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The declassification of CORONA high-resolution space photography has made a valuable new resource available for the study of ancient landscapes. Using a recent case-study from Syria, examples are given of various ways in which CORONA imagery can significantly enhance regional survey work.
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Philip, G. and Donoghue, D. N. M. and Beck, A. R. and Galiatsatos, N. (2002) ’CORONA satellite
photography : an archaeological application from the Middle East.’, Antiquity., 76 (291). pp. 109-118.
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CORONA
satellite photography:
an archaeological application
from
the Middle
East
G. PHILIP,
D.
DONOGHUE,
A.
BECK
&
N.
GALIATSATOS"
The declassification
of
CORONA
high-resolution space photography has made a valuable
new resource available
for
the study of ancient landscapes. Using a recent case-study
from Syria, examples are given of various ~,vays in which
CORONA
imagery can
significantly enhance regional survey
work.
Keywords:
Satellite imagery; (:ORONA, archaeological survey,
Syria,
laridscapes
Introduction
Whilc the value of satellite imagery to archae-
ology is increasingly apparent, most current
applications involve its use for environmental
reconstruction (e.g. Ogtir
et
al.
1999;
Marcolongo
&
Barisano
2000).
Because ofthe relatively low
spatial resolution of the most familiar types of
imagery
[e.g.
30
m
for Landsat multispectral
data), these are of limited applicability for the
identification of individual archaeological fea-
tures (Kennedy 1998:
555).
The resolution
is-
sue may explain the rarity
of
publications which
document the systematic use of satellite im-
agery in the context of archaeological survey
in the Mediterranean and Middle East (Saris
&Jones
2000:
53;
Wilkinson
2000:
228).
Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery has been
used to aid the identication of settlements and
'linear hollows' around sites in the Jazira of
north Iraq (Wilkinson
&
Tucker
1995:
16-17,
25),
and alongside SPOT panchromatic data
(10-
m
resolution) to identify south Mesopotamian
tell-sites and ancient irrigation canals previ-
ously known from air-photographs (Verhocven
&Dales
1994:
535). However, the effectiveness
of
satellite imagery alone for the identification
of archaeological features remains uncertain
because the latter report, while referring to sites
as small
as
1
ha in area (Verhoeven
&
Dales
1994: 537-9, figures
11,
13),
does not make it
clear by which of these means the smaller sites
were, in fact, identified.
However, the declassification
of
military
satellite photography in recent years, in
par-
ticular Russian KVR
1000
and American CO-
RONA imagery3 offers researchers the ability
to identify linear structures such
as
walls,
tracks,
and individual features measuring no more than
a
few metres in diameter; see Comfort
et
al.
(2000:
103-6,
122-3,
figures
3-5)
for
a
hrief
comparison of the two types of data.
As
Kennedy
(1998) has pointed out, such imagery is of great
potential value for archaeology in parts of the
world for which detailed maps and good air-
photographic data have traditionally been hard
to obtain. The discussion below documents one
such case.
Seltleinenl
and
Landscape
Developriient in
the
Homs
Region,
Syria
(SHR)
is a joint Syrian-
British co-operative project organized by the
University
of
Durham and the Directorate Gen-
eral of Antiquities and Museums (DGAM), Syria
(FIGURE
1).
It is
a
multidisciplinary regional
project designed to take a long-term perspec-
1
CORONA
and
KVR
1000
data have been acquired at a
variety of ground resolutions and although these can be
scanned, draped over
a
map backdrop arid subsequently
pro-
jected at various scales using
GIS
software, it is difficult to
attribute a
map
scale
in the normal sense of the term to the
imagery itself. This issue has been touched upon by Pctrie
(1999:
2-3,
table
21,
in his discussion of the photographic
scale
of
the negatives produced by various space cameras,
hilt cannot
be
considered
in
detail in the present article. Suf-
fice it
to
say for now that it is hard to make a direct compari-
son between photographic scale and irnagcs that are viewed
in a digital format, hecause the process of digital scanning
imposes
a
pixel resolution different from the process of pho-
tographic enlargement
from
a
negative.
*
Philip
&
Bcck, Departnierit
of
Archaeology, University of Durham, South Road, Durham
UH1
3LE,
England. Donoghue
&
Galiatsatos, Department
of
Geography, University
of
Durham. South
Road,
hrham
DHI
31.E.
England.
