Article

Dynamic Certification of Cloud Services: Trust, but Verify!

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Abstract

Although intended to ensure cloud service providers' security, reliability, and legal compliance, current cloud service certifications are quickly outdated. Dynamic certification, on the other hand, provides automated monitoring and auditing to verify cloud service providers' ongoing adherence to certification requirements.

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... To ensure user satisfaction, overcome these challenges, and increase cloud service adoption, cloud gaming service providers bear responsibility to prove adequate performance qualities. Traditionally, cloud service providers undergo independent third party assessments (i.e., certifications) to increase cloud service transparency and address users' concerns [12,13]. Independent third parties issue certifications after substantial testing and careful evaluation of provider's compliance with specified requirements and standards [14]. ...
... Extant research already proposes certifications and audits as detective controls and good means to assess quality and performance of IT services [12,13,32,33]. A certification is defined as a third party attestation of products, processes, systems, or persons that verifies the conformity to specified requirements [34]. ...
... Continuous service certification involves consistent gathering and assessing of certificationrelevant information about cloud service operation to validate ongoing certification criteria adherence [61]. A continuous certification process comprises automated monitoring and auditing techniques as well as mechanisms for a transparent provision of certification-relevant information to continuously attest adherence to certification requirements [13,61]. Certification authorities might, for example, implement certification systems that check availability of the cloud gaming service on a real-time basis. ...
Conference Paper
Cloud services have already become an elementary part of our everyday lives. Nowadays even computer games are executed on powerful cloud servers. These cloud gaming services have many benefits for users, yet they have to fulfil high quality requirements to satisfy users' needs because even minimal performance losses are directly observable and worsen the gaming experience. Traditionally, cloud service providers undergo certifications to increase transparency and address users' quality concerns. However, existing certifications are not applicable in the context of cloud gaming to prove a high service quality, and it remains unclear which requirements a cloud gaming service has to fulfil. We conduct a thorough literature review to identify requirements for cloud gaming services as well as extensively review existing cloud service certifications. At the same time, we pay special attention to the interdependencies between the individual stages of the cloud service provisioning chain. With our study, we advance the understanding of cloud gaming services by providing a synthesis and discussion of requirements that providers need to fulfil to ensure user satisfaction. We guide future research as well as practitioners towards a new generation of cloud service certification for cloud gaming services.
... On the other hand, cloud computing and CSCs have idiosyncrasies that distinguish them from other IS domains and IS certifications, respectively. Cloud computing minimizes on-premise installations and enables IT resources and data to be moved to remote services that are managed by a third-party provider and that have an unknown physical location (location independence; Iyer & Henderson, 2010;Schneider & Sunyaev, 2016). The underlying IT infrastructures and IT architectures are highly distributed and are shared between customers (multitenancy), contrary to single-tenant architectures in IT outsourcing. ...
... This setup allows resources to be rapidly adjusted to demand and charged on a per-use basis rather than on a fixed-fee basis (Benlian, Kettinger, Sunyaev, & Winkler, 2018). To achieve these benefits, cloud services are highly standardized with a fixed set of features and a common code base for all customers (Benlian, Koufaris, & Hess, 2011;Schneider & Sunyaev, 2016). Many cloud services offer interfaces that allow customization on top of common features and that enable them to be integrated with other applications or services (Iyer & Henderson, 2010;Benlian et al., 2018). ...
... However, these interfaces are maintained by providers, and customers have little influence on the further development and are forced to adopt future releases (Benlian et al., 2011). Together, these arrangements require a novel governance mode and many established contractual clauses require reexamination (Marston, Li, Bandyopadhyay, Zhang, & Ghalsasi, 2011;Schneider & Sunyaev, 2016;Benlian et al., 2018). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
IS literature has predominantly taken a black box perspective on IS certifications and studied the diverse set of their outcomes, such as signaling superior quality and increased customer trust. As a result, there is little understanding about the structure of certifications and its role in decision makers’ evaluations of certifications to achieve these outcomes. However, idiosyncrasies of novel IT services such as cloud services create a need to ‘unblackbox’ certifications and theorize about their constituting structural building blocks and structural elements, and to examine the key features that might lead to a more favorable evaluation of a certification by decision makers. To advance theory building on certifications, this article develops an empirically grounded typology of certifications’ key structural building blocks and structural elements, and examines how they interpret substantive features within these elements. Using evidence from 20 interviews with decision makers of a wide range of industries in the context of cloud service certifications, we find that a decision maker’s aggregate evaluation of a certification is a function of their interpretations of its features guided by cognitive interpretive schemas along six key structural elements contrasted with the decision makers’ expectations regarding the certification’s outcomes. This study contributes by conceptualizing certifications’ necessary and sufficient elements, constructing a nascent theory on decision makers’ evaluations of certifications, and illuminating the dynamics between certifications’ structural elements and outcomes as a co-evolutionary process. We discuss implications for the certification literature and give managerial advice regarding the factors to consider when designing and evaluating certifications.
