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Simultaneous and successive cognitive processes

Authors:
Das, J. P., Kirby, J. R. & Jarman, R. F. (1979). Simultaneous and successive cognitive processes.
New York: Academic Press.
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https://www.amazon.ca/Simultaneous-Successive-Cognitive-Educational-Psychology-
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... We identified differences in knowledge base [50] existed between children with and without DCD by application a thorough holistic neuro-cognitive theory of information processing (PASS theory) [51,52]. The results of this study showed that, according to the cognitive theoretical PASS model [51,52], in most children with DCD (subtypes 1, 4, 5, and 6) the impairment in cognitive abilities accompanied with movement difficulties. ...
... We identified differences in knowledge base [50] existed between children with and without DCD by application a thorough holistic neuro-cognitive theory of information processing (PASS theory) [51,52]. The results of this study showed that, according to the cognitive theoretical PASS model [51,52], in most children with DCD (subtypes 1, 4, 5, and 6) the impairment in cognitive abilities accompanied with movement difficulties. So, whether cognitive tasks (associated with academic courses) or motor tasks, there is a problem in learning ability and performance when display difficulty in processing incoming information through planning, coding and attention systems. ...
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The present study investigated the nature of possible cognitive-motor profiles of DCD using clustering methods. Dependent variables were selected on the basis of the characteristics of children with DCD and the specific difficulties observed in cognitive-motor domain according to the DCD literature. For the purpose of the study we adopted "PASS" neurocognitive theory (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive) and the norm-referenced Cognitive Assessment System. Based on this hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis six (6) statistical subgroups emerged with number of participants ranged from 5-43 students with or without DCD. Internal and external validity of the clustering solution was controlled by different clustering methods (Wards method analysis, Complete Linkage method, Centroid method, K-Means iterative partitioning method and split-sample replication), as well as other parametric methods (MANOVA, ANOVA and discriminant analyses). The impact of different DCD profiles may provide larger benefits for alternative and effective instructional methods and early intervention programs in order to avoid motor learning disabilities and low academic achievement. Future research in evaluating and designing intervention programs may be need to focus on the individual profiles of children across a broad range of areas (motor, cognitive, social and emotional), looking at their unique strengths and weaknesses.
... It was also emphasized that physiological developmental and cultural or societal aspects might affect the deficits of male students in reading skills (see Alloway & Gilbert, 19970;Holbrook, 1988). Researchers of physiological-maturational theories like Das, Kirby and Jarman(1979), Geschwind and Behan (1982), Mills (2003), Naour (2001), Waber (1979) and Witelson (1976) investigated the processing variances. Sequential-processing was referred to as the ability to process information in the sequence. ...
... Although both of these types of processing (i.e. auditory and visual), in the view of Das, Kirby and Jarman (1979), Naour (2001) and Witelson (1976) are related to development of reading skill yet, the problems related with the sequential-processing may directly be related to early literacy skill development. Another factor discussed is environmental factors. ...
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It has been a controversial issue to ascertain whether girls have an advantage in literacy skills over boys or not. There are studies showing a minor or no lead of girls in literacy skills (White, 2007). On the other hand, several studies described better literacy skills in girls than boys (Ready, LoGerfo, Burkam& Lee, 2005; Coley, 2001). Reasons like differences in biology,cognitive and physical maturation (Leinhardt, Seewald & Engel, 1979) are given to explain these differences. In this study, 8-9 years 66 grade 3 children were tested on loud reading tasks in both Urdu and English.The children were extracted from a bigger sample which participated in a previous study. In the present study, we used 3-word lists (words of mixed difficulty, pseudo-words, and easy frequent words) in both Urdu and English (3+3). A t-test was run to see the difference of performance on all word reading tasks by girls, and boys. The girls scored higher than boys on all Urdu and English tasks, except pseudo-words in Urdu where the difference was not significant whereas a tendency towards significance could be seen. The results presented evidence in favour of the advantage (cognitive or social) of girls over boys of the same age and grade.
... The initial research considering the PASS processes was conducted by J. P. Das (1972), considering differences between persons with and without mental retardation. His research results were interpreted using the concepts of simultaneous and successive processing; (Das, 1973), a work he continued through the following decades, together with his colleagues (Das, 1984a(Das, , 1984bDas, Cummins, Kirby & Jarman 1979;Das and Molloy, 1975). Focus on simultaneous and successive processing are also found in other works (e.g. ...
