concern with this product is that these contain synthetic colourant and flavouring agents that may have adverse effects such as darkening of lips. Besides, these may contain heavy metals that adversely affect various body organs. The current research work deals with preparation lip balm by using maximum possible natural ingredients and evaluation of the formulation. Various natural ingredients used were beetroot extract, Cocoa powder, Almond oil and Vitamin E. The physicochemical properties such as colour, odour, consistency, spreadability, melting point, pH and stability were studied. It was found that the formulation possesses red colour due to the addition of beetroot pigments, it had a typical flavour of cocoa powder, uniform in consistency and good spreadability. The melting point and pH of formulation were found to be 58-60°C ± 0.62 and 6.9 ± 0.25 respectively. The stability study indicated that formulation is stable at room temperature and refrigeration temperature. It can be concluded that lip balm formulation was successfully prepared by using these natural additives and better alternatives to synthetic excipients.
... Common Colour and Plant Sources[7] ...
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Cosmetics are incredible in demand since historical time till day. Lipstick formulations are most widely used to enhance the beauty of lips and to add glamour's touch to the makeup. It is difficult to apply lipsticks to the dried, chafed, chapped, cracked lips with sores and lesions. In such cases, one can use nutraceutical lipsticks for the purpose of curing topical condition and beautification of lips. With this aim and objectives, an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate nutraceutical lipstick by using cow ghee and honey as natural excipients that substituted synthetic ingredients like lanolin, cetyl alcohol, and castor oil. Beet powder extract containing vitamin B-complex and silica element was selected for the local action on lips and beet root powder B cyanine selected as colouring agent. The lipsticks were evaluated for their organoleptic properties such as spreading, covering property, hardness, shine, and gloss and found to be satisfactory product to give attractive beauty with therapeutic effect on the diseased lips. Thus, the nutraceutical lipsticks with the natural ingredients like cow ghee and honey can serve as economical and effective cosmoceutical product.
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A considerable amount of literature has been published on several aspects of lipsticks production. To date, there is no collation of studies related to lipsticks production that has been published. This review was conducted to examine information about the history of lipsticks; ingredients used in the preparation of lipsticks, focusing on the natural and chemical ingredients; methods of preparation for the lipsticks; and the characterization of the lipsticks. A literature search for English language articles was conducted by searching electronic databases including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Overall, the evidence indicates that lipsticks have been used since ancient times and are among the highest demand cosmetics. The findings of this review summarize those of earlier studies that explained the use of different types of ingredients in the manufacturing processes of lipsticks. It highlights the importance of using green technology and ingredients to fabricate lipsticks to avoid potential side effects such as skin irritation and allergy reaction.
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ABSTRAK Ekstrak Bunga kembang sepatu (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L) memiliki kandungan senyawa antosianin yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pewarna alami. Salah satu pewarna yang bisa dimanfaatkan adalah pewarna sediaan balsam bibir. Pembuatan ekstrak bunga kembang sepatu menggunakan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol 96%. Formulasi sediaan balsam bibir dibuat dengan penambahan pewarna alami dengan menggunakan ekstrak bunga kembang sepatu dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda. Evaluasi sediaan meliputi uji organoleptis, homogenitas, titik lebur , uji stabilitas selama empat minggu penyimpanan pada suhu kamar dan uji oles. Hasil formulasi sediaan balsam bibir menggunakan ekstrak bunga kembang sepatu menunjukkan bahwa sediaan yang dibuat homogen, titik lebur antara 51,6-53,6˚C, pH 5, dan stabil dalam penyimpanan suhu kamar selama empat minggu. Balsam bibir yang diformulasikan dengan ekstrak bunga kembang sepatu diharapkan dapat digunakan sebagai kosmetik pilihan yang ramah lingkungan dan memiliki efek samping minimal dibandingkan dengan balsam bibir yang beredar di pasaran saat ini. ABSTRACT Extract leaves of Hibiscus flower (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L) contain anthocyanin compounds that can be used as natural dyes. One of the colours that can be used is lip balm preparation. Hibiscus flower extract is made using the maceration method using 96% ethanol solvent. Lip balm formulation is made by adding natural dyes using hibiscus flower extract with different concentrations. The evaluation of dosage form was included test appearance, homogeneity test, melting point test, stability test and topical test. The results of lip balm formulation using hibiscus flower extract showed that the preparations were made homogeneous, the melting point between 51.6-53.6 ° C, pH 5, and stable in room temperature storage for four weeks. The formulated lip balm with extract of Hibiscus is expected to be an to be used as a choices cosmetics that is environmentally friendly and has minimal side effects compared to lip balm currently. The formulated lip balm with extract
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Cosmetics are the substance used to alter the appearance or fragrances of the human body. Nowadays the demands for herbal cosmetics in the world market are growing and are inevitable gifts of nature. There is a wide range of herbal cosmetic products to satisfy the need of women. In contrast to synthetic ones, herbal cosmetics are safe for human health. Herbal formulations like herbal lipsticks, herbal creams, herbal shampoos and herbal paste have always attracted considerable attention because of their good activity and comparatively lesser side-effects with synthetic materials. Herbal Cosmetics are defined as the beauty products which possess desirable physiological activity such as enhancing, soothing appearance, healing, conditioning properties because of herbal ingredients. Lipstick is the most widely used cosmetic added in the make-up to enhance the beauty of lips. Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigment, wax material, different oils, and emollients that apply colour, texture, and protection to the lips. The ingredients in the natural lipstick are all-natural and are safe to use. The herbal nutrient that keeps lips healthy. Regular use of synthetic colours in the lipstick may cause serious side effects such as skin discoloration, skin irritation, acne and cancer. The side effects can be reduced by using herbal colour extracts from different herbal sources. The present review focussed on lipstick background, types, formulation method, different colour pigment extractions, natural oils, bases, flavours, physical evaluation, Quality control of lipsticks in industries, moulding and defects in lipstick.