Received
16
July
2001,
accepted
7
August
2001,
revised
8
Octnber
2001
ANTIQUITY
76
(2002):
109-18
110
C;.
PHILIP,
D.
DONOGHUE.
A.
DECK
S;
N.
CALIATSATOS
FIGURE
1.
The
east Mediterranean showing
location
of
Homs.
tive on the relationship between human activ-
ity and landscape development in the upper
Orontes Valley (Philip
et
al.
in press).
As
such,
the effective identification of hitherto undocu-
mented loci
of past
human activity is of prime
importance,
The project comprises a northern and a south-
ern study area, with a combined area
of
ap-
proximately 600 sq. km2 (FIGURE
2).
Traditional
subsistence strategies in this area have been
dominated by rain-fed cereal cultivation, sup-
plemented by tree crops. Preliminary assess-
ment in 1998 indicated the presence of typical
near-eastern tell sites, most
of
which appcar
on the current Syrian 1:50,000 maps, but also
numerous low mounds and flat sites indicated
by surface artefact scatters.
A
marked propor-
tion
of
the latter do not appear on the maps,
suggesting that they are significantly
underrepresented within the current informa-
tion base.
As
there had been little previous ar-
chaeological survey work in the area west of
Homs, and neither aerial-photography nor topo-
graphic mapping at scales greater than
1:50000
were then available,’
SHR
required a means of
focusing field investigation, and thus incrcas-
2
We
have recently learned
from
Dr
Ma’amom
Abdclkariiii
of
the Ilnioersity
of
Damascus
of
the
existence
of
some
French
air-photugraphs
of
the
IIoms
region dating
to
the
1930s.
In
additioii
Dr
Levon
Nordiguian of
the
Uriiversitd
de St-Joseph in Beirut has informed
us
that the collection
of
pre-World
War
I1
air-photographs taken by Poidebard
also includes material covering the Honis
area.
ing the rate at which an overall impression
of
the quantity, nature and distribution
of
archaeo-
logical remains could be obtained.
A
potential
solution appeared to lie in the recently declas-
sified
CORONA
imagery.
CORONA
The
CORONA
project operated from 1960 to
1972 during which time
a
series of satellites
collccted photographic intelligence
for
the
United States military. The declassified data,
which was placed in the public domain in
1996,
includes extensive coverage of the Middle East.
In
this report we have used images taken by
the
CORONA
camera system
KH-4B,
which pro-
vided imagery with ground resolution ranging
between
2
m and 8 m. Details of the various
CORONA
satellites and technical characteristics
of the data are discussed elsewhere (Donoghue
2001;
McDonald
1995;
1997). The age
of
the
data offers a particular advantage in that it
records a late 1960s landscape. Not only does
this reveal far less ‘urban-industrial clutter’ than
that of the present day (Wilkinson
2000: 228),
it also preserves landscape features which have
been maskcd
or
damagcd by changes in agri-
cultural practices over the last three decades.
Methodology
CORONA
data is riot supplied in digital form,
but as photographic products. These data are
available from the United States Geological
Survey Global Land Information System
(USGS
GLIS).
The data are inexpensive, easy to ob-
tain
and
relatively well documented, and the
database of available images can be searched
by geographic co-ordinates arid scenes inspected
over the weh (‘quick looks’) at the LJSGS web-
site
(http:/ledc.usgs.gov/Webglis/glisbin/search.
pl?DISP).
For
our study the data were obtained
as
copy
photographic negatives. While
CORONA
nega-
tives can produce high-quality printed enlarge-
ments, there can he significant geometric:
distortion in
the
resulting images (Goossens
Pt
al.
forthcoming). The utility of the data as far
as
landscape work is
r:once:med
is enhanced
by its conversion to digital form, which allows
its use within a Geographic Tnformation Sys-
tem. This is achieved by scanning the selected
area of interest from the negatives.
As
the re-
solving power
of
the film employed in
CORONA
missions was
as
high as
160
lp/mm (McDonalcl
CORONA
SATE1,T.TTE PHOTOGRAPHY
IN
THE
MlOULE
EASI'
111
FIGURE
2.
The
Orontes Valley
and surrounding
areas showing
nortlicrn and
southcrn study
areas;
Landsat
TIM
image
ID:
Lx517403601)872741#.
1
October
1987,
Bands
3,
2,
1.
112
G.
PHITJP,
n.
