In the late 1960s, black and white women were both inspired and disillusioned by the movements for social change. The centuries-long struggle for gender equality was reinvigorated by their experiences within civil rights, Black Power, and newly formed student organizations. Fannie Lou Hamer challenged core aspects of the women’s liberation movements, especially the feminists’ one-dimensional view of relations between the sexes and their stances on birth control and other aspects of reproductive rights. Hamer expressed her concerns in a speech delivered at the founding meeting of the National Women’s Political Caucus in Washington, D.C. on July 10, 1971. This chapter reproduces Hamer’s speech, in which she pays tribute to black women in Mississippi who “started the ball rolling” with regard to civil rights activism and to white women who recently “woke up” to white male patriarchal oppression. Hamer also talked about the Vietnam War, malnutrition in Mississippi, and the “dope” pandemic consuming the nation’s young people.