... In particular, cloud providers encounter the problem of how to effectively and consistently provide certification authorities with comprehensive and reliable data about cloud service operations on an ongoing basis. While research on CSC has progressed in past years, it has to date yielded mainly conceptual findings that focus on process models (e.g., Kunz and Stephanow, 2017;Lins et al., 2016a), architectures (e.g., Krotsiani et al., 2015;Lins et al., 2018), and techniques (e.g., Stephanow et al., 2016;Anisetti et al., 2017;Lins et al., 2015) for achieving CSC. One recent research stream proposes the use of monitoring data to achieve CSC and to address the imminent need to provide continuous assurances to cloud consumers (Krotsiani et al., 2015;Stephanow and Fallenbeck, 2015;Lins et al., 2019). ...
... Existing cloud service certifications, such as EuroCloud's StarAudit and CSA's Security, Trust & Assurance Registry, provide only a retrospective look at the fulfilment of technical and organizational measures at the time of their issuing (Lins et al., 2016a;Sunyaev and Schneider, 2013). While certification authorities typically grant cloud service certifications for periods of one to three years, conditions and requirements of certifications may no longer be met throughout certification validity periods because cloud services face an ever-changing environment. ...
... Further, nondisclosure agreements were signed in case data analysis of the prototype reveals any cloud service vulnerabilities. MSC systems are complex artefacts that require different features to support the CSC process steps, including data collection, transmission, analysis, and presentation (Lins et al., 2016a). Owing to the complexity that comes with achieving MSC in practice, our initial focus is on collecting and aggregating monitoring data from existing monitoring technologies, and on transmitting certification-relevant data to certification authorities on a continuous basis. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Given cloud services growing diffusion in business environments, cloud providers are searching for novel ways to provide effective assurances to cloud consumers. Continuous service certification (CSC) recently emerged as a promising way to address cloud consumers' assurance needs, which stem from the inherent complexity and dynamics of today's cloud environments. One CSC approach is to use the monitoring data of a provider's cloud infrastructure for (semi-)automated certification processes. While a monitoring-based CSC approach has the potential to provide ongoing assurances concerning key properties of a cloud infrastructure (e.g., service availability and security), research to date lacks guidance on how to design and implement monitoring-based CSC. Following the design science paradigm with an exploratory inductive research approach, we contribute to the design knowledge base for CSC by proposing meta-requirements and design principles based on comprehensive interviews with cloud experts, and by offering insights into the development and evaluation of a prototypical artefact in a realistic scenario of a German cloud provider. Continuing our research will provide the design knowledge needed by cloud providers to implement monitoring-based CSC and thus will help address the deficiencies and assurance needs of today's cloud environments.
... On the other hand, cloud computing and CSCs have idiosyncrasies that distinguish them from other IS domains and IS certifications, respectively. Cloud computing minimizes on-premise installations and enables IT resources and data to be moved to remote services that are managed by a third-party provider and that have an unknown physical location (location independence; Iyer & Henderson, 2010;Schneider & Sunyaev, 2016). The underlying IT infrastructures and IT architectures are highly distributed and are shared between customers (multitenancy), contrary to single-tenant architectures in IT outsourcing. ...
... This setup allows resources to be rapidly adjusted to demand and charged on a per-use basis rather than on a fixed-fee basis (Benlian, Kettinger, Sunyaev, & Winkler, 2018). To achieve these benefits, cloud services are highly standardized with a fixed set of features and a common code base for all customers (Benlian, Koufaris, & Hess, 2011;Schneider & Sunyaev, 2016). Many cloud services offer interfaces that allow customization on top of common features and that enable them to be integrated with other applications or services (Iyer & Henderson, 2010;Benlian et al., 2018). ...
... However, these interfaces are maintained by providers, and customers have little influence on the further development and are forced to adopt future releases (Benlian et al., 2011). Together, these arrangements require a novel governance mode and many established contractual clauses require reexamination (Marston, Li, Bandyopadhyay, Zhang, & Ghalsasi, 2011;Schneider & Sunyaev, 2016;Benlian et al., 2018). ...
Article
IS literature has predominantly taken a black box perspective on IS certifications and studied their diverse set of outcomes, such as signaling superior quality and increased customer trust. As a result, there is little understanding about the structure of certifications and its role in decision makers’ evaluations of certifications to achieve these outcomes. However, idiosyncrasies of novel IT services, such as cloud services, create a need for “unblackboxing” certifications and theorizing about their constituting structural building blocks and structural elements, as well as examining key features that might lead to a more favorable evaluation of a certification by decision makers. To advance theory building on certifications, this article develops an empirically grounded typology of certifications’ key structural building blocks and structural elements, and examines how they interpret substantive features within these elements. Using evidence from 20 interviews with decision makers from a wide range of industries in the context of cloud service certifications, we find that a decision maker’s aggregate evaluation of a certification is a function of their interpretations of its features guided by cognitive interpretive schemas along six key structural elements, contrasted with the decision makers’ expectations regarding the certification’s outcomes. This study contributes by conceptualizing the necessary and sufficient elements of certifications, constructing a nascent theory on decision makers’ evaluations of certifications, and illuminating the dynamics between certifications’ structural elements and outcomes as a coevolutionary process. We discuss implications for the certification literature and give managerial advice regarding the factors to consider when designing and evaluating certifications.
