Elektroden und Potentiometrie

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Die analytischen Chemiker entwickeln Elektroden, deren Potentiale sich in Abhängigkeit von Konzentrationsänderungen eines bestimmten Analyten in der Lösung oder in der Gasphase ändern. Diese Instrumente reichen von einfachen galvanischen Zellen der Art, wie wir sie im letzten Kapitel behandelt haben, über ionenselektive Elektroden, die etwa die Größe Ihres Kugelschreibers haben, bis zu ionensensitiven Feldeffekttransistoren, die gerade einige hundert Mikrometer groß sind und die man in einem Blutgefäß unterbringen kann. Die Messung von Zellspannungen zur Gewinnung chemischer Informationen heißt Potentiometrie.

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