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Review on Natural Lip Balm

  • Alard College of Pharmacy, Pune


Cosmetics are incredibly in demand since historical time. These days focus shifted more towards naturally derived cosmetic products. Among all cosmetic products, lip balm formulations are most widely used to enhance the beauty of lips and add glamour touch to the makeup. Lip balms offer a natural way to maintain and promote healthy lips. Current cosmetic lip products are based on use of enormous chemical ingredients with various side effects. Hence in this work, an attempt has made to study natural ingredients used to formulate natural lip balm. This article reviews on the essential ingredients used for natural lip balm along with their merits and limitations. The natural lip balm can made using naturally occurring base, oils, extract, color and flavoring agents which can be evaluated for their resistance to temperature variations, pleasant flavor, and smoothness during application, adherence and easy intentional removal, etc.
International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
ISSN 22777172
Review Article
Review on Natural Lip Balm
Mayuri Kadu1, Dr Suruchi Vishwasrao1,*, and Dr Sonia Singh1
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Alard College of Pharmacy, Sr. No. 50, Marunje Road, Hinjewadi, Pune,
Maharashtra, India, 411057
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; Dr Suruchi Vishwasrao. E-Mail:;
Tel.: +91-020-66523763
Received 08 April 2014; accepted 03 August 2014
Cosmetics are incredibly in demand since historical time. These days focus shifted more towards naturally derived cosmetic
products. Among all cosmetic products, lip balm formulations are most widely used to enhance the beauty of lips and add
glamour touch to the makeup. Lip balms offer a natural way to maintain and promote healthy lips. Current cosmetic lip
products are based on use of enormous chemical ingredients with various side effects. Hence in this work, an attempt has made
to study natural ingredients used to formulate natural lip balm. This article reviews on the essential ingredients used for natural
lip balm along with their merits and limitations. The natural lip balm can made using naturally occurring base, oils, extract,
color and flavoring agents which can be evaluated for their resistance to temperature variations, pleasant flavor, and
smoothness during application, adherence and easy intentional removal, etc.
© 2014 Universal Research Publications. All rights reserved
Key words: natural lip balm; herbal cosmetics; natural ingredients
1. Introduction
Cosmetic plays a significant role in today’s life style.
Moreover current trend is going green in almost all industries
including cosmetics to adopt more natural way of life. The
preferable choices are natural food, herbal medicines and
natural curing practices for healthy life and also there is much
demand for the organic vegetable products. The usage of
herbal cosmetics has been increased to many folds in
personal care system [1]. Natural products have been used for
folk medicine purposes throughout the world for thousands of
years. Many of them have pharmacological properties such as
antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytostatic effects. They
have been recognized as useful for human medicine [2].
Herbal extracts are cultivated all over the world and is prime
name in horticulture sector. Cosmetics made up of herbal
extracts for skin care and hair-care are very popular for their
reliability [3-5].
Herbal cosmetic products include various formulations. The
word herbal indicates safety as compared to synthetic
products which are having various adverse effects on human
health [3-7]. Coloring lips is the ancient practice to enhance
the beauty of lips and to give glamour touch to the face make
up. For this the choice for shades of color, textures, lusters
have been changed and became wider. This can be observed
from the lip jelly, lip balm, lipstick marketed in hundred of
sheds of colors to satisfy the demand [8]. This work was
intended for extensive study of natural lip balm. This was
based on the comprehensive literature search of natural lip
balm, significance of natural excipients along formulation
and evaluation of lip balm. These products are evaluated for
organoleptic properties like color, odor, spread ability, pH,
melting point, skin irritation and product consistency [8-10].
The color of a product also provides an indication of product
quality and freshness. Natural colors are however, less toxic
compared to synthetic colors [11].
2. Difference between lip and regular skin structure
The lips are more attractive than the regular skin. Generally
the top corneum layer of regular skin has 15 to 16 layers
mainly for protection purpose. The top corneum layer of the
lip contains about only 3 to 4 layers and very thin compared
to typical face skin. The lip skin contains very few melanin
cells. Because of this, the blood vessels more clearly appear
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International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
through the skin of the lips that gives a lovely pinkish color
of the lips. The lip skin has no hair follicle and no sweat
glands. Therefore it does not have the sweat and body oil in
protecting the lip from outside environment [9,10,12].
3. Anatomy of lips
The lips serve as organs of prehension, suction and speech. It
is composed of the skin, superficial fascia, orbicularis muscle
and the muscles inserted around it (areolar tissue & mucous
membrane). The margins of the lips are covered with dry, red
mucous membrane, continuous with the skin and containing
numerous vascular papillae and touch corpuscles. The
mucous membrane internally is reflected from the upper and
lower lip upon the gums, and in the median line forms two
folds of superioris and inferioris [10,12].
The areolar tissue or submucous layer contains the coronary
vessels which completely encircle the buccal orifice near the
free margin of the lips. The coronary vessels are the superior
and inferior coronary arteries which arise from the facial. The
superior coronary is larger than the inferior, and anastomoses
with its fellow of the opposite side and gives off a small
artery to the septum arteriaseptinasi. Compression of this
artery will sometimes control nasal hemorrhage [12]. The
superior labial or coronary vein begins as a plexus in the
orbicular is muscle of the upper lip, passes with the coronary
artery and drains into the facial vein a little below the alae of
the nose of the veins which drain the lower lip the inferior
coronary empties into the facial a little below the superior
labial; but the chief branch from the lower lip descends as a
rule to the submental vein, thence to the facial or often to the
anterior jugular [9,10,12].