DONOGHLJE,
A
BECK
&
N. GALIATSATOS
1997),
high-resolution scanning is required to
avoid loss of detail from the original image.3
In this case, the negatives were scanned with
an optical resolution of 7.5 pm (equivalent to
around
3400
dpi).
For
this, a photogrammetric
scanner was employed
as
these produce dig-
ital files which are geometrically corrcctcd to
eliminate the known error of that particular
machine. The result is
a
raster image
(a
tif file)
which is subsequently geometrically corrected,
with reference to either local topographic maps,
or
to
GPS
data collected in thc field.
In digital form, CORONA data can be en-
hanced using image processing software, and
incorporated
as
a
layer within a
CIS.
This al-
3
The resolving power of
a
photographic
emulsion re-
fers
to the number
of
alternating bars
arid
spaces
of
equal
width that can
be
recorded
as
visually
separate elements
in the
space
of
one millimetre
on
the emulsion. The
coni-
binatioii of
a
bar
and
a
space
is referred to
as a 'line'
or
'line-pair' and resolving power is specified in liriesimrri
(l/mm) or line-pairs/mm (lpimm). Thus
the
figure
160
lp/
mm
provides an indication
of
the
ability
of
the emulsion
to provide distinct images
of
small, closely spaced objects
[American National Standard Method
for
determining the
resolving power
of
photographic matorials,
PH2.33-1969).
SHR
no.
255
256
308
446
44
7
454
458
472
approx. size (ha)
tell
0.7
ha, height
5
m
tell
c.
2
ha, height
10
m
scatter
of
sherditile
1.5
ha,
flat
olive press
sparse artcfact scatter,
extent uncertain
scatter of sherditile
1.2
ha, flat
scatter
of
sherditile,
extent masked
by
recent tree planting
scatter
of
basalt
fragments and flint;
diameter
30
ni
lows
a
direct interface bctwccn the imagery and
data derived from cartographic sources
or
col-
lected in the field. This ptocedure also facili-
tates the comparison of individual features
as
they
appear in different
CORONA
scenes, which
will generally cover
a
range
of
seasons, times
of day, and atmospheric conditions (Donoghne
et
al.
2002: 216-18).
CORONA
as
an
aid
to
site
detection
The value of
CORONA
imagery
as
an
aid to
site identification is best outlined with refer-
ence to
a
specific example area, which includes
sites
of
several different types
(TABLE
1,
FIG-
URE
3).
Those sites discussed below are located
around
12
km
south-southwest of Homs, in an
area dominated by marls and conglomerates
(Ponikarov
et
al.
1964).
The image was taken
after the harvest
and
so
crop cover is minimal.
The two tell sites
(SHR
255
and
256)
were
clearly marked
on
the 1:50,000 map series and
both are readily visible on CORONA as distinct
dark areas. The map-cont~nrs that indicate the
tell of
SHR
256 cover
an
area considcrably
smaller than the dark area visible
on
CORONA
periods indication on
identified
1:50,000
map
method
of
initial
location
Bronze-Iron Age name Tell Aqarib mapping
and contour
Bronze-Iron Age name Tell Ahmad mapping
and contour
lslamic place-name Khirbat al-Matr, CORONA, confirmed
appears without symbol
by
field-walking
or
contour indications
Roman-Islamic none field-walking
prehistoric none field-walking
Roman-B yzantine none
RomadIslamic none
prehistoric? none
pastoralist
campsite?
CORONA, confirmed
by
Geld-walking
CORONA, confirmed
by
field-walking
field-walking
TAULE
1.
Ilinrocteristics
of
sites
in
example
men.
CORONA SATELLITE
PHOTOGRAPHY
IN
TIIE
MIDDLE EAST
113
0
2
Kilometres
FIGURE
3.
Visibility
of
archaeological sites
in
the
n~rrls
of
fhe
south err^
study area,
post-harvest
1~11d~c~pe.
CORONA
ihfission
no.
111
1,
-71
July
1.970.
which suggests that this might be a complex
site. Field-walking confirmed that this was in-
deed the casc:
as
jt revealed the presence of a
distinct concentration of artefactual material
(SHR
458)
extending southwards from the south-
eastern margin of the tell. This occupation was
chronologically distinct from that on the tell
itself. CORONA also proved highly effective
in locating flat, but relatively extensive arte-
fact scatters, a site category the importance of
which had been highlighted
by
preliminary work
in
1998,
and which is underrepresented
on
the
maps.
SHR
308
and
SHR
454
which appear
as
distinct dark zones are good examples.
SHR
308
could be equated with a place name
(khirbnh
-ruin) appearing on the
1:50,000
map, but in
a
location several hundred metres distant from
the actual site (see
TABLE
1).
As
expected
CO-
RONA was less effective in the identification
of small, or sparse, artefact scatters, such as
447,
several of which were located during field-
walking.
It is not yet clear what
is
actually causing
the relatively high visibility of ploughed-out
settlements in CORONA images of this area.
However, the most likely explanation is that
certain characteristics of composition
or
struc-
ture result in a distinction between the reflec-
tivity
of
soils containing quantities
of
anthropogenic debris, and those origjnating in
the local geology. This problem is currently
under investigation.
CORONA
as
a
tool
for
mapping
archaeological features
The basaltic landscape west
of
the Orontes River
is characterized by extensive areas of rectilin-
ear
walls
that demarcate ancient field systems.
While these lie beyond the resolution of Landsat
Thematic Mapper imagery, they are readily vis-
114
G.
PHILIP,
D.
DONOGIIUE,
A.
BECK
8r
N.
GRLIRTSATOS
0
2
Kilometres
FrGuns
4.
Area
of
basult landscape
in
the northern study area, showing field systems: contours marked
in yellow at
5-m
intervals. Note tlie contrast between the large fields in Area
1,
the ‘small, regular
divisions oJ”Area
2,
and the irregular field boundaries
of
Area
3.
KD indicates the village
of
Karad
Dehasnyeh. CORONA
Mission
no.
1108,
17
December
1969.
ible using
CORONA.
The imagery reveals con-
siderable variability between the size and shape
of fields in different areas
[FIGURE
4).
When
contour data
is
overlaid, it is clear that the walls
are orientated broadly east-west and north-
south, regardless of local topography
[FIGURE
4).
When projected at a larger-scale
[FIGURE
5)
the imagery permits detailed assessment
of
the
size and layout of individual fields, and sug-
gests the existence of major wall alignments
which organize the fields into blocks. It is
also
possible to differentiate between stone cairns
which appear as solid, dark, sub-circular fea-
tures within the field systems, and ‘hollow’
ovoid features. Ground observation has revealed
the latter to consist
of
clusters of sub-circular
enclosures, presumably connected with animal
husbandry. Many examples of both cairns and
enclosures are between
8
and
1.7
m in diam-
eter, giving an impressionlof the level of detail
which
CORONA
can provide. In this case
CO-
RONA
appears
to
be sensitive to the different
reflectance properties
of
the concentrations
of
basalt represented by walls and cairns, and the
soil
and vegetation matrix occurring within
fields and enclosures.
Investigation of well-preserved sections
of
field-system indicates that these represent
palimpsests, which include a variety of walls
of
different breadths, heights and frequently
construction.
A
study
of
clomparable field
sys-
tems in south Syria using pre-World
War
I1
air-
photographic data [Villeneuve
1985)
suggested
that these originated in the Roman period, al-
though they had been much altered subse-
CORONA SATELLITE
PHOTOGKAPHY
1N
THE
MIDDLE
EAST
115
0
1
Kilometre
FIGURE
5.
Area
of
basalt landscape in the northern study area, showing cairns and enclosrires; some
measure less than
10
m
in diameter. CORONA Mission
no.
11
08,
17
December 1969.
quently. Equally, to judge from their structural
variability, those features currently termed
‘cairns’ appear to fall into
a
number of distinct
types (Philip
et
al.
in press), although some are
almost certainly clearance cairns
as
previously
documented in the basalt landscape
of
southern
Syria (Gentelle
198.5:
34-5).
However, these dis-
tinctions are not apparent on CORONA images.
Change detection
Dating from the
1960s,
CORONA provides a
key set
of
reference data
for
the analysis of land-
scape change. It will therefore be of use for
a
range of research and cultural resource man-
agement purposes. This aspect
of
COKONA
is
likely
to
prove of great value to local antiqui-
ties organizations in regions where rapid popu-
lation growth and economic development are
placing great pressure on an inadequately docu-
mented archaeological record.