... However, existing cloud service certifications represent only a retrospective view of the fulfillment of technical and organizational measures when the certifications are issued (Lins, Grochol et al., 2016; Communications of the Association for Information Systems 5 Volume XX Paper XXX et al., 2014). Typically, certification authorities evaluate adherence to certification criteria during a comprehensive certification audit performed once. ...
... These research efforts have resulted in innovative specifications of architectures and processes as well as CSC prototypes that allow certification authorities to continuously certify cloud services. A CSC monitoring system includes automated monitoring and auditing techniques as well as mechanisms for transparent provision of certification-relevant information to continuously confirm adherence to certification criteria (Lins, Grochol et al., 2016). The process of continuous cloud service certification includes four major dimensions: (1) (semi-)automated data collection and transmission, (2) (semi-)automated data analysis, (3) up-to-date certification presentation, and (4) adjustment of processes (see Figure 1 and Lins, Grochol et al., 2016). ...
... A CSC monitoring system includes automated monitoring and auditing techniques as well as mechanisms for transparent provision of certification-relevant information to continuously confirm adherence to certification criteria (Lins, Grochol et al., 2016). The process of continuous cloud service certification includes four major dimensions: (1) (semi-)automated data collection and transmission, (2) (semi-)automated data analysis, (3) up-to-date certification presentation, and (4) adjustment of processes (see Figure 1 and Lins, Grochol et al., 2016). In contrast to annual surveillance audits of conventional certifications, (semi-)automated data collection and analysis of certification-relevant information enable certification authorities to actively detect and investigate critical defects as they occur, to immediately react to changes or events concerning a cloud service, and to adjust their certification reports based on an ongoing assessment of these defects, changes and events. ...
Article
Full-text available
Continuous service certification (CSC) involves the consistent gathering and assessing of certification-relevant information about cloud service operation to validate ongoing certification criteria adherence. Previous research has proposed test-based CSC methodologies that directly assess components of the cloud service infrastructure. However, test-based certification requires access to the cloud infrastructure by certification authorities, which may be limited due to various issues. To address these challenges, cloud service providers have to monitor their cloud service infrastructure to gather certification-relevant data by themselves, and then provide these data to certification authorities, which is referred to monitoring-based CSC. Nevertheless, we require a better understanding of how to design monitoring systems to enable monitoring-based CSC of cloud services. By taking a design science perspective, we derive universal meta-requirements and design guidelines for CSC monitoring systems based on findings from five expert focus group interviews with 33 cloud experts and 10 one-to-one interviews with cloud customers. With this study, we have expanded the current knowledge base regarding CSC and monitoring-based CSC. Our derived design guidelines contribute to the development of CSC monitoring systems and enable monitoring-based CSC that overcomes issues of prior test-based approaches.
... Cloud service certifications typically focus on ensuring cloud services' availability, integrity, and confidentiality for a one-to three-year validity period Schneider, Lansing, Gao, & Sunyaev, 2014). However, existing cloud service certifications represent only a retrospective view about whether cloud providers fulfill technical and organizational measures when the certification authorities issue the certifications (Lins et al., 2016a;Schneider et al., 2014). Typically, certification authorities evaluate adherence to certification criteria during a comprehensive certification audit that they perform once. ...
... These research efforts have resulted in innovative architectural and processual specifications and processes and CSC prototypes that allow certification authorities to continuously certify cloud services. A CSC monitoring system includes automated monitoring and auditing techniques and mechanisms to transparently provide certification-relevant information to continuously monitor whether cloud services adhere to certification criteria (Lins et al., 2016a). The process to do so includes four major dimensions: 1) collecting and transmitting data in a (semi-)automated manner, 2) analyzing data in a (semi-)automated manner, 3) presenting up-to-date certification information, and 4) adjusting processes (see Figure 1 and Lins et al., 2016a). ...
... A CSC monitoring system includes automated monitoring and auditing techniques and mechanisms to transparently provide certification-relevant information to continuously monitor whether cloud services adhere to certification criteria (Lins et al., 2016a). The process to do so includes four major dimensions: 1) collecting and transmitting data in a (semi-)automated manner, 2) analyzing data in a (semi-)automated manner, 3) presenting up-to-date certification information, and 4) adjusting processes (see Figure 1 and Lins et al., 2016a). ...
Article
Full-text available
Continuous service certification (CSC) involves the consistently gathering and assessing certification-relevant information about cloud service operations to validate whether they continue to adhere to certification criteria. Previous research has proposed test-based CSC methodologies that directly assess the components of cloud service infrastructures. However, test-based certification requires that certification authorities can access the cloud infrastructure, which various issues may limit. To address these challenges, cloud service providers need to conduct monitoring-based CSC; that is, monitor their cloud service infrastructure to gather certification-relevant data by themselves and then provide these data to certification authorities. Nevertheless, we need to better understand how to design monitoring systems to enable cloud service providers to perform such monitoring. By taking a design science perspective, we derive universal meta-requirements and design guidelines for CSC monitoring systems based on findings from five expert focus group interviews with 33 cloud experts and 10 one-to-one interviews with cloud customers. With this study, we expand the current knowledge base regarding CSC and monitoring-based CSC. Our derived design guidelines contribute to the development of CSC monitoring systems and enable monitoring-based CSC that overcomes issues of prior test-based approaches.
