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Inbound and Outbound Marketing Techniques: a Comparison between Italian and Romanian Pure Players and Click and Mortar Companies


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Despite the large number of blog posts and articles regarding the use of Inbound and Outbound Marketing techniques, no research articles compares the propensity of companies towards these opposite types of marketing techniques among different countries. The present study is mainly focused on literature review of Inbound vs Outbound Marketing and acknowledge the academic community, interested in Content Marketing studies, about the availability of data sets regarding the implementation of these techniques at the level of Italian and Romanian pure players and click and mortar companies, which will be explored in the near future through appropriate statistical methods within the framework of a cross-cultural research.
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International Conference “Risk in Contemporary EconomyISSN-L 2067-0532 ISSN online 2344-5386
XVIth Edition, 2015, Galati, Romania,
“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati – Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
Elisa Rancati
Federica Codignola
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy
Alexandru Capatina
Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Romania
Despite the large number of blog posts and articles regarding the use of Inbound and
Outbound Marketing techniques, no research articles compares the propensity of companies
towards these opposite types of marketing techniques among different countries. The
present study is mainly focused on literature review of Inbound vs Outbound Marketing and
acknowledge the academic community, interested in Content Marketing studies, about the
availability of data sets regarding the implementation of these techniques at the level of
Italian and Romanian pure players and click and mortar companies, which will be explored
in the near future through appropriate statistical methods within the framework of a cross-
cultural research.
Keywords: Inbound Marketing, Outbound Marketing, pure player, click and mortar company
JEL Code: M31, M15
The introduction of digital technology and the spread of the Internet have led to radical
changes in the way companies meet the expectations and interests of its stakeholders (Wertime and
Fenwick, 2008) and in corporate communication (Winer, 2009). In digital communication, compared
to conventional one, a major role is played by the content. "Content is king" is, in fact, one of the most
popular slogan in the digital economy. Focus on content involves analyzing new communication
models, very different than the usual format used by firms. Content marketing attracts potential
consumers and increases their engagement and empowerment (Kucuk e Krishnamurthy, 2007)
through the creation, dissemination and sharing of free content, relevant, meaningful, valuable and
able to inspire confidence in existing and potential customers.
A targeted search on the major academic international databases outlines few research on
inbound vs. outbound marketing. The debates in this area can be easily found on blogosphere, due to a
high interest of the experts in this field.
However, literature still includes a few more contributions that try to define content
marketing (Keyes, 2006; Rowley, 2008; Pulizzi e Barrett, 2009; Halvorson, 2010; Handley e Chapman,
2010, 2011; Gunelius, 2011; Lieb, 2011), and, above all, inbound and outbound marketing (Burdett,
2014; Quin, 2015).
Thus, in an attempt to bridge these gaps, the paper has two main research objectives: 1) to
study the evolution of the concept of content marketing and inbound and outbound marketing
strategies; 2) analyze the degree of use and effectiveness of inbound and outbound strategies by a
sample of Romanian and Italian firms. The paper is structured as follows: in the first paragraph, we
carry out a review of the literature about the content marketing, in the second part we highlight the
main features of inbound and outbound marketing, while in the third paragraph we announce the
quantitative research that we are conducting, in order to find out the degree of use and effectiveness of
inbound and outbound by a sample of Romanian and Italian firms.
1. Literature review on content marketing and Inbound and Outbound marketing
International Conference “Risk in Contemporary EconomyISSN-L 2067-0532 ISSN online 2344-5386
XVIth Edition, 2015, Galati, Romania,
“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati – Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
The use of the content as a marketing strategy has recently undergone a deep evolution thanks
to the spread of digital communications and social networks. The digital dimension, in particular, has
led to the birth of terms such as digital CM (Rakic et al., 2014; Koiso-Kanttila, 2004; Rowley, 2008) that
focus on the changes that technological innovation has produced on creation, delivery and content
management. Consequently, in recent years, studies on CM (Keyes, 2006; Pulizzi and Barrett, 2009;
Halvorson, 2010; Handley and Chapman, 2010, 2011; Gunelius, 2011; Lieb, 2011; Nelli, 2012; Jefferson
and Tanton, 2013; Rahimia and Hassanzadeh 2013) are significantly increased without reaching a
clear and unique definition of this concept and of metrics for its measurement. Thus, the trying to
systematize the literature review on this topic seems particularly relevant. Table 1 shows a review of
the main definitions of CM in the literature.