Ground observation has revealed that exten-
sive areas
of
the landscape described above have
been destroyed in recent years by agricultural
bulldozing. As a result, the field-systems as
currently preserved
in
many areas differ sig-
nificantly from those appearing in the
CO-
RONA imagery. Fieldwork in September
2000
revealed that such has been the degree of dis-
turbance in some areas since the
1960s
that
it is now difficult to relate specific features
observed
011
the imagery to the evidence on
thc ground. CORONA preserves evidence of
the landscape as it was before recent large-
scale bulldozing. The availability of an ac-
cessible, high resolution record of the
landscape as it was
30
years ago, will enhance
the value of newer high resolution imagery
such as Ikonos
(http://www.spaceimaging.com)
for monitoring landscape change. This is be-
cause CORONA provides a critically important
1lfi
0
C;.
PHITJP,
D.
DONOGIIUE.
A.
BECK
Ei
K.
GALIATSATOS
2
Kilometres
VIGURE
6.
Linear
fenture
running
enst
of
Orontes river close
to the
510-m
contour.
CORONA
Mission
170.
1111, 31
July1970.
high-resolution benchmark, against which sub-
sequent landscape modification can be meas-
ured.
CORONA
and landscape studies
The potential
of CORONA
to improve our un-
derstanding of the wider landscape
is
clear
from
the presence
on
the imagery
of
a distinctive,
sinuous, linear feature
(FIGURE
6).
This can
bt:
followed running in
a
southerly direction from
the southern margin
of
SHR
014
(Tell es-Sefinet
Nehi Noah). The latter
is
a
large
(c.
16
ha)
rec-
tangular site surrounded by an earthen
ram-
part (light colour in the image) and external
COKONA
SATELLITE
PHOTOGRAPHY
IN
T€IE
MIDDLE
EAST
117
ditch (not readily identifiable on the image,
perhaps because of crop growth within it). This
feature is marked on the current Syrian
1:50,000
maps as a seasonal watercourse, although it is
absent from the French mandate maps produced
in the
1930s.
As
seen on CORONA, however, this feature
differs from other seasonal watercourses in the
area. These take the form of ill-defined, dark
meandering features (see FIGURE
3,
e.g. the wadi
running northwards from
SHR
256
towards SHR
472).
In
contrast, the feature in question ap-
pears as
a
clear undulating line with distinct
edges. It is also short, continuing in a south-
erly direction from
SHR
014
for some 3.5 km,
before it disappears within the heavily modi-
fied agricultural landscape which predominates
close
to
the Orontes river in this area. Secondly,
while other watercourses follow descending
paths that are clearly demarcated in the map
contours, this feature appears to follow rather
than cross the contours. The obvious implica-
tion
is
that it was an artificial channel, con-
nected in some way with
SHR
014.
In recent years,
a
major expansion of irri-
gated horticulture has restricted surface visibil-
ity, rendering
its
ground observation diffic:ult.
However in September
2001
using
GPS,
the team
identified a clearly bounded linear feature com-
posed of greyish silts, which is visible at sev-
eral locations south of SHR
014.
The observed
contrast between this and the red-brown natu-
ral deposits suggests that it represents an in-
filled water channel. The existence of this
substantial feat of engineering has important
implications for the significance of SHR
014.
Above all, in the absence of good air-photo-
graphs, it is unlikely that the significance of
this feature would have been appreciated with-
out the aid
of
CORONA.
In this case CORONA served three key func-
tions. It made apparent an intriguing feature
that could not be identified readily, either on
the ground
or
through lower resolution imagery.
It demonstrated that the morphology of this
feature was different from that of the local wadi
systems, while the geocorrected COKONA im-
References
COMrORT.
A,,
C.
ABADIE-REYNAL
h-
R.
ERGEC.
2000.
Crossing
the Euphrates in antiquity:
Zeugma
seen frnm
space,
fnotoliari Studies
50:
08-126.
IIENTZER,
J:M.
(ed.).
1985.
Hauran
I.
Recherches
sur
la
Syrie
du sud
a
l’epoque
hellenistique et romaine. Paris: Institut
agery facilitated its accurate location on the
ground using
GPS,
a vital contribution in a
heavily cropped landscape.
Conclusion
The foregoing has, in
our
view. demonstrated
not only the value
of
CORONA imagery in site
location, but
as
an aid to various means of land-
scape assessment. The main contribution of
CORONA
in the southern study area appears
to be its ability to aid the identification ofnon-
tell settlement remains, in particular concen-
trations of occupational debris in the size range
0.5-1-5 ha,
a
category of site which is frequently
under-represented on the maps. It might be
viewed
as
offering
a
partial substitute for aerial
photography in areas for which such data is
not available. In the northern area, CORONA
has proved an effective means of understand-
ing the overall distribution and organization
of field systems,
a
task which would be im-
possible to achieve over a significant area
through ground survey alone. Finally,
geocorrected Corona imagery has the potential,
when linked with
CPS,
to allow the location
of features on the ground with great speed and
accuracy. While its limitations must be recog-
nized,
for
many parts of the world CORONA
imagery is likely to represent a significant im-
provement upon the information soiirccs
cur-
rently available.
As
such it is likely to become
an invaluable tool for archaeological survey.
AL;knuil/lt.d,.ernm2ls.
The authors wish
to
acknowledge the
debt owed
to
Steven Holmes who first drew our attention
to the potential of
CORONA
imagery
for
archaculogy.
The
authors wish to thank
the
Council for British
Ke-
search
in
thc
Lcvarit
and thu Rcsearch Commitlcc of the
University
of
Dnrhani for providing financial and logistical
support.
Particular thanks arc duc Lo
Prof.
Sultan Muhesen
and
Dr Ahd el-Razzaq Moaz, Directors General of Antiqui-
ties
arid Muscurris, Syria.
who
have lielpcd
thc
project in
many ways. J,ocal support in
Horns
has been ably provided
by Farid Jabour and Maryarn Bshesh of
the
Horns office
of
the
DGAM.
Nikolaos Galiatsatos and Anthony Beck are
currently registered
as
PhD
students, and gratefully acknowl-
edge
the
support
of
their respective funding bodies -thc
Helleiiic State Scholarship Foimdation, speciality
T1327.06,
contract
368
(NG),
and the Natural Environment Research
Council,
Award Rcf.
GT0499TS53
(AB).
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Reviews the importance of the CORONA programme for cold war intelligence in the 1960s. CORONA was a space reconnaissance project authorised in the USA by President Eisenhower. The development of the project is detailed, and a range of photographic imagery is presented. Other programmes detailed include the ARGON mapping system, the LANYARD high resolution surveillance system. Camera technologies are detailed. The impact of intelligence on US National Security, and international arms monitoring, is described. Civilian implications and uses are noted. -M.Blakemore
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During the last few years geophysical survey has developed considerably in terms of instrumentation and image processing. Together with remote sensing and GIS, it is becoming increasingly, if still slowly, integrated into archaeological investigations in the Mediterranean. This article reviews how, and with what success, geophysical techniques-and, to a lesser extent, geochemical methods, aerial/satellite remote sensing and GIS-have been applied to Mediterranean (especially Greek) archaeology, bearing in mind the environmental constraints of the region, and the significance, diversity and number of its ancient monuments. The application of all the main techniques of geophysical survey and some geochemical methods to a wide range of archaeological targets carried out over the last 40 years is discussed critically. Current developments in instrumentation and data processing are presented, and the next generation of geophysical work, which will have to meet challenges in relation to the protection and management of cultural resources, is also considered. In view of the need to create a common platform for the preservation of cultural heritage, it is argued that geophysical prospection techniques have to become an inseparable component of the archaeological investigative process.
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This work synthesizes and critically evaluates the results of field surveys conducted over the last 20 years in southern (lower) and northern (upper) Mesopotamia, with emphasis placed on the increasing contribution of off-site and intensive surveys to regional analysis. During the Ubaid period the density of settlement was probably higher in the rain-fed north than the irrigated south, and even during the phase of 3rd millennium B.C. urbanization, settlement densities in the north were probably equivalent to or even exceeded those in the south. Although trends in settlement were often synchronous between north and south, there was also a marked spatial variability in settlement, with declines in one area being compensated by rises elsewhere. Particularly clear was the existence of a major structural transformation from nucleated centers during the Bronze Age towards dispersed patterns of rural settlement and more extensive lower towns in the Iron Age.
In press. Settlement and landscape development in the Homs region, Syria: research questions, preliminary results 1999-2000 and future potential
  • G Philip
  • F Jabour
  • A Beck
  • M Bsiiesh
  • J Grove
  • A Kirk
  • A R Millard
High resolution space imagery
  • G F Petrik