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The Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) measures intelligence conceptualized according to the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) theory. This theory assumes that four types of intelligence are best described within a neuro-cognitive context. The PASS abilities have shown to be strongly related to achievement, sensitive to the problems children with learning disabilities have, and related to instruction and intervention based upon the child's cognitive characteristics. The PASS abilities are operationalized using twelve subtests, organized in four scales, corresponding to the four PASS processes. Validity studies demonstrate test fairness across language, culture, family background and other relevant variables. The CAS has been applied in a Norwegian translation since 2008, and cases from practice display its usefulness in helping children learn. The Daffodil project places emphasis on dynamic assessment, which is presumed to be superior to standardized test procedures in serving the aim of inclusion. The CAS provides a way to measure PASS abilities that are important for instructional decision making. We, therefore, suggest that this standardized test of PASS cognitive processes can also be a useful tool for inclusion. Traditional assessment. We agree that traditional IQ as measured by tests like the Stanford-Binet, and Wechsler's tests have placed too much emphasis on revealing a person's IQ. This emphasis is based on belief, that you need a certain IQ to be able to benefit from schooling. We suggest that the greatest weakness of traditional IQ tests is the lack of a basis in theory about human intelligence (Naglieri & Kaufman 2008, Kaufman 2009). These tests are built on the concept
... The simultaneous and successive processing tasks of the CAS have been associated, respectively, with tasks that assess the visuo-spatial sketchpad and the phonological component of the working memory (Cai, Li, & Ping, 2013). Das, Kirby, and Jarman (1979) implicated simultaneous processing in the coding of the decimal numerical system and in the recovery of the arithmetic facts, although, due to its visuo-spatial nature, its implication can be extended to the resolution of multidigit tasks regarding numerical decomposition, the alignment of numbers when counting, and the integration of the different arithmetic procedures for their resolution when the tasks require this, as in the case of multiplication or division (Cowan & Powell, 2014;Raghubar et al., 2009). The implication of successive processing in arithmetic is more closely related to the maintenance of the information during the task and to the recovery of the items and the implementation of the procedures in the correct sequence (Das & Janzen, 2004).Two recent studies have pointed to simultaneous processing as the best predictor of mathematical (Iglesias-Sarmiento & Deaño, 2011) and arithmetic achievement (Iglesias-Sarmiento & Deaño, 2016) in general samples of 4th to 6th grade. ...
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This study analyzed the contribution of cognitive processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing) and domain-specific skills (counting, number processing and conceptual comprehension) to the arithmetic performance achieved in the last three grades (4th, 5th, and 6th) of elementary school. Three groups of students with a different arithmetic achievement level were characterized. The predictive value of the cognitive processes and the math specific skills are explored through diverse covariance and discriminant analyses. Participants were 110 students (M = 10.5 years, SD = 1.17) classified in three groups: mathematical difficulties (MD; n = 26), high achieving (HA; n = 26), and typical achieving (TA; n = 58). Cognitive processes and domain-specific skills were evaluated in two individual sessions at the end of the school year. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed in a final collective session with each class. The mathematical difficulties group’s achievement was deficient in simultaneous and successive processing, number processing, and conceptual comprehension compared to the typical achievement group. High achievement children obtained significantly better results than the typical achievement children in simultaneous processing, counting, number processing, and conceptual comprehension. Number processing and conceptual comprehension were the most consistent classifiers, although successive and simultaneous processing, respectively, also contributed to identifying students with mathematical difficulties and high achievement. These findings have practical implications for preventive and intervention proposals linked to the observed profiles
Article
Our purpose in this paper is to describe the origins and current applications of the PASS theory. PASS stands for Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive processing, which the theory argues are basic dimensions of cognition and intelligence. The theory is the basis for several current batteries of intellectual assessment and for approaches to intervention for low-performing individuals.
Article
Full-text available
Our purpose in this paper is to describe the origins and current applications of the PASS theory. PASS stands for Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive processing, which the theory argues are basic dimensions of cognition and intelligence. The theory is the basis for several current batteries of intellectual assessment and for approaches to intervention for low-performing individuals.
Article
Concomitant with a growing interest in neuropsychological assessment as it relates to the school environment is the need for procedures that are valid and reliable. This article describes such neuropsychological assessment procedures that school psychologists can employ for the differential assessment of learning disorders primarily caused by dysfunction in the central nervous system. The recommended procedures are based on the theoretical notion that learning acquisition represents a hierarchy of information processing skills. A description of the hierarchical model along with related assessment procedures is presented.
Article
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Although several studies have shown that Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) cognitive processes – operationalized with the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Das, 1997) – are significant predictors of academic performance in the general population, little is known about their role among children with superior academic skills. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether PASS processes can predict superior performance in reading and mathematics. We used the standardization sample of CAS (n=1,210) and further identified children with superior reading (n=62) and mathematics (n=73) performance on Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Achievement–Revised (Woodcock & Johnson, 1989). Results of the initial regression analyses showed that the PASS processes were significant predictors of superior reading and mathematics performance. Next, a classification and regression tree (CART) approach showed that the PASS scores could classify superior/not-superior readers and mathematicians with 89% and 82% accuracy, respectively. Theoretical and practical implications of our results are discussed.
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