The nerves supplying the lower lip are derived from the
mental which emerges from the bone through the mental
foramen and sends large twigs to the mucous membrane, the
integument and the fascia of the lip and chin. Some of the
lymphatic vessels of the lips pass to a gland just above the
body of the hyoid bone, while others pass to the sub
maxillary glands. The labial glands are in the submucous
layer of the lips around the orifice of the mouth. They secrete
a mucous fluid. Mucous retention cysts develop when the
ducts of these glands become occluded [12].
4. Lip Disorders
4.1 Swelling: An allergic reaction can make the lips swell.
The reaction may be caused by sensitivity to certain foods or
beverages, drugs, lipstick, or airborne irritants. When a cause
can be identified and then eliminated, the lips usually return
to normal. But frequently, the cause of the swelling remains a
mystery. A condition called hereditary angioedema may
cause recurring bouts of swelling. Nonhereditary conditions
such as erythema multiforme, sunburn, cold and dry weather,
or trauma may also cause the lips to swell [13].
4.2 Sun Damage: Sun damage may make the lips, especially
the lower lip, hard and dry. Red speckles or a white filmy
look signal damage that increases the chance of subsequent
cancer. This type of damage can be reduced by covering the
lips with a lip balm containing sunscreen or by shielding the
face from the sun's harmful rays with a wide-brimmed hat
4.3 Inflammation: With inflammation of the lips (cheilitis),
the corners of the mouth may become painful, irritated, red,
cracked, and scaly. Cheilitis may result from a deficiency of
vitamin B2 in the diet.
4.4 Discoloration: Freckles and irregularly shaped brownish
areas (melanotic macules) are common around the lips and
may last for many years. These marks are not cause for
concern. Multiple, small, scattered brownish black spots may
be a sign of a hereditary disease called Peutz-Jeghers
syndrome, in which polyps form in the stomach and
intestines. Kawasaki disease, a disease of unknown cause that
usually occurs in infants and children 8 years old or younger,
can cause dryness and cracking of the lips and reddening of
the lining of the mouth.
4.5 Sores: A raised area or a sore with hard edges on the lip
may be a form of skin cancer. Other sores may develop as
symptoms of other medical conditions, such as oral herpes
simplex virus infection or syphilis. Still others, such as
keratoacanthoma, have no known cause [13].
5 Application of Lip Balm
Lip balms are formulations applied onto the lips to prevent
drying and protect against adverse environmental factors.
Numerous lip balms of chemical origin are currently
available in the market from companies like The body shop,
Nivea, Himalaya, Blistex, etc. The cosmetic literature reports
limited data on this type of formulation, although references
related to lipstick apply because it is a cosmetic form similar
to lip balm. This similarity extends to include organoleptic
and stability requirements such as resistance to temperature
variations, pleasant taste, innocuousness, smoothness during
application, adherence and easy intentional removal [14]. Lip
balm should not be considered equivalent to the lip gloss,
with the former being a product intended for use by both men
and women [14 &15].
To formulate lip balms, it is necessary to balance the
concentration of the main ingredients including butters, oils
and waxes and other excipients [15]. Many people seek
weekly facials, daily skin scrubs, anti-aging lotions, and
many other products to ensure they have healthy and glowing
skin. But with all the attention being given to healthy skin, lip
care is largely forgotten. Natural lip balms offer a natural way
to maintain and promote healthy lips [15]. Lip balms are
often eaten away by the user and hence it is imperative that
health regulators have a microscopic look at the ingredients
that go in to the lip balm. The dyes that contribute to the color
of the lip balm are dangerous to humans on consumption
6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Lip Balm
6.1. Advantages of natural lip balm
International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
a. Lip balms help to protect the natural health and beauty of
the lips.
b. Sun block lip balms are proved to prevent ultraviolet rays
from hurting the lips.
c. They are not gender specific products and both men and
women can use them.
d. Lip balm products help to protect lips affected by cold
sores, chapping and dryness.
e. Contact of the product with the skin will not cause a
sensation of friction or dryness, and should allow the forming
of a homogeneous layer over the lips in order to protect the
labial mucous susceptible to environmental factors such as
UV radiation, dryness and pollution.
f. It refreshed, renewed and also addresses lip-related
symptoms resulting from colds, flu and allergies.
g. The use of natural lip cosmetic to treat the appearance of
the face and condition of the skin [15,17-21].
6.2. Disadvantages of natural lip balm
a) Lip balms made of low quality ingredients can harm
the lips seriously. Such lip balms may dry out the lips
instead moisturizing it.
b) Lip balm addiction is another disadvantage usually seen
with the use of them.
c) Compared to commercially-prepared lip balms,
homemade lip balms tend to stay on the lips for a shorter
duration of time. Thus need to reapply often.
d) Some companies manufacture lip balms considering only
the beauty aspect, ignoring the health benefits and soft
character of the skin. Such products will gradually
damage the natural color, softness and glow of the lips.
e) The naturally derived colors and flavours are more
difficult to obtain and also have issues related to stability
in the products
f) Natural oils have other disadvantages such as greasier,
comedogenic, and less spreadability [15,17-21].