Tab. 1 – Main definition of CM (in chronological and then alphabetical order)
Chaffey D.,
Mayer R.,
K., Ellis-
F. (2000)
Internet marketing,
Pearson Education,
Content is the design, text and graphical information that forms a web
page. Good content is the key to attracting customers to a web site and
retaining their interest or achieving repeat visits.
Keyes J.
business intelligence
and content
Publications, Broken
South Parken.
Content marketing is usually focus on intranet-based or internet-based
corporate content, including data and knowledge bases.
Pulizzi J. e
Barret N.
Get content. Get
customers, McGraw
Hill, New York
Content marketing is a marketing technique of creating and distributing
relevant and valuable content to attract, acquire, and engage a clearly
defined and understood target audience – with the objective of driving
profitable customer action. Content marketing is owning, as opposed to
renting media. It’s marketing process to attract and retain customers by
consistently creating and curating content in order to change or enhance
a consumer behavior.
K. (2010)
Content strategy for
the web, New
Riders, Berkeley
Content strategy is the practice of planning for the creation, delivery, and
governance of useful, usable content.
Handley A.,
A.A. (2010)
Content Rules, John
Wiley & Sons, New
Content marketing is anything an individual or an organization creates
and/or shares to tell their story. What it isn’t: A warmed-over press
release served as a blog post. It is conversational, human and doesn’t try
to constantly sell to you. It also isn’t a tactic that you can just turn on and
off and hope that will be successful. It has to be a mindset that is
embraced and encouraged. You’ve got to start thinking like a publisher
and use that to plan and execute your entire marketing plan which
content of any variety should be a part.
Content Marketing
for Dummiers,
Wiley, New York
Content marketing is the process of indirectly and directly promoting a
business or brand through value-added text, video, or audio content both
online and offline. It can come in long-form (such as blogs, articles, e-
books, and so on), short-form (such as Twitter updates, Facebook
updates, images, and so on), or conversational-form (for example,
sharing great content via Twitter or participating in an active discussion
via blog comments or through an online forum).
Lieb (2011)
Content Marketing:
think like a
publisher. How to
use content to
market online and in
social media, Que
Content marketing, in other words, is nothing new. Companies having
been creating and distributing content for many years, both to attract
new business and to retain existing customers. However, here’s the point
of differentiation from more traditional forms of marketing and
advertising: using content to sell isn’t selling. It isnt advertising. It isn’t
push marketing, in which messages are sprayed out at groups of
consumers. Rather, it’s a pull strategy—it’s the marketing of attraction.
Its being there when consumers need you and seek you out with
relevant, educational, helpful, compelling, engaging, and sometimes
entertaining information.
International Conference “Risk in Contemporary EconomyISSN-L 2067-0532 ISSN online 2344-5386
XVIth Edition, 2015, Galati, Romania,
“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati – Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
Content marketing:
recycling and reuse.
How your best
online content can
engage and attract
new customers, i30
Media Corporation,
New York
Content marketing is a dynamic way to get customers. It is the process of
sharing expertise and knowledge online to attract potential customers
and establish a relationship with them. Content marketers have to be
focused on creating, publishing, and sharing suitable content. However,
many content marketers often overlook a readily available source of
content – articles, case studies, blog posts, videos, images, and other
assets that were created years before yet still have the potential to draw
new customers.
Content Marketing:
insider’s secret to
online sales and lead
generation. One
Night Expert
Publishing New
Content marketing is a marketing techniques that uses high-quality,
relevant content to educate, engage, and acquire your target customer.