This chapter will review the properties of some common natural waxes, their crystallization behaviors in oil‐wax systems and their potential applications for long‐lasting properties in cosmetics. Specifically, the impact of oil polarity and viscosity on the lipstick structure and the effect of the wax amount on the deposit will be discussed. Due to the complex and inhomogeneous chemical composition of natural waxes, for a systematic study polyethylene wax was used in an oil‐wax system as a simple model to investigate the effect of oil viscosity and oil polarity on the lipstick structure. The results showed that the hardness of the lipstick was affected by both the oil polarity and oil viscosity at a fixed amount of wax. With increasing the oil polarity and viscosity, the oil‐wax stick was harder with smaller or close‐packed crystals as observed by SEM. These results were found to be very similar to the natural wax‐oil gel systems reported in literature. In addition, with increasing oil viscosity, the sensorial perception changed from smooth to watery to sticky, and it did not depend on the oil polarity.
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Fluconazole is an imidazole derivative and used for the treatment of local and systemic fungal infection. The oral use of fluconazole is not much recommended as it has many side effects. Commercially fluconazole topical gel preparation are not available in the market, thus this formulation is made for better patient compliance and to reduce the dose of drug and to avoid the side effects like liver damage and kidney damage. The gel was formulated by changing the polymer ratio. FT-IR study confirmed the purity of drug and revealed no interaction between the drug and excipients. Gel formulations were characterized for drug content, pH determination, viscosity measurement, in vitro diffusion, antifungal activity and skin irritation. Among the five formulations, F1 was selected as the best formulation as its %CDR after 41/2 h was 97.846% and release rate of drug from F1 formulation is best fitted to Higuchi model. The viscosity of the F1 formulation was within the limits and F1 formulation did not show any skin irritation. Gel formulation F1 was found to be stable at 30 ±2°C and 65 ± 5 RH. It was found that at 40 ± 2°C and 75 ± 5 RH the gel formulation was not stable and %CDR was decreased. Efficient delivery of drug to skin application was found to be highly beneficial in localizing the drug to desired site in the skin and reduced side effects associated with conventional treatment.
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The importance of mouth and teeth cleanliness has been recognized from the earliest days of civilization to the 21st century. Patients and oral health practitioners are faced with a multitude of mouthwash products containing many different active and inactive ingredients. Making informed decisions as to the suitability of a particular product for a particular patient can be a complex task. Although many popular herbal products have helped to control dental plaque and gingivitis, they have been used for a short time and only as an adjunct to other oral hygiene measures such as brushing and flossing. Various herbal products and their extracts such as Guava, Pomegranate, Neem, Propolis, Tulsi, Green Tea, Cranberry, Grapefruit etc, have shown significant advantages over the chemical ones. Natural mouthwashes may offer significant advantages over the chemical ones. If such mouthwashes can be formulated which can be easily prepared and used safely by people at home using natural products, it may lead to improvement in the general dental health of the population. This review is an attempt to outline such natural substances, which may be used as effective mouthwashes.
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Rising global demand for natural products whose production is harmless to the environment has stimulated the development of natural cosmetics and, within this category, organics (95% organic raw materials). The image of environmentally friendly production is one of the strongest attractions of organic products. Lip balm is a cosmetic product similar to lipstick whose purpose is to prevent lip dryness and protect against adverse environmental factors. The product’s characteristics are: resistance to temperature variations, pleasant flavor, innocuousness, smoothness during application, adherence and easy intentional removal. This work involved the development of a lip balm formulated with certified organic raw materials and the execution of stability tests: fusion point determination, evaluation of organoleptic characteristics (color, odor and appearance) and functionality evaluation (spreadability test). The formulation selected after the Preliminary Stability Test was submitted to the Normal Stability Test under the following storage conditions (temperature): Room Temperature (22.0 ± 3.0 ºC), Oven (40.0 ± 2.0 ºC) and Refrigerator (5.0 ± 1.0 ºC), for 90 days. Under the Refrigerator and Room Temperature conditions, spreadability proved adequate, but the surface presented white spots, characterizing the fat bloom, a phenomenon involving the recrystallization of cocoa butter. Storage at 40.0 ± 2.0 ºC (Oven) caused loss of functionality according to the spreadability test, in addition to changes in color, although the aspect was uniform since the fat bloom was not observed (white spots on the surface). The odor remained stable under all conditions as did the melting point, which had a mean of 72.9 ± 1.7 ºC throughout the course of stability testing (90 days).
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Synthetic color is added to foods to replace natural color lost during processing. It causes health problems mainly in children that considered Avery venerable group. This study was carried out investigate the effect of using color foods (Color fruit juice for 6 -12 hr—Tomato ketchup potato chips (TKPC)—color sweet and color chocolate at low (15%) and high (30%)) concentration on serum biochemical, WBC (white blood cell) and histopathology of liver and kidney of rats for 13 week. The results indicated that no significant change in body weight gain, serum glucose, HDL and LDL cholesterol compared to control group. TKPC (30%) showed that significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), triacyl-glycerol (TG). Low and high concentration of color chocolate and color sweet was exhibited significant increase of TG. The level of ALT and AST was significant increase of rat's administration color fruit juice (for 12 hr) and TKPC at 30%. High concentration of color foods and long time administration of color fruit juice showed significant increase in serum creatinine and albumin compared to control group. Both low and high consumed of color foods exhibited sig-nificant decrease in liver GSH. High concentration of color foods lead to increase number of WBC as the result to the response of the immune system to the inflammation. Color foods were reveled change in histological structure of liver and kidney. In conclusion, the use synthetic color in various foods has adverse effect on some of biochemical analysis; and the liver and kidney histopathological structure.
Cosmetics are incredible in demand since historical time till day. Lipstick formulations are most widely used to enhance the beauty of lips and add glamour to touch to the makeup. With this aim and objectives, an attempt was made to formulate natural lipsticks by using colouring pigments of Bixa orellana seeds, and the lipsticks were evaluated for their organolaptic properties such as spreading, hardness, shine and gloss and found to be a satisfactory product to give attractive beauty. The preparation of these lipsticks with the natural ingredients like Bixa seeds, Olive oil, ripe fruit powder of Shikakai. Due to various adverse effects of available synthetic preparation, the present work was conceived by us to formulate a herbal lipsticks having minimal or no side effects which will extensively used by the women of our communities with great surety and satisfaction.
Colorants are mainly used to impart a distinctive appearance to the pharmaceutical dosage forms. There are many types of pharmaceutical formulations which need to be colored such as tablets, tablets coatings, capsules (hard gelatin, soft gelatin), liquid orals, tooth pastes, ointments and salves etc. The purpose of coloring varies with different formulations. Coloring may be required to increase the aesthetic appearance or to prolong the stability or to produce standard preparations or for identification of a particular formulation. Color psychology says that, the color of the product may also influence the efficacy of therapy. Thus, the prime priority of colorants is to increase the aesthetic appearance of the product, so we can say that the colorants are the cosmetics for the pharmaceutical formulations. The classification of various colorants including FD&C categories, the lists of colorants and their uses, the description about major colorants widely used in the formulations was discussed here in detail. In many regions around the world there is a distinction between colors that may be used in drugs and those for food use. This review also discusses the Status of color additives based on Code of Federal Regulations, The international regulatory status, Coloring systems for various dosage forms, Colorant blending, Handling precautions, Safety, Stability and Storage data of various colorants. Legislations, which govern the usage of colorants, include European Union Legislation and United States Legislation.
Herbal cosmetic also known as "natural cosmetics". With the beginning of the civilization, mankind had the magnetic dip towards impressing others with their looks. At the time, there were no fancy fairness creams or any cosmetic surgeries.1 The only thing they had was the knowledge of nature, compiled in the ayurveda. With the science of ayurveda, several herbs and floras were used to make ayurvedic cosmetics that really worked. Ayurvedic cosmetics not only beautified the skin but acted as the shield against any kind of external affects for the body.2 Ayurvedic cosmetics also known as the herbal cosmetics have the same estimable assets in the modern era as well. There is a wide gamut of the herbal cosmetics that are manufactured and commonly used for daily purposes. Herbal cosmetics like herbal face wash, herbal conditioner, herbal soaps, herbal shampoo, and many more are highly acclaimed by the masses. The best thing of the herbal cosmetics is that it is purely made by the herbs and shrubs.2 The natural content in the herbs does not have any side effects on the human body; instead enrich the body with nutrients and other useful minerals. Herbal cosmetics are comprised of floras like ashwagandha, sandal (chandan), saffron (kesar) and many more that is augmented with healthy nutrient sand all the other necessary components.
The concept of beauty and cosmetics is as ancient as mankind and civilization. Women are obsessed with looking beautiful. So, they use various beauty products that have herbs to look charming and young. Indian herbs and its significance are popular worldwide. Herbal Cosmetics have growing demand in the world market and is an invaluable gift of nature. Herbal formulations always have attracted considerable attention because of their good activity and comparatively lesser or nil side effects with synthetic drugs. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty since time immemorial. Indian women have long used herbs such as Sandalwood and Turmeric for skin care; Henna to color the hair, palms and soles; and natural oils to perfume their bodies. Not too long ago, elaborate herbal beauty treatments were carried out in the royal palaces of India to heighten sensual appeal and maintain general hygiene.