... Welche Auditierungsmethoden bei der Überprüfung eines Zertifizierungskriteriums zum Einsatz kommen, besitzt neben dem Prüfintervall einen Einfluss auf die Zuverlässigkeit der Einhaltung. So kann beispielsweise die Zuverlässigkeit durch den Einsatz kontinuierlicher Auditierungsmethoden erhöht werden, da durch diese eine fortlaufende Kontrolle der Einhaltung erfolgen kann (Lins et al. 2016a). Wichtig bei der Angabe der Auditierungsmethode ist, dass die Beschreibung für den Cloud-Service-Kunden nachvollziehbar sowie verständlich ist. ...
... Hierbei wird dem Cloud-Service-Provider insbesondere unterstellt, dass er jede legale Möglichkeit zur Senkung der eigenen Kosten oder zur Verbesserung der eigenen Wettbewerbsposition ergreifen wird, auch wenn diese im Widerspruch zu einzelnen, bereits zertifizierten Kriterien steht. Diese Widersprüche sind aufgrund der langen Gültigkeit der Zertifizierungen ohne eine kontinuierliche Überprüfung über den Einhalt der Kriterien nicht festzustellen (Lins et al. 2016a;Lins et al. 2015). So wäre es beispielsweise denkbar, dass die Erreichbarkeit eines Teams für Security-Incident-Handling 24 Stunden an 7 Tagen der Woche gewährleistet werden muss, dies während des Zertifizierungszeitraums auch den Anforderungen entspricht, das Team jedoch aus Kostengründen nach der Zertifizierung nur noch einige Stunden in der Woche erreichbar ist . ...
... Zertifizierungen von Cloud-Services können Entscheidungsträger bei der Auswahl eines Cloud-Services unterstützen, indem sie Transparenz am Markt schaffen sowie Vertrauen und Akzeptanz erhöhen (Lins et al. 2016a;Lang et al. 2017Lang et al. , 2016. In der Praxis mangelt es jedoch oft an einer transparenten und informativen Darstellung von Zertifizierungskriterien, welche im Rahmen der Zertifizierung überprüft werden. ...
Chapter
Cloud-Service-Zertifizierungen können Entscheidungsträger bei der Auswahl eines Cloud-Services unterstützen, indem sie Transparenz am Markt schaffen sowie Vertrauen und Akzeptanz erhöhen. In der Praxis mangelt es jedoch oft an einer transparenten und informativen Darstellung von Zertifizierungskriterien, welche im Rahmen der Zertifizierung überprüft werden. Dieses Kapitel gibt Empfehlungen zur Darstellung und Klassifikation von Zertifizierungskriterien ab, um deren Nachvollziehbarkeit und die Transparenz der Zertifizierung zu erhöhen.
... In diesem Kapitel beschreiben diese Begriffe jedoch zwei unterschiedliche Prozesse. So wird das kontinuierliche Monitoring in der Regel von Cloud-Service-Providern für interne Zwecke durchgeführt, wogegen das kontinuierliche Auditing von externen, unabhängigen Cloud-Service-Auditoren durchgeführt wird (Lins et al. 2016a;Lins et al. 2016b). Auch die Nutzung der Daten unterscheidet sich. ...
... Eine dynamische Zertifizierung erfordert die regelmäßige Erhebung und Bewertung von umfangreichen Datensätzen durch einen Cloud-Service-Auditor (Lins et al. 2016a). Der Zugriff auf auditrelevante Daten und damit auch die Datenerhebungsfähigkeiten von Cloud-Service-Auditoren können jedoch aus technischen, organisatorischen und rechtlichen Gründen eingeschränkt sein (Lins et al. 2016b;Lins et al. 2015). ...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel zeigen wir auf, wie bestehende Monitoring-Technologien eines Cloud-Service-Providers im Rahmen einer dynamischen Zertifizierung genutzt werden können, um die Einhaltung von Sicherheits-, Privatsphäre- oder Zuverlässigkeitskriterien kontinuierlich sicherzustellen. Wir leiten allgemeingültige Anforderungen basierend auf den Ergebnissen von drei Fokusgruppeninterviews mit 24 Cloud-Experten und 10 Interviews mit Cloud-Service-Kunden ab. Zudem diskutieren wir, wie bestehende IT-Infrastruktur-Monitoring-Systeme, -Plugins und -Tools im Rahmen einer dynamischen Zertifizierung angewendet werden können.
... Just recently, researchers have started to investigate how to innovate the process of certifying cloud services to cope with the challenges of an ever-changing cloud service environment and security concerns raised by customers as well as to increase certification reliability. These research efforts resulted in innovative specifications of so called continuous service certification (CSC) architectures and processes that allow certification authorities to continuously verify the security and privacy of offered cloud services among others (Lins et al. 2016a;Lins et al. 2016b). In contrast to traditional certifications that certify a temporary status of cloud services, CSC is able to cope with the challenges of an ever-changing cloud environment by relying on steady cloud assessments. ...