Content marketing is not just creating content for the sake of producing
content; your objective is always sales. The true potential of content
marketing lies in its ability to provide a conversion path for your leads to
follow on their own schedule and at their convenience.
In particular, the review, according to other recent systematic reviews within the management
field (Abatecola et al., 2014; David and Han, 2004; Newbert, 2007), focused only on double peer-
reviewed journals articles, regardless of their impact factor. The computer based research was
performed in February 2015 by using the academic journals within the Ebsco-Host database. Choosing
the most suitable research keyworks mostrly derived from the reading of leading journals articles and
books on content marketing. We have conducted a 5 phase research. In the first phase we have
researched papers that contain in their abstract the keyword content marketing, selecting 382 articles.
In the second phase, the relevance of the articles was ensured by requiring that the articles selected in
the previous phase also contained at least one of the following keywords (concept* or definition or
theor* or framework) in their abstract. The asterisk at the end of a keyword allowed for different
suffixes (e.g. theory or theoretical). This phase outputted 110 papers. In the third step the 110 articles’
relevance was ensured by requiring that those articles also contained at least one of the following
three keywords (literature reviews or background or synthesis) in their abstract. This phase outputted
26 articles. In the fourth step, these 26 papers were further scanned by reading all their abstracts and
texts, thus controlling their connection with the research topic. This phase outputted 3 articles. Finally,
in the last phase, the snowballing technique (Iacobucci and Churchill, 2010) was adopted for
integrating the results from the previous phase with papers, book chapters or books, relevant to our
research topics, but not found in the EBSCO-Host database. This phase outputted 9 papers, shown in
Table 1. After analyzing these 9 papers, it has been possible to identify three pillars that characterize
CM: 1) contents; 2) customers engagement and 3) goals. With reference to the first pillar, some authors
(Handley and Chapman, 2010, 2011; Lieb, 2011; Jefferson and Tanton, 2013; Rose and Pulizzi, 2011)
argue that CM means produce quality content, unique, significant, valuable, dynamic and relevant than
competitors. The content must: 1) be able to generate interest, involving, but also informing and
educating the customer; 2) express all those values that identify the firm in terms of uniqueness,
consistency, quality and relevance; 3) be pro-active, that is able to evolve over time. About consumer
engagement, the main role of customer is therefore reflected in the content management system,
creating a logical customer centric view based on a constant adaptation of content to the customers
needs and preferences (Gunelius , 2011, p.56). On the other hand, customers are increasingly part in
the process of creating value through frequent interactions with the firm (value co-creation). This
leads to overcome conventional models of communication because of the technological process:
internet, in particular, has accelerated the process of consumption democratization, making the final
customer more and more informed, interconnected with the firm and with customers. Transferring
power to customers (customer empowerment) allow the value co-creation of CM through a dialogue
between customers and firms. Finally, the third element relates to the objectives pursued by the CM
that does not lead back to the single action of operation marketing, but concern “the creation, capture,
delivery, customization and management of content across an organization so that it delivers a
consistent message about that company and is useful to the customer” (Parkin, 2009, p. 125).
According to Rakic et al. (2014) firms use “digital CM to support the implementation of multiple
business objectives, such as brand awareness, attraction of customers, creating the leads, maintaining
of customer relationships/loyalty etc”. According with literature review and with the three main
features identified in this study we define the CM as a tool to share content, but also to create value and
high returns and financial means of the customers distribution, attraction, involvement, acquisition
and retention.
International Conference “Risk in Contemporary EconomyISSN-L 2067-0532 ISSN online 2344-5386
XVIth Edition, 2015, Galati, Romania,
“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati – Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
2. Inbound Marketing vs. Outbound Marketing: a continuous debate on blogosphere
Digital Marketing provides analysis tools which are highly measurable and results-oriented,
revealing that inbound marketing is exponentially more successful than outbound marketing, when its
techniques are correctly employed. Moreover, Inbound Marketing is considered permission-based
marketing, as the messages are focused on a target audience that has previously given the permission
to communicate, while Outbound Marketing is interruption-based marketing, perceived as the
traditional model of product promotion, in which people have to stop what they're doing to pay
attention to the marketing message or deal with it in some other way.