7. Common Ingredients used in Natural Lip Balm
The list of materials used as key formulation ingredients for
natural lip balm given in the Table no.1 as described below
Table No.1 List of Natural Ingredients
Base [15,17-19]
Coloring Agent [15,17-21]
Flavouring Agent [16-19,23]
Cocca butter
Beet root
Bees Wax
Shea Wax
Shea butter
White bees wax
Yellow bees wax
Carnauba wax
Candelilla wax
Rose oil
Mango butter
Avocado butter
Olive wax
Jojoba wax
Olive butter
Sweet Almond butter
Sweet almond wax
Raspberry butter
7.1 Base
Waxes form an important group of ingredients for the
manufacture of personal care products and decorative
cosmetics. Waxes are used in different industries and
products. They are predominately used in candles, but also
find important applications in food, cosmetics and
pharmaceutical industries as thickeners/emulsifiers.
Chemically, waxes are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons
and fatty acids combined with esters. Waxes are harder, less
greasy and more brittle than fats. They are very resistant to
moisture, oxidization and bacteria. There are four categories
of waxes as: (a) Animal Waxes: Beeswax, lanolin,
spermaceti; (b) Plant Waxes: Carnauba, candelilla, jojoba; (c)
Mineral Waxes: Ozokerite, paraffin, microcrystalline,
ceresin; (d) Synthetic Waxes: Polyethylene, carbowax,
acrawax, stearon. The most widely used waxes for cosmetic
products are beeswax, carnauba and candelilla wax[17].
Waxes are esters of a fatty acid and a fatty alcohol. Jojoba oil
is therefore a wax, not oil. Physically, waxes are
characterized by a high melting point (50-100oC). The most
used wax is beeswax which is a good emollient and
thickener. Two other natural waxes often used in cosmetics
are carnauba and candelilla wax. Both are harder and have a
higher melting point making them more stable and suitable
for dry products e.g. lip balm [17].
International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
Cocoa butter is a natural fat that comes from cocoa bean and
it gives a creamy softness to the lip balm. It will nourish and
moisturize lips and help heal chapped and dry lips because it
contains antioxidants [17&18]. Another important and useful
component of lip balm is white beeswax with melting point
62º-64ºC. It usefully binds oils and high melting point waxes.
It is used in 3 to 10% of the total formula. It shrinks on
cooling and thus helps preparation of molded products. At
higher concentration it produces a dull way appearance and
causes the balm to crumble during use.
Candelilla wax has a melting point 65º-69ºC and can be is
used in 5-10% of formulation. A mixture of candelilla wax
and beeswax is very good for making lip balm. If candelilla
wax is used to a little in a excess than beeswax the product
gets a smooth and glossy appearance. On the other side
carnauba wax increases the melting point of the base and
hardens the lip balm therefore used in very small amounts. It
brings an attractive luster to the products [19].
7.2 Oils
Oils and fats are differing in their physical forms; generally
the latter are solid at room temperature. Both fats and oils are
chemically glycerol esters composed of glycerol and fatty
acids and are also called as triglycerides.
Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated, thereby
determining the stability and property of the oil. Oils with a
high degree of saturated fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic
and stearic acids) include coconut oil, cottonseed oil, and
palm oil. Oils with a high degree of unsaturated fatty acids
(oleic, arachidonic, linoleic acid) are canola oil, olive oil,
corn oil, almond oil, safflower oil, castor oil and avocado oil.
Saturated oils are more stable and do not become rancid as
quickly as unsaturated oils. However, unsaturated oils are
smoother, more precious, less greasy, and better absorbed by
the skin. Natural butters like shea butter, avocado butter or
cocoa butter are not true butters but natural fats. In general,
natural butters are excellent emollients and thickeners and
dependent on the type may have various additional properties
(e.g. antioxidant & and soothing properties in shea and
avocado butter due to phenolic compounds) [17 &18].
The oil mixture is required to blend properly with the waxes
to provide a suitable film on the applied lip skin. An ideal
mixture is one which enables the product to spread easily and
produces a thin film with good covering power [18].
Sunflower or olive oil, both oils will give a great gloss to lips
[17]. Castor oil is used in many lip balm because of its good
qualities, though now days some other oils or solvents are
being used. A refined grade castor oil is of good color and is
odorless and tasteless. Castor oil is a very good plasticizing
agent. An antioxidant is to be added to the castor oil against
rancidification though it is not as prone to rancidification as
other vegetable oils like olive oil or almond oil [19].
Jojoba oil is known for its skin-softening properties which
can prevent lips from dehydrating. While wolfberry seed oil
is renowned for its moisturizing and skin conditioning
properties. Rosehip oil is excellent for maintaining then
natural moisture balance in skin. Vitamin E is a well-known
antioxidant that plays an essential role in the lip balm base.
Peppermint essential oil energizes and revitalizes skin.
Cinnamon essential oil is an excellent antioxidant. Lavender
essential oil is soothing and nourishing to skin. And
grapefruit essential oil is light and refreshing for dry lips [13-
15]. Almond oil is pale yellow oil with slight characteristic
odour. It consists of glycerides chiefly of oleic acid with
smaller amounts of other acids namely, linoleic, myristic and
palmitic. It has emollient properties [18].
7.3 Coloring Agent
Colorants or coloring agents are mainly used to impart a
distinctive appearance to the Cosmetic products [17, 24-26].
Color has been used in cosmetics since early times. Basically,
a desire to buy a cosmetic product is controlled by three
senses namely sight, touch and smell. As such as, color is an
important ingredient of cosmetic formulations [18]. The color
is imparted to the lips in two ways; (a) By staining the skin
with a solution of dyestuff which can penetrate the outer layer
of the lip skin, (b) By covering the lips with a colored layer
which serves to hide any skin roughness and give a smooth
appearance. The first requirement is met by soluble dyes and
the second one is met is insoluble dyes and pigments which
make the film more or less opaque. Modern lip balms contain
both to achieve the combined effect. The colors should be
from the list of certified dyes under the drugs and cosmetics
act [19]. The naturally occurring colors from different plant
and fruit sources are listed in Table number 2.
The colorant derived from natural source should be nontoxic
with no physiological activity. It should be a definite
chemical compound because then only its coloring power will
be reliable, its assay will be practicable and easier. Its
tinctorial (coloring) power should be high enough so that
only small quantities would be sufficient for use. Colorants
should be unaffected by light, tropical temperatures,
hydrolysis and microorganisms and therefore they must be
stable on storage [23-26].
Colorants should not affected by oxidizing or reducing agents
and pH changes and also should not interferes with the tests
and assays. Water soluble colorants are equally desirable with
oilsoluble and spiritsoluble colors. The most important
characteristic of colorants is compatibility with other
ingredients and medicament. It should be free from
objectionable taste and odour and must be readily available
and inexpensive [23-26]. The examples of natural colorants
are obtained from beet root, saffron, turmeric,etc. Saffron is
dried stigma of flowers of the plant Cross Sativuslinne. It is a
perennial plant and is grown in Kashmir in India. It is also
cultivated in Spain, France, Greece and Iran. The principle
coloring agent in saffron is crocin. Crocin is yellow powder, a
glycoside in nature and easily soluble in water [18].
International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
Table No.2 Common Color and Associated Food [21]
Plant sources
Eggplant, blackberry, purple, cabbage,
plum, blueberry, raisins, prunes, purple
grapes, figs
Lutein, zeaxanthin, resveratrol,
Vit. C, flavanoid, ellagic acid,
Avocado, cucumber, spinach, kale,
broccoli, snow pea, zucchini, artichoke,
lettuce, kiwi
Lutein, zeaxanthin, Vit. C,
calcium, folate, carotene
Cauliflower, mushrooms, parsnip, potato,
ginger, onions, jicama, banana, garlic,
Ancillin, Potassium, Selenium
Papaya, pineapple, apricot, pumkin, peach,
peach, carrot, orange, corn
carotene, zeaxanthin, flavanoid,
vitaminC, Potassium
Lycopene or
Cranberry, beet, tomato watermelon,
strawberry, pomegranate
Ellagicacid, quecertin,
Hesperidin , etc.
Table No.3 List of Flavour
Masking Flavour
Butterscotch, maple
Wild cherry, walnut, chocolate-mint, licorice
Fruit, berry, vanilla
7.4 Flavouring Agent
Flavours or flavouring agent are usually required to mask the
four basic taste sensations. Flavour refers to a mixed
sensation of taste, touch, smell, sight and sound, all of which
involve a combination of physiochemical and physiological
actions that influence the perception of substances. With the
expansion of technology in the flavour industry, many
artificial or imitation flavours have been created. The creation
of an acceptable flavour is more of an art than a science [23].
Flavourants are selected on the basis of the taste of the drug
or other ingredients need to be incorporated. The following
Table number 3 shows the masking flavor with respect to
different taste.
Flavours used in lip balm should not contain any ingredient
which may be irritating or toxic. These should have good
taste and should be able to mask fatty odour of the base [18].
Flavouring agents are an essential component to mask the
odour of the fatty or wax base as well as to impart an
attractive flavor. They are normally used in the concentration
range of 2-4% of total formulation. Flavour should be stable
and compatible with the other constituents of the lip balm.
The flavours should not be very strong as to clash with or
overpower other flavors that may be used concurrently with
the lip balm. Perfumes of the fruit flavor type have been
advocated as well. Also something edible can be used [19].
The commonly used flavours are apricot, strawberry,
raspberry, cherry, honey, etc. Honey has the capacity to serve
as a natural food preservative [20].
8. Method of Lip Balm Preparation
The details of general method of lip balm preparation are
described in this section. Select appropriate ingredients for lip
balm formulation from Table number 1. Initially melt the
accurately weighed amount of waxes in hot water bath in
descending order of their melting point with continuous
stirring/heated till it melts completely [24]. Then coloring
agent dissolved in oil or water depends on solubility and add
to the mixture of melted waxes. Finally add flavouring agent
like honey, vanilla which are also act as a preservative and
continuously stirred to get a homogenized mixture. The
mixture should be stirred vigorously until a smooth emulsion
form. Then, this mixture could be poured into clean and
lubricated moulds and allow them to cool to achieve
contraction of the waxes to facilitate easy removal of the
balm [24 & 25]. Recently the work also patented on the
preparation of botanical butter stick lip balm cosmetics [27].
9. Evaluation parameters for lip balm
Quality of a lip balm product can be assessed by the product
performance. Therefore significance of evaluation parameters
of any product is abundant. It helps to maintain the stability
along with the purity and uniformity of product. The main
evaluation parameters of lip balm products are described in
this section. The appearance of cosmetics products plays
paramount role from consumer’s perspective. This includes
color, odor and texture of the product [17]. By visualizing in
10x magnification under microscope color and appearance
can be characterized, while odor can be compared by the
International Journal of Research in Cosmetic Science 2015; 5(1): 1-7
group of evaluators.
The spreadability of lip balm can be tested by applying the
formulated lip balm on glass slide at room temperature to
observe uniformity in the formulation of protective layer and
whether the stick fragmental deformed or broke during
application for appropriate results of different formulation.
The melting temperature and pH of lip balm are also
commonly evaluated by capillary method and pH meter
respectively. Ex-vivo and in vivo tests should be performed
for skin irritation test. The product need to study for the
surface anomalies such as formation crystals on surfaces or
contamination by moulds, fungi etc. There should not be sign
of any surface defects. The lip balm products are evaluated
for perfume and aging stability [18].
10. Conclusion
Due to tremendous demands of beauty enhancing products
cosmetics industry is flourishing. This work has reviewed the
current status of natural lip balm products. This also studied
all aspects of natural lip balm including natural ingredients,
formulation methods, evaluation and applications. Hence it
can be concluded that the extensive literature study has been
performed on the natural lip balm products and shown wide
scope for such products in future.
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patent US20080089916 A1, 2008.
Source of support: Nil; Conflict of interest: None declared
... These serums are oil-based and may contain vitamin E, olive, shea butter, and avocado oils, and also contain many antioxidants and hyaluronic acid to improve the natural lip color and restore the dryness via deep hydration of the lips skin. The popularity and the use of lip balm over the lip serums have been reduced recently due to its oily nature, low spreadability, and comedogenic, respectively [222]. ...
... Lip balm creation employing the most natural materials possible and formulation assessment These natural ingredients and safer alternatives to synthetic excipients were used to effectively construct a lip balm formulation. 11,12 Natural materials are now strongly suggested for medical therapy since they are safer and less expensive. Cinnamon has previously been used as a medicine to reduce urea levels, repair chronic inflammation, antidepressant, and treat liver damage. ...
... Lip balm products can protect lips from canker sores, chapped, and dry. This product can be used by both men and women (Kokil et al., 2015). ...
Patchouli oil, a type of essential oil, is one of Indonesian’s non-oil and gas export commodities accounted for one of the sources of Indonesian foreign exchange. Patchouli alcohol is commonly used in the cosmetic and perfume industries as well as the fragrance ingredient in the household products, one of which is used in lip moisturizer product. Lip moisturizer is a cosmetic product that was created with the similar essence of lipstick saves for its colorless in nature hence the translucent appearance. As a moisturizer, lip moisturizer can be used to moisturize the lips to avoid dry and chapped lips. Producing lip moisturizer involves four steps of formulation, which are mixing the solid components, mixing the liquid components, mixing of both the solid and liquid components, and adding the active substances and the patchouli oil. The study conducted two times of experiment, and it can be concluded that the second experiment can be used for lip skin. The execution of the test was based on the stability and homogeneity tests that meet the terms and conditions that have been set.
... .Zinc is an essential heavy metal in the human body, and its homeostasis reflects a balance between absorption of dietary zinc and loss of zinc from the body. Zinc were detected in varied concentrations in all the 15 samples tested, the minimum and maximum concentrations of the zinc recorded in this study in BBL and RML lipsticks sample range between 12.8 ± 0.12 and 363.2 ± 0.16, which exceeded the acceptable safe limit [14] [ 15] 100ppm which corroborates the study on exposure assessment and risk characterization from trace elements following soil ingestion by children exposed to 16 playgrounds, parks and picnic areas . Zinc is required for the functional integrity of many organ systems, as well as for growth, development, and tissue repair but on exposure to excessive zinc can be harmful and can have pathological 17 consequences . ...
... Titik leleh carnaubawax adalah 85 oC, pada konsentrasi kecil akan meningkatkan titk leleh dan memperkuat lipbalm. bila digunakan terlalu banyak akan membuat permukaan lipbalm seperti berpasir (kasar) sehingga lebih baik digunakan pada konsentrasi yang rendah[3].Kualitas fisik lipbalm merupakan faktor yang harus dipenuhi sebelum lipbalm dipasarkan ke konsumen. Wax mempunyai peran penting dalam menentukan sifat fisik dan stabilitas lipbalm. ...
Conference Paper
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memproduksi lipbalm dari Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) dan Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) dengan penambahan ekstrak daun sirih merah, serta mengetahui karakteristik sifat fisik dan kimia dari lipbalm yang dihasilkan. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Blok Lengkap (RBL) dengan dua faktor yang terdiri atas 3 taraf . Faktor pertama yaitu perbandingan penambahan PKO dan VCO dengan taraf: F1=40:20%b/b, F2 = 20:40%b/b dan F3 = 30:30%b/b. Faktor kedua yaitu penambahan ekstrak daun sirih merah dengan taraf: P1= 4%b/b, P2= 3%b/b dan P3= 2% b/b. Sebanyak 5,4 gr carnauba wax ditimbang dan dipanaskan di atas hotplate pada suhu 60-65o C hingga meleleh, lalu tambahkan 4,8 gr beeswax, aduk hingga homogen. Setelah itu tambahkan PKO dan VCO sesuai dengan variabel, aduk kembali, lalu tambahkan ekstrak daun sirih merah sesuai dengan variabel, aduk hingga homogen. Selanjutnya dilakukan analisis aktivitas antioksidan, kadar lemak, kadar air, vitamin E, pH, titik leleh, kelembaban dan uji organoleptik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan PKO dan VCO berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas antioksidan, titik leleh, vitamin E, kelembaban, pH, kadar air dan kadar lemak, Penambahan ekstrak daun sirih merah berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas antioksidan, vitamin E dan kadar lemak. Adapun lipbalm yang dihasilkan memiliki kelembaban yang baik serta memberikan warna kilap pada bibir sehingga tampak sehat alami.
... kelenjar keringat yang berfungsi untuk melindungi bibir dari lingkungan luar (Kadu et al., 2014). Pada cuaca panas, pembuluh darah yang berada di bawah bibir mengalami vasodilatasi yang menyebabkan peningkatan perpindahan kelembaban dari kapiler menuju jaringan, sehingga terjadi penguapan air secara berlebihan. ...
Sari buah jambu biji merah (Psidium guajava Linn) mengandung gula yang dapat mengatur minyak alami agar bibir tidak menjadi kering ataupun terlalu berminyak. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui formula sediaan lip balm dari sari buah jambu biji merah yang memiliki sifat fisik yang baik, serta mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi sari buah jambu biji merah terhadap kharakteristik fisiknya. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian preeksperimental. Pembuatan lip balm dilakukan dengan variasi konsentrasi sari buah jambu biji merah (Psidium guajava Linn) sebesar 2,5% (formula A), 5%(formula B), dan 7,5%(formula C). Uji sifat fisik sediaan lip balm meliputi uji organoleptis, uji homogenitas, uji daya lekat dan uji daya sebar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa formula A, formula B dan formula C menghasilkan warna lip balm yang berbeda, memiliki tekstur yang berminyak dan memiliki bau seperti minyak permen. Hasil uji daya lekat dan uji daya sebar sediaan lip balm tidak memenuhi syarat yang telah ditentukan. Namun sari buah jambu biji merah sudah terdistribusi secara homogen dalam sediaan. Dari penelitian tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa formulasi lip balm yang mempunyai sifat fisik yang baik adalah formula C dengan variasi konsentrasi 7,5%. Perbedaan variasi konsentrasi sari buah jambu biji merah tidak berpengaruh terhadap sifat fisik sediaan lip balm.
... According to Kadu, the greater the needle penetration depth, the smaller the required yield value. This means that the softer the preparation was made, the less effort to apply the preparation which makes it able to spread over the skin [13]. The results obtained by the yield value met the requirements of 100-1000 dyne/cm². ...
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In previous studies, cherry leaf extract has been shown to be anti-inflammatory. This means a preparation is needed to deliver the extract. Balm stick is an innovation in a stem-shaped balm that makes it easier to be used so that cherry leaf extract is made into a balm stick preparation. This study aims to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the balsam stick of cherry leaf extract topically. The study was conducted by varying the concentration of cherry leaf extract at 2.5%, 5%, and 10% and tested its anti-inflammatory activity in male white rats induced by carrageenan. The experimental animals were divided into 5 test groups, whereby the positive control group was given 2.5% hydrocortisone balm stick, the negative control group was given the balm stick preparation and the 3 test groups were given 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The observations were made using a plethysmometer by looking at the volume of edema in the carrageenan-induced rat paws. Balm sticks with a concentration of 5% and 10% had an inhibitory power of more than 50% with a value of 70.27% and 95.83% while a concentration of 2.5% had an inhibitory power of 44.44%. Balm stick ethanol extract of cherry leaves has anti-inflammatory activity with concentrations of 5% and 10% and demonstrates an increase in anti-inflammatory activity, whereby the greater the concentration, the greater the anti-inflammatory activity produced.
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Sri Ainun Tahir, 2120192054. 2021. The Formulation Of LipBalm From Sari Meat Papaya Fruit (Carica Papaya L.) As A Preparation Sunblock Thesis, First Advisor: Dr. Hj. Titin Dunggio., M.Si, M.Kes and Second Advisor: Gita Puspita, M.Farm. Bachelor of Pharmacy Study Program, Faculty of Science, Technology and Health Sciences. The study aims to determine whether papaya flesh can be formulated as a lip balm preparation, how the physical stability of the preparation is and whether it can be efficacious as a sunscreen. The type of research used in this study is quantitative research conducted in an experimental laboratory with a research design that is simple random sampling. The result shows that papaya flesh extract can be formulated as a lip balm preparation, the formulation of lip balm preparations with a concentration of 5%, 7.5% and 10% can affect the physical stability of the preparation and the preparation of lip balm from papaya flesh extract with a concentration of 5% produces an SPF value. namely 5,912 providing low protection, 7,5% resulting in an SPF value of 7,841 providing low protection and 10% producing an SPF value of 12,591 providing low protection. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the lip balm preparation made can be efficacious as a sunscreen but provides low protection. Keywords: Papaya juice, Lipbalm, Sunscreen
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Paparan sinar UV matahari dapat merusak sel keratin bibir yang berfungsi melindungi bibir. Kosmetik yang biasa digunakan untuk melembabkan bibir yaitu lip balm. Salah satu bahan alam yang mengandung antioksidan yang tinggi adalah Jeruk kalamansi dan bunga rosella. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat sediaan Lip Balm dengan konsentrasi F1 4% sari buah jeruk kalamansi, F2 dengan konsentrasi 5% ekstrak bunga rosella, F3 dengan kombinasi sari buah jeruk kalamansi dan ektrak bunga rosella. Ekstraksi bunga diperoleh dengan cara maserasi menggunakan etanol. Metode ekperimental digunakan dalam penelitian ini, dan untuk kestabilan fisik dari lip balm yang dilakukan selama kurang lebih 4 minggu. Hasil pengujian sifat fisik sediaan pelembap bibir sari buah jeruk kalamansi dan ekstrak bunga rosella mempunyai susunan yang homogen, memiliki rentang pH 6,0-6,3, memiliki titik lebur 51-54℃, dan stabil dalam penyimpanan selama 28 hari yaitu tidak terjadi perubahan pada tekstur, aroma, rasa, dan warna. Memiliki persen peningkatan kelembaban bibir F0, F1, F2, dan F3 secara berturut-turut yaitu 48,5%, 59,1%, 130,7%, dan 136,4%. Pada penelitian ini dilanjutkan analisis menggunakan SPSS versi 24 didapatkan nilai p<0,05 pada jam ke 84. Kesimpulan bahwa Sari buah jeruk kalamansi dan ekstrak bunga rosella dapat diformulasikan dalam pembuatan pelembab bibir dengan berbagai konsentrasi.
One of the plants that can be used as natural ingredients in cosmetics is aloe vera (Aloe vera). Aloe vera is very easy to get and has also been widely cultivated in Indonesia. The benefits of aloe vera are very diverse, including as an antibiotic, antiseptic, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-swelling. Aloe vera is effective in replacing damaged cells and improving skin conditions because there are polysaccharides that work together with essential amino acids and protein-breaking enzymes. Other aloe vera content in vitamins A, B12, E, inositol, and folic acid. The mineral content includes calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and chromium (Cr). Aloe vera can be used as cosmetic preparations in the form of hair tonic, lotion, lip balm, shampoo, creambath, and liquid soap.
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Fluconazole is an imidazole derivative and used for the treatment of local and systemic fungal infection. The oral use of fluconazole is not much recommended as it has many side effects. Commercially fluconazole topical gel preparation are not available in the market, thus this formulation is made for better patient compliance and to reduce the dose of drug and to avoid the side effects like liver damage and kidney damage. The gel was formulated by changing the polymer ratio. FT-IR study confirmed the purity of drug and revealed no interaction between the drug and excipients. Gel formulations were characterized for drug content, pH determination, viscosity measurement, in vitro diffusion, antifungal activity and skin irritation. Among the five formulations, F1 was selected as the best formulation as its %CDR after 41/2 h was 97.846% and release rate of drug from F1 formulation is best fitted to Higuchi model. The viscosity of the F1 formulation was within the limits and F1 formulation did not show any skin irritation. Gel formulation F1 was found to be stable at 30 ±2°C and 65 ± 5 RH. It was found that at 40 ± 2°C and 75 ± 5 RH the gel formulation was not stable and %CDR was decreased. Efficient delivery of drug to skin application was found to be highly beneficial in localizing the drug to desired site in the skin and reduced side effects associated with conventional treatment.
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The importance of mouth and teeth cleanliness has been recognized from the earliest days of civilization to the 21st century. Patients and oral health practitioners are faced with a multitude of mouthwash products containing many different active and inactive ingredients. Making informed decisions as to the suitability of a particular product for a particular patient can be a complex task. Although many popular herbal products have helped to control dental plaque and gingivitis, they have been used for a short time and only as an adjunct to other oral hygiene measures such as brushing and flossing. Various herbal products and their extracts such as Guava, Pomegranate, Neem, Propolis, Tulsi, Green Tea, Cranberry, Grapefruit etc, have shown significant advantages over the chemical ones. Natural mouthwashes may offer significant advantages over the chemical ones. If such mouthwashes can be formulated which can be easily prepared and used safely by people at home using natural products, it may lead to improvement in the general dental health of the population. This review is an attempt to outline such natural substances, which may be used as effective mouthwashes.
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Rising global demand for natural products whose production is harmless to the environment has stimulated the development of natural cosmetics and, within this category, organics (95% organic raw materials). The image of environmentally friendly production is one of the strongest attractions of organic products. Lip balm is a cosmetic product similar to lipstick whose purpose is to prevent lip dryness and protect against adverse environmental factors. The product’s characteristics are: resistance to temperature variations, pleasant flavor, innocuousness, smoothness during application, adherence and easy intentional removal. This work involved the development of a lip balm formulated with certified organic raw materials and the execution of stability tests: fusion point determination, evaluation of organoleptic characteristics (color, odor and appearance) and functionality evaluation (spreadability test). The formulation selected after the Preliminary Stability Test was submitted to the Normal Stability Test under the following storage conditions (temperature): Room Temperature (22.0 ± 3.0 ºC), Oven (40.0 ± 2.0 ºC) and Refrigerator (5.0 ± 1.0 ºC), for 90 days. Under the Refrigerator and Room Temperature conditions, spreadability proved adequate, but the surface presented white spots, characterizing the fat bloom, a phenomenon involving the recrystallization of cocoa butter. Storage at 40.0 ± 2.0 ºC (Oven) caused loss of functionality according to the spreadability test, in addition to changes in color, although the aspect was uniform since the fat bloom was not observed (white spots on the surface). The odor remained stable under all conditions as did the melting point, which had a mean of 72.9 ± 1.7 ºC throughout the course of stability testing (90 days).
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Synthetic color is added to foods to replace natural color lost during processing. It causes health problems mainly in children that considered Avery venerable group. This study was carried out investigate the effect of using color foods (Color fruit juice for 6 -12 hr—Tomato ketchup potato chips (TKPC)—color sweet and color chocolate at low (15%) and high (30%)) concentration on serum biochemical, WBC (white blood cell) and histopathology of liver and kidney of rats for 13 week. The results indicated that no significant change in body weight gain, serum glucose, HDL and LDL cholesterol compared to control group. TKPC (30%) showed that significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), triacyl-glycerol (TG). Low and high concentration of color chocolate and color sweet was exhibited significant increase of TG. The level of ALT and AST was significant increase of rat's administration color fruit juice (for 12 hr) and TKPC at 30%. High concentration of color foods and long time administration of color fruit juice showed significant increase in serum creatinine and albumin compared to control group. Both low and high consumed of color foods exhibited sig-nificant decrease in liver GSH. High concentration of color foods lead to increase number of WBC as the result to the response of the immune system to the inflammation. Color foods were reveled change in histological structure of liver and kidney. In conclusion, the use synthetic color in various foods has adverse effect on some of biochemical analysis; and the liver and kidney histopathological structure.
Cosmetics are incredible in demand since historical time till day. Lipstick formulations are most widely used to enhance the beauty of lips and add glamour to touch to the makeup. With this aim and objectives, an attempt was made to formulate natural lipsticks by using colouring pigments of Bixa orellana seeds, and the lipsticks were evaluated for their organolaptic properties such as spreading, hardness, shine and gloss and found to be a satisfactory product to give attractive beauty. The preparation of these lipsticks with the natural ingredients like Bixa seeds, Olive oil, ripe fruit powder of Shikakai. Due to various adverse effects of available synthetic preparation, the present work was conceived by us to formulate a herbal lipsticks having minimal or no side effects which will extensively used by the women of our communities with great surety and satisfaction.
Colorants are mainly used to impart a distinctive appearance to the pharmaceutical dosage forms. There are many types of pharmaceutical formulations which need to be colored such as tablets, tablets coatings, capsules (hard gelatin, soft gelatin), liquid orals, tooth pastes, ointments and salves etc. The purpose of coloring varies with different formulations. Coloring may be required to increase the aesthetic appearance or to prolong the stability or to produce standard preparations or for identification of a particular formulation. Color psychology says that, the color of the product may also influence the efficacy of therapy. Thus, the prime priority of colorants is to increase the aesthetic appearance of the product, so we can say that the colorants are the cosmetics for the pharmaceutical formulations. The classification of various colorants including FD&C categories, the lists of colorants and their uses, the description about major colorants widely used in the formulations was discussed here in detail. In many regions around the world there is a distinction between colors that may be used in drugs and those for food use. This review also discusses the Status of color additives based on Code of Federal Regulations, The international regulatory status, Coloring systems for various dosage forms, Colorant blending, Handling precautions, Safety, Stability and Storage data of various colorants. Legislations, which govern the usage of colorants, include European Union Legislation and United States Legislation.
Herbal cosmetic also known as "natural cosmetics". With the beginning of the civilization, mankind had the magnetic dip towards impressing others with their looks. At the time, there were no fancy fairness creams or any cosmetic surgeries.1 The only thing they had was the knowledge of nature, compiled in the ayurveda. With the science of ayurveda, several herbs and floras were used to make ayurvedic cosmetics that really worked. Ayurvedic cosmetics not only beautified the skin but acted as the shield against any kind of external affects for the body.2 Ayurvedic cosmetics also known as the herbal cosmetics have the same estimable assets in the modern era as well. There is a wide gamut of the herbal cosmetics that are manufactured and commonly used for daily purposes. Herbal cosmetics like herbal face wash, herbal conditioner, herbal soaps, herbal shampoo, and many more are highly acclaimed by the masses. The best thing of the herbal cosmetics is that it is purely made by the herbs and shrubs.2 The natural content in the herbs does not have any side effects on the human body; instead enrich the body with nutrients and other useful minerals. Herbal cosmetics are comprised of floras like ashwagandha, sandal (chandan), saffron (kesar) and many more that is augmented with healthy nutrient sand all the other necessary components.
The concept of beauty and cosmetics is as ancient as mankind and civilization. Women are obsessed with looking beautiful. So, they use various beauty products that have herbs to look charming and young. Indian herbs and its significance are popular worldwide. Herbal Cosmetics have growing demand in the world market and is an invaluable gift of nature. Herbal formulations always have attracted considerable attention because of their good activity and comparatively lesser or nil side effects with synthetic drugs. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty since time immemorial. Indian women have long used herbs such as Sandalwood and Turmeric for skin care; Henna to color the hair, palms and soles; and natural oils to perfume their bodies. Not too long ago, elaborate herbal beauty treatments were carried out in the royal palaces of India to heighten sensual appeal and maintain general hygiene.