... Existing cloud service certifications represent only a retrospective look at the fulfilment of technical and organizational measures at the time of their issuing (Lins et al. 2016a). Conditions and requirements of certifications may no longer be met throughout these validity periods because cloud services are confronted with an ever-changing environment (Lins et al. 2016b;Stephanow and Fallenbeck 2015). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent research efforts resulted in innovative prototypes that enable certification authorities to continuously certify cloud service providers (CSP). Performing continuous service certification (CSC) is beneficial for CSP and certification authorities, and has the potential to reduce security and privacy concerns of customers that hamper the adoption of cloud services. Yet, CSC is currently lacking wide-scale diffusion due to the 'chicken and egg problem': certification authorities demand a critical mass of consumers before they consider entering the market. Yet, CSC services are desperately needed to establish this critical mass of consumers in the first place. Hence, to enable diffusion of CSC, certification authorities (as CSC provider) and CSP (as CSC consumer) have to be motivated both to adopt the CSC innovation. We build on the technology-push and market-pull theories to identify factors that drive CSC diffusion. We take a holistic perspective in particular as we analyze the adoption intention of CSP and certification authorities simultaneously from a technology-push and market-pull perspective to resolve the 'chicken and egg problem'.
... Um sie zu motivieren müssen die wahrgenommenen Vorteile den wahrgenommenen Aufwand überwiegen. Ungeachtet der genannten Herausforderungen der vorangegangenen Kapitel birgt die dynamische Zertifizierung große Vorteile und Potenziale für Cloud-Service-Kunden, -Provider und -Auditoren (Lins et al. 2016b;Lins et al. 2016a). Im Allgemeinen unterscheidet man dabei zwischen zwei möglichen Einsatzszenarien, die im Folgenden erläutert werden. ...
... Insbesondere bei der Speicherung von Daten in der Cloud fürchten Cloud-Service-Kunden, dass Daten beschädigt werden oder verloren gehen (Schneider and Sunyaev 2016;Lang et al. 2016). Eine dynamische Zertifizierung schafft für (potenzielle) Cloud-Service-Kunden Transparenz über die verwendeten Cloud-Services und erhöht die Sicherheit (Lins et al. 2016a;Lins et al. 2016b;Lang et al. 2017). Durch eine erhöhte Transparenz kann auch dem Kontrollverlust von Cloud-Service-Kunden entgegengewirkt werden. ...
Chapter
Das Kapitel beschreibt mögliche Einsatzszenarien für die in NGCert entwickelten Artefakte und Konzepte, wie (1) den dynamischen Zertifizierungsdienst für Zertifizierungsstellen und Cloud-Service-Auditoren sowie (2) den erweiterten Monitoring-Dienst für Cloud-Service-Provider. Vorteile und Potenziale für Cloud-Service-Kunden und datenschutzrechtlich Betroffene, für Cloud-Service-Provider wie auch für -Auditoren und Zertifizierungsstellen werden aufgezeigt.
... Im Anschluss entscheidet die Zertifizierungsstelle auf Grundlage des Prüfberichts und der Bewertung über die Erteilung des Zertifikats. Die vergebenen Cloud-Service-Zertifikate haben eine feste Gültigkeitsdauer von meist 1-3 Jahren (Schneider et al. 2014;Lins et al. 2016a). Der Cloud-Service-Anbieter kann vor Ablauf der Gültigkeitsdauer die Aufrechterhaltung der Zertifizierung in Form einer Verlängerung der Zertifizierung beantragen (Re-Zertifizierung). ...
... Eine kontinuierliche Zertifizierung erfordert von einer Zertifizierungsstelle bzw. eingesetzten Cloud-Service-Auditoren regelmäßig umfangreiche Datensätze zu erheben und zu bewerten (Lins und Sunyaev 2018a;Lins et al. 2016a). Zur Erhebung von Daten können Cloud-Service-Auditoren in enger Abstimmung mit einem Cloud-Service-Anbieter externe Auditierungen, welche einen Zugriff auf die Cloud-Infrastruktur benötigen, durchführen. ...
Book
Dieses Buch liefert ein Rahmenwerk zur Zertifizierung von Services in der Cloud. Herzstück dabei ist ein umfangreicher Kriterienkatalog zum Assessment von Cloud-Services, der im Forschungsprojekt „Value4Cloud“, gefördert vom Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie, entwickelt wurde. Cloud-Service-Anwender werden bei der Bewertung, dem Vergleich und der Auswahl von Services unterstützt. Das Buch eignet sich auch für Cloud-Service-Anbieter zum Self-Assessment und zur Verbesserung der eigenen Services. Neu in der 2. Auflage Um die Glaubwürdigkeit ausgestellter Zertifikate zu erhöhen, führt die 2. Auflage dieses Buches in das innovative Verfahren der kontinuierlichen Zertifizierung ein. Kontinuierliche Zertifizierungen ermöglichen es, kritische Anforderungen an Cloud-Services fortlaufend und (teil-)automatisiert zu überprüfen. Insbesondere werden Grundlagen, Metriken, Messmethoden und Gestaltungsrichtlinien zur kontinuierlichen und (teil-)automatisierten Zertifizierung von Cloud-Services vorgestellt, die im Forschungsprojekt „Next Generation Certification“, gefördert vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, entwickelt wurden. Der Inhalt - Grundlagen zur (kontinuierlichen) Zertifizierung von Cloud-Services - Gestaltungsempfehlungen für Cloud-Service-Zertifizierungen - Kriterienkatalog zur Zertifizierung von Cloud-Services - Messverfahren zur Durchführung von kontinuierlichen Zertifizierungen - Marktpotenzial einer kontinuierlichen Zertifizierung
... Early research on security assurance has mainly focused on approaches where security properties of software/services are claimed by suppliers themselves, with little or no evidence [31,63,96]. Recently, security assurance (e.g., References [9,13,22,61,62,79,83,87]) is becoming part of the software development process and focuses on efficent and effective independent evaluation of services and their properties. Among existing assurance approaches, certification is becoming increasingly popular to provide evidence that a given software/service system has the desired non-functional properties and behaves as expected [30]. ...