Inbound marketing is a much more complex approach than outbound marketing. It takes
simultaneous usage of all the digital channels, continuous strengthening of the website, development
of effective content and implementation of measurement tools all in concert with one another to
achieve these unparalleled results.
Inbound marketing focuses on earning a person's attention, which is mainly done through
social media and engaging content, such as blogs, forums, podcasts etc. An interesting article based on
statistical reports (Drell, 2011) outlines the fact that Inbound Marketing costs 62% less per lead than
traditional Outbound Marketing. The content shared through online platforms supports a positive
connection between brands and potential or existent clients, leveraging the brand identity and leading
to conversions. Moreover, it is characterized by a higher ROI. Oppositely, Outbound Marketing,
concentrated on buying people attention, occurs a decreasing trend due to the fundamental shift in
consumers’ behaviour, reflecting the idea that they prefer to control the promotional information they
receive and don’t accept anymore to be interrupted.
Source: adapted after
The findings related to Inbound Marketing techniques (highlighted in blue colour) vs.
Outbound Marketing techniques (highlighted in blue colour) from Figure no. 1 confirm the necessity to
adjust the budgets, by paying more attention to Inbound in the detriment of Outbound techniques.
According to a blog post on, Outbound marketing consists of
putting a commercial message in front of potential consumers, even if they don’t want to or see it. As a
result, this kind of intrusive techniques are often neglected by people, leading to a bad online
reputation of the company which employ such an approach. Inbound marketing puts the message in
front of the target public and if the content is perceived as being relevant, it will be compelled by their
own curiosity to see what the respective company offer. A huge advantage of inbound marketing is that
it provides tools dedicated to interactive communication, where the customer is engaged with the
business in a dialog, through posts, comments, blogs etc. According to Hubspot’s 2014 state of inbound
report (, inbound marketing has the potential to deliver better
results than outbound marketing.
The decision regarding the assignment of marketing budget – considering both outbound and
inbound marketing techniques depends a lot on the resources of your company. All companies, no
matter their dimension, should use in a greater extent inbound marketing techniques. However,
companies with larger resources shouldn’t ignore the benefits of reaching a wider audience using
outbound marketing (Goodwin, 2013). In our vision, pure players are able to exploit all the Inbound
Marketing opportunities, due to their commitment in e-business sphere, while click and mortar
International Conference “Risk in Contemporary EconomyISSN-L 2067-0532 ISSN online 2344-5386
XVIth Edition, 2015, Galati, Romania,
“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati – Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
companies, as well as brick and mortar companies, can also benefit from Outbound marketing
Comprehensive insights of Inbound and Outbound Marketing techniques can be examined in a
growth hacking framework (Table 1), developed by D. Donkers (2013).
Table 1: Inbound vs. Outbound Marketing techniques: objectives and examples
Techniques Objective Examples
SEO Generate Traffic Accurate and unique titles, meta-tags,
load times, responsive design etc.
Blog Thought leadership
and Brand Exposure
Customer Studies, Market Studies,
Company Insights
Webinar Generate Traffic Learning-focused and Marketing
focused Webinars
Social Media Generate Traffic and
Brand Exposure
Sharing relevant content via social
Search Engine
Generate Traffic Google Adwords, Bing Ads
Display Ads Generate Traffic Quantcast Ads, Adroll, Premium
Generate Traffic Content-based, Coupon-based, &
Price Comparison
Source: adapted after
An interesting opinion (De Clerck -
outbound-marketing-pointless-debate/) reflects that the distinction between “inbound” and
“outbound” is really an artificial and meaningless one. He promotes the idea that no form of marketing
can be attributed to any of these artificial concepts and propose an overlapping position between
Inbound and Outbound, described as grey zone (Table no. 2).
Table 2 – Emphasis of an overlapping zone between Inbound and Outbound Marketing techniques
Inbound Marketing Outbound Marketing Grey zone
Content Marketing
Blog Marketing
Socia Media Marketing
Viral Marketing
Print Ads
Direct Mailings
Outbound Call Center
TV, Radio advertising
Intrusive online ads
E-mail Marketing
Display Advertising
Search Engine Ads
Social media (when
used as broadcasting
Source: adapted after
Despite the budgetary constraints involved by Inbound and Outbound Marketing approaches,
a blogpost on introduces other variables: the time and the long term effects.
Accordingly to this source, the amount of time it takes to get results can be quite different when
comparing outbound marketing to inbound marketing. Thus, a successfully implemented outbound
marketing campaign potentially lead companies to see results right away. On the other hand, inbound
marketing campaign frequently put companies in situation to wait a while before seeing the results.
Regarding the other variable mentioned above, long-term effects reflect the following issues: even if
outbound marketing could potentially deliver quick results, these campaigns usually have a short-term
effect on financial indicators of a company; an effective inbound marketing campaign, on the other
hand, provides results for quite a long time. In this way, both pure players and click and mortar
companies must be aware of these variables when implementing the marketing campaign for their
current business needs.
Inbound Marketing creates Top of Mind Preference, while Outbound Marketing is mainly
focused on Top of Mind Awareness. With inbound content marketing programs, you can move beyond
International Conference “Risk in Contemporary EconomyISSN-L 2067-0532 ISSN online 2344-5386
XVIth Edition, 2015, Galati, Romania,
“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati – Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
simple awareness to generate preference and implicitly brand addiction – this goal can be achieved
through the positioning of a brand as the preferred choice (Martin, 2013). Inbound marketing’s biggest
weakness is related to the fact that the prospect is not able to find your company online, in the context
of a highly competitive keyword space. Waiting for prospective buyers to find a company online, it
might lose a sale to a more aggressive traditionally minded competitor that fully exploits the
traditional tools of the trade, such as the Outbound Marketing techniques.
Following the negative trends for outbound marketing, according to statistical data available
on (86% of the population skips TV ads, 91% have
unsubscribed from email lists, 44% of direct mail is never opened, over 200 million phone numbers
are on the Do Not Call List), inbound marketing is perceived as the most suitable solution, if
implemented accordingly starting from getting found online, converting a visitor to a lead, and then
measuring, analyzing and iterating to refine the process and improve the results (Burdett, 2014). Even
if the prospective buyer keeps the control in the interactive communication process, leading to a better
positioning for inbound marketing, it will not eliminate the need for outbound marketing.
In its attempt to provide value to potential customers and create lasting connections with
them, Inbound Marketing is traveling alongside online technology, meaning it is quickly becoming a
integrative part of the business philosophy (Mincher, 2015). Contrary, the biggest challenges in making
outgoing marketing effective are difficulty in tracking conversions and an increasingly long and
constantly-evolving list of techniques to protect prospective buyers from interruptive outgoing
marketing. Four major challenges are actually associated to permission based inbound marketing
methods: how to attract the attention of the target audience, how to predict conversations related on a
company’s online promotional campaigns, how to create and enhance online brand awareness and
how to simultaneously attract new customers and develop loyalty with current ones (Quin Woodward
Pu, 2015).
3. Preliminary conclusions and future research agenda
In order to achieve the main goal of the survey that we are carrying out – the identification of
the propensity degree towards inbound or outbound marketing technique in the case of Italian and
Romanian companies (pure players and click and mortar companies), we developed a questionnaire,
based on 20 items (10 of them reflecting the inbound marketing approach, while the other 10 items
outlining the outbound marketing approach). The answers to the questionnaire, filled by the
representatives of 100 Italian companies (35 pure players and 65 click and mortar companies) and
100 Romanian companies (46 pure players and 54 click and mortar companies) have already been
stored in a SPSS database, which constitutes the data source for their analytical approach by means of
adequate statistical methods.
Our assumption to be tested outlines the propensity of pure players towards Inbound
Marketing techniques and a balanced mix of both Inbound and Outbound Marketing techniques in the
case of click and mortar companies. Moreover, we are also interested to investigate the culture
influence upon the propensity to one or another Marketing technique.
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... Inbound marketing is gaining ground over outbound marketing due to investments in digital corporate channels such as blogs and social network profiles (Volpe, 2015). As it involves employing marketing techniques during the creation of useful content for consumers and distributing it through digital channels, inbound marketing is divided into content marketing, blog marketing, social media marketing and Search Engine Optimization (Dakouan et al, 2019;Rancati et al, 2015& Volpe, 2015. ...
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Data generation is currently expanding at an astonishing pace, and the function of marketing is becoming increasingly sophisticated and customized. Companies seek to understand their internal corporate environment and externalities and to exponentially enhance their marketing power. This study aims to understand the influence of Big data analysis on digital marketing. The methodologies used to approach this issue were: (a) a systematic literature review based on articles dated between 2014 and 2020; and (b) a bibliometric analysis of articles dated between 2000 and 2020 using the software VOSviewer. The literature review allowed us to conclude that in the next decades, the business world in general, and marketing in particular, will define more oriented strategies based on a more profound knowledge of consumer behavior. Artificial intelligence agents driven by machine learning methods, technology, and Big data will be a conditioning factor in defining these strategies.
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Since content audiences, including libraries and information centres, are increasingly geared to digital environments and virtual networks, the production and delivery of high-quality digital content are becoming continuously important. So far, several components have been introduced by researchers for evaluating the quality of digital content generation. However, due to the uncertainty of the importance rate and value of each of these components, it has not yet been possible to use them effectively to evaluate the content produced. This study aimed to rank the components of content generation to allow accurate evaluation of them for users as well as content providers and distributors including libraries and marketers. The ranked content can motivate digital content producers and distributors to better evaluate the quality of digital content, better attract customers and make more effective decisions about the quality of digital content use based on their specific goals. Initially, 42 of the most important components were identified from the literature. Then, the next steps were taken to rank these components, and based on three rounds of Delphi interviews, the experts’ views on the importance rate of each of the components were obtained, analysed and ranked. Since in this ranking, the importance of a wide range of components should be highlighted towards each other, the fuzzy TOPSIS technique was emphasised for analysing the views of 16 experts in the field of content generation in Iran. This ranking indicated that components such as ‘findable and access’, ‘non-disturbing and helpful’, ‘clear’ and ‘remarkable’ are the main pillars of content generation and are of the utmost importance. The results can be used as an effective tool to improve the quality of content. Moreover, it increases audience engagement in digital environments and social networks, and encourages them to make more use of the digital content of libraries.
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Serbian Abstract: У информационом веку, мења се понашање организација на пословном тржишту. Организације као купци имају знатно већу моћ на пословном тржишту. Организације као продавци одговарају креирањем и бесплатним дељењем садржаја који је битан за потенцијалне и постојеће купце. Организације примењују маркетинг дигиталног садржаја да би подржале остваривање вишеструких циљева пословања, као што су: свесност о бренду, привлачење потрошача, стварање потенцијалних онлајн купаца, одржавање односа са потрошачима/лојалност итд. Кључни облици садржаја су: чланци, текстови путем дрштвених медија (мрежа, блогова итд.), е-билтени, студије случаја, догађаји, видео садржаји итд. Посебан изазов је континуално креирање и промоција довољно квалитетног садржаја за потенцијалне и актуелне организације као купце. English Abstract: In the information century, the behavior of organizations in the business market is changing. Organizations as buyers have much more power at the business market. Organizations as sellers respond with the creation and free sharing of content that is important for potential and actual customers. Organizations apply digital marketing content to support the implementation of multiple business objectives, such as brand awareness, attraction of customers, creating the leads, maintaining of customer relationships/loyalty etc. The key forms of content are: articles, texts on social media (network, blogs, etc.), e-newsletter, case studies, events, videos etc. A particular challenge is the continuous creation and promotion of sufficient quality content for potential and current organizations as buyers.
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Can particular characteristics of the board of directors positively affect the survival chances of distressed firms? How has the empirical research on this topic evolved over the years? How have the statistical techniques been developed? Corporate distress has always represented an outstanding topic for both scholars and practitioners. However, identifying what board features can enhance corporate survival chances in turbulent times has still not provided the community with conclusive results. This essay aims at contributing to fill this gap by presenting the main results of a rigorous literature review on the topic. The essay provides its readers with a number of interesting implications for the ongoing debate. In fact, the presented results suggest that the empirical research on the investigated topic has tremendously expanded over the last 30 years. Several changes are observable across different periods in terms of the variables explored and the statistical methods applied. In general, the heterogeneity of the statistical methods has increased proportionally to time and journal ranking. On the one hand, understanding the impact of certain board variables (i.e. single socio-demographic features, board size and CEO duality) has produced convergent results, although the extant literature is still limited. On the other hand, variables, such as board and CEO turnover, have produced no conclusive results, although researchers have devoted considerable time to these variables. Board independence constitutes the sole exception, since the amount of observations is significant and most of the studies agree that the presence of outside directors can enhance corporate turnaround.
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Purpose: Over the years, the empirical evidences have demonstrated that particular board features can improve the survival chances of firms suffering a crisis and, to date, experts agree that discussing these evidences is necessary for the further improvement of knowledge in this field. This article aims to contribute to this goal by commenting on how the empirical research on board effectiveness in crisis contexts has been evolving over time. Design/methodology/approach: This is a critical review article. Findings: Valuable evidences emerge from the review. For example, it seems that board independence has a key role in enhancing the performance of firms suffering a crisis. At the same time, the review suggests that further refinement is needed for supporting (or eventually refuting) the idea that boards and/or CEOs must be replaced to achieve successful turnaround strategies. Originality/value: On the basis of its findings, the review also prospects a number of conceptual and methodological implications for the future research and practice about board effectiveness in corporate crises. For example, these implications are associated with future investigations about the executives’ socio-demographic features and personality traits as well. More international comparisons seem also needed to improve the reliability of the extant knowledge.
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By considering the problems that commercial saffron companies have faced in international markets, the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of website content, including informational and design dimensions, on the effectiveness of e-marketing and e-trust as mediator variables. These aspects are examined with reference to sales and marketing division managers in a sample of 100 commercial saffron corporations in the Khorasan province. The findings support the ideas that website content has an effect on e-marketing and e-trust and that e-trust plays a mediating role in the relationship between e-trust and e-marketing effectiveness.
If you have a website, a blog, or even a Facebook or Twitter presence, you are a publisher. Think like one: build a digital content strategy that embraces words, images and multimedia to systematically enhance consumer engagement and conversion rates. In Content Marketing, world-renowned digital content expert Rebecca Lieb offers all the detailed, actionable guidance you'll need. Lieb guides you through planning what you'll say online, how and where you'll say it, how often you'll communicate, and how you'll measure your effectiveness. She offers practical guidance for "listening" to conversations about your brand, products, and services, responding more effectively, and effectively informing those conversations. You'll learn how to use your digital content strategy to shape marketing, branding, PR, SEO, customer and media relations, blog content, social media initiatives, and of course, your website. Lieb drills down to offer detailed, actionable advice for issues such as choosing distribution channels making sure you don't run out of things to say making your content "findable" promoting two-way dialogue. Using her techniques, you can market far more effectively and personally build loyalty as you inform and entertain customers and reduce or even eliminate advertising costs. Think about it: why buy media when, today, you are the media?