... This evidence is collected by means of either testing activities or formal methods and refers to a single component or system. Approaches to (cloud) service certification (e.g., References [13,54,61,87]) have been inspired by traditional software certification solutions (e.g., References [30,46,92]) aimed at monolithic systems and do not usually consider runtime composition. Among traditional solutions, Common Criteria (ISO 15408) [46] is the most adopted and recognized International standard for software certification. ...
Article
The diffusion of service-based and cloud-based systems has created a scenario where software is often made available as services, offered as commodities over corporate networks or the global net. This scenario supports the definition of business processes as composite services, which are implemented via either static or runtime composition of offerings provided by different suppliers. Fast and accurate evaluation of services’ security properties becomes then a fundamental requirement and is nowadays part of the software development process. In this article, we show how the verification of security properties of composite services can be handled by test-based security certification and built to be effective and efficient in dynamic composition scenarios. Our approach builds on existing security certification schemes for monolithic services and extends them towards service compositions. It virtually certifies composite services, starting from certificates awarded to the component services. We describe three heuristic algorithms for generating runtime test-based evidence of the composite service holding the properties. These algorithms are compared with the corresponding exhaustive algorithm to evaluate their quality and performance. We also evaluate the proposed approach in a real-world industrial scenario, which considers ENGpay online payment system of Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A. The proposed industrial evaluation presents the utility and generality of the proposed approach by showing how certification results can be used as a basis to establish compliance to Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard.
... Bei der Bildung des Wertschöpfungsnetzwerks sind zwei denkbare Szenarien möglich (Lins et al. 2016a;Lins et al. 2016b), welche im Folgenden beschrieben werden: ...
... Informationen die durch die Dashboard-Interaktion von Cloud-Service-Kunden gewonnen werden können (beispielsweise das Aufrufen der verschiedenen Informationen und Dashboard-Sichten), können möglicherweise wiederum an den Cloud-Service-Provider weitergeleitet werden, sodass dieser mögliche Rückschlüsse aus der Interaktion ziehen kann(Lang et al. 2017).Es wäre ferner denkbar, dass eine Zertifizierungsstelle oder ein Cloud-Service-Auditor das Dashboard betreibt. Bei diesem Szenario könnten innovative Geschäftsmodelle generieret werden(Lins et al. 2016c;Lins et al. 2016a). So wäre es beispielsweise denkbar, dass eine Zertifizierungsstelle auf ihrer Homepage ein Dashboard zur Verfügung stellt, welches (öffentliche) Auditinformationen über einen Cloud-Service-Provider bereitstellt. ...
Chapter
Durch die Entwicklung und Umsetzung einer dynamischen Zertifizierung ergibt sich das Potenzial einer neuen Wertschöpfungskette, in der neue Akteure mit innovativen Geschäftsmodellen auftreten können und bestehende Akteure neue Rollen und Verantwortlichkeiten einnehmen können. Die Wertschöpfungskette ist eines der weitverbreitetsten Modelle, welches den Geschäftserfolg als logische Folge wertsteigernder Aktivitäten erklärt. Ferner ist sie ein Managementkonzept, mit dessen Hilfe die zur Erzeugung des Kundennutzens notwendigen Aktivitäten beschrieben und einzelnen Akteuren zugeordnet werden können. Im Rahmen dieses Kapitels werden daher die Akteure beschrieben, welche im Rahmen des neuen Wertschöpfungsnetzwerks einer dynamischen Zertifizierung partizipieren.
... With the endorsement of certification in article 42 and 43 of the GDPR, certifications demonstrating the conformity with data protection regulations are becoming increasingly important for cloud service providers and cloud customers. While the cloud service market already offers several certifications that assure secure and reliable cloud services by independent thirds parties (e.g., EuroCloud's StarAudit), they only provide a retrospective snapshot of technical and organizational measures at the time of their issuing (Stephanow and Banse 2017;Lins et al. 2016a). The typical time span between the issuing of a cloud service certification and its expiration is one to three years. ...
... While existing cloud service certifications (e.g., EuroCloud's StarAudit or Cloud Security Alliance STAR) are established means to prove compliance with security and privacy requirements, they represent only a retrospective look at the fulfilment of technological and organizational measures at the time of their issuing (Lins et al. 2016a). Throughout the validity period of one to three years, certification deviations or breaches may not be detected until long after their occurrence because certification authorities validate certification adherence via spot checks only during annual surveillance audits (Schneider et al. 2014;Sunyaev and Schneider 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent research efforts resulted in innovative prototypes that enable certification authorities to continuously certify cloud services. Continuous service certification (CSC) involves constant collection and assessment of data relevant for validating a cloud service's compliance with security and privacy regulations through a certification authority. While practice shows that CSC is highly beneficial for cloud providers and certification authorities alike, it remains unclear which factors actually cause these actors to participate in CSC. As a first step towards closing this knowledge gap, this study builds on the technology-push and market-pull theories to identify factors that impact certification authori-ties' intention to perform CSC. We developed theoretical technology-push and market-pull models and tested them by conducting an online survey with 66 employees of certification authorities. Our findings reveal that technology-push factors, including relative advantage, organizational complexity, experimentation with innovation, influence certification authorities, on the one hand, and market-pull factors, including competitive pressure and regulatory intervention, on the other hand. By providing a synthesis and discussion of factors that influence certification authorities' intention to perform CSC, we advance the understanding of CSC diffusion, thus paving the way for continuously reliable and secure services.
... Wenn Organisationen den Innovationsentscheidungsprozess durchlaufen, versuchen sie Informationen über den relativen Vorteil einer Innovation zu erlangen (Rogers 1962 Auch Cloud-Service-Auditoren können eine Vielzahl an Vorteilen gegenüber bestehenden Zertifizierungsprozessen erlangen (Lins et al. 2016b;Lins et al. 2016a;Lins et al. 2016c). Zum einen können sie durch den Einsatz von automatisierten Auditierungsprozessen die Effizienz ihrer Auditierungen verbessern sowie die Auditierungsdauer und -fehler reduzieren (Alles et al. 2006;Woodroof and Searcy 2001;Shin et al. 2013). ...
... Cloud-Service-Auditoren müssen ebenso kontinuierliche Auditierungssysteme implementieren, die verschiedene Auditierungsmethoden zur (teil-) automatisierten und externen Auditierung umfassen. Beispielsweise sollten Penetrationstests, externe Schwachstellenscans und Überprüfungen der Serviceverfügbarkeit und Verschlüsselung durchgeführt werden (Lins et al. 2016a). Darüber hinaus müssen Cloud-Service-Auditoren Systeme zur Planung und zum Management der automatisierten Auditierung implementieren, um die Prozesse der dynamischen Zertifizierung zu koordinieren, und eine einwandfreie und automatisierte Durchführung der Auditierungsfunktionen zu ermöglichen. ...
Chapter
Das Konzept der dynamischen Zertifizierung wurde im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes NGCert grundlegend erforscht und in ausgewählten Anwendungsfällen prototypisch erprobt. Eine nachhaltige Verbreitung und Anwendung des dynamischen Zertifizierungsverfahrens ist notwendig, um die vielen Vorteile und Potenziale einer dynamischen Zertifizierung realisieren zu können. Merkmale einer dynamischen Zertifizierung haben positive aber auch negative Einflüsse auf die Akzeptanz von verschiedenen Stakeholder. Zu den Innovationsmerkmalen, die eine Adoption der Innovation fördern oder auch verhindern können zählen der relative Vorteil, die Kompatibilität, die Komplexität, die Erprobbarkeit und die Beobachtbarkeit. In diesem Kapitel wird das Ausmaß der beeinflussenden Merkmale auf Basis von bestehender Literatur und durchgeführten Interviews mit Cloud-Service-Experten ermittelt und analysiert. Hierbei wird Bezug auf die drei Stakeholder Cloud-Service-Provider, -Auditoren und -Kunden genommen.
... Our literature review in the advent of this research revealed that most cloud studies have been conducted from an organizational and technological perspective. While the technological literature focuses on addressing the issues of security, privacy and infrastructure performance by proposing new architectures, methods or prototypes (e.g., Lins, Grochol, Schneider, and Sunyaev (2016); ; Wang, Chow, Wang, Ren, and Lou (2013)), current organizational cloud research addresses issues of opportunities and risks (e.g., Benlian and Hess (2011)), adoption (e.g., Asatiani (2015)) as well as decision making (e.g., Schneider and Sunyaev (2016)) among others. Research from an individual end-consumer perspective focuses on important enablers and inhibitors of cloud service adoption by applying information systems adoption theories (e.g., Technology Acceptance Model (Burda & Teuteberg, 2015)) or referent theories (e.g., Migration Theory (Bhattacherjee & Park, 2014)). ...
Conference Paper
Cloud services are abstract, complex and lack personal contact. Accordingly, consumers face a multitude of uncertainties that make them hesitant to adopt such services. It is very challenging but in the provider’s best interest to mitigate consumers’ uncertainty. Providers must identify the most effective signals to provide consumers with convincing information. Such signals can originate from different sources including the provider itself, other transaction partners, or independent third parties. While the effectiveness of single information sources on uncertainty mitigation in general has been assessed, no study to date has investigated the varying effectiveness of different information sources on uncertainties or the reinforcing or weakening effect of combining different information sources at the same time. An investigation of such mitigation mechanisms requires a systematic conceptualization of cloud uncertainties that we lack today. This paper attempts to bridge this gap by developing and validating a multilevel conceptualization of consumer uncertainty in cloud service contexts first. In particular, we show how seven tangible uncertainty elements influence individuals’ intention to use cloud services and embed them into the established research on uncertainty. We then outline how we plan to exploit this multilevel conceptualization to investigate the erratic effectiveness of different information sources in mitigating selected types of uncertainty.
... Forschungsseitig erwachsen daraus eine ganze Reihe von Aufgaben: so gilt es, Verfahren zu entwickeln, um die einzelnen Anforderungen jeweils zu prüfen und zu belegen (wie z.B. oben erwähnt über die Funktionalitäten entsprechender Software). Interessant wäre es darüber hinaus, dies einerseits von unabhängiger Stelle und andererseits kontinuierlich vornehmen zu können (Lins et al. 2016). Des Weiteren werden Erkenntnisse benötigt, um den richtigen Grad der Symbiose zwischen dem menschlichen Wissensarbeiter und der technischen Assistenz für den jeweiligen Anwendungsfall festzulegen -und die geeigneten Schnittstellen zu schaffen. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Entwicklungen der Informationstechnologie stellen zunehmend Möglich-keiten bereit, den menschlichen „Wissensarbeiter“ durch kognitive Assistenzsysteme auf Basis Künstlicher Intelligenz (KI) in seinen Entscheidungen oder Aktionen zu unterstützen. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wollen wir beleuchten, welche Anforderungen an die zugrundeliegenden maschi-nellen Lernverfahren zu stellen sind, um die individuelle sowie gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz solcher „Augmented Intelligence“ zu gewährleisten.
... This has led to calls for a shift to continuous auditing [171], [172]. Furthermore, it has been argued that the certifications themselves are often not updated quick enough to cover new threats raised by novel cloud services [173], [174]. ...
Preprint
This article proposes that organisations moving to public cloud often surrender visibility and control over their computing operations and instead rely upon trust in the cloud provider. We show that organisations are increasingly willing to give this trust, but that methods to reduce the amount of trust needed whilst maintaining the benefits of public cloud is possible. We therefore identify specific losses of control that cloud customers face and the solutions, both present and future, which can help to return that control back.
... If a CII operator adheres to specified criteria, then a certification authority awards a formal written certificate. Just recently, researchers focused on the development of continuous certification to provide users with ongoing assurances of important infrastructures' properties, such as availability, security, or data protection (Lins, Grochol, Schneider, & Sunyaev, 2016). Continuous certification involves the consistent and automated collection and assessment of data relevant for certification by certification authorities to continuously validate adherence to certification criteria. ...
Chapter
The rapid evolution of information technologies in the past decades gave information systems an increasingly central role in society. Some of these information systems are now so critical that their disruption or unintended consequences can have detrimental effects on vital societal functions. This chapter clarifies the concept of critical information infrastructures. After a brief introduction to salient characteristics and main functions of critical information infrastructures, the chapter discusses threats and risks critical information infrastructures are confronted with and presents approaches to master these challenges. Recent attacks and disruptions of critical information infrastructures, such as Cambridge Analytica, WannaCry, the Mirai Botnet, and Microsoft Tay, are presented for illustrative purposes. Critical information infrastructures often linger unnoticed and their vital role in society remains unheeded. This chapter provides the foundations required to understand and protect critical information infrastructures so that they can be appropriately managed before adverse consequences manifest.
... The importance of the dynamic certification of cloud has been highlighted to demonstrate the cloud providers' reliability and security to cloud consumers [68]. The dynamic certification demands the monitoring and auditing to be performed automatically, and ensures the transparency in service provider's verification. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cloud computing has increasingly attracted a large number of entrepreneurs to deploy innovative web services to expand the horizon of their businesses. The selection of trustworthy services, by considering the adequate QoS parameters, is imperative for the cloud service consumers to fulfill their requirements. Over the years, many studies have been carried out to establish trust between service providers and cloud service consumers. The findings of these studies need to be analyzed in order to explore the essential features and limitations with respect to the essential QoS requirements. Therefore, a systematic literature review has been performed in this study with an aim to identify and classify the existing research on trust establishment and estimation in cloud services. A critical review of the existing literature has been presented along with the identification of potential future research avenues. This study has also highlighted the need of improving the service selection process by employing user preferences based on their particular application domains in the context of utility.
... By accessing the wired or wireless network, clients can enjoy the high-quality cloud services. At present, the resources of storage and computing are the main services that cloud computing can provide for consumers [1][2][3]. The resource of clients is constrained due to the IoT devices in the system are lightweight. ...
Article
Internet of things (IoT) is a technology that can collect the data sensed by the devices for the further real-time services. Using the technique of cloud computing to assist IoT devices in data storing can eliminate the disadvantage of the constrained local storage and computing capability. However, the complex network environment makes cloud servers vulnerable to attacks, and adversaries pretend to be legal IoT clients trying to access the cloud server. Hence, it is necessary to provide a mechanism of mutual authentication for the cloud system to enhance the storage security. In this paper, a secure mutual authentication is proposed for cloud-assisted IoT. Note that the technique of chameleon hash signature is used to construct the authentication. Moreover, the proposed scheme can provide storage checking with the assist of a fully-trusted entity, which highly improves the checking fairness and efficiency. Security analysis proves that the proposed scheme in this paper is correct. Performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can be performed with high efficiency.
... For example, the privacy and security measures of such storage services cannot be evaluated in advance, and the services handle often significant amounts of sensitive user data (e.g., information obtained through backups and sharing). To manage the aforementioned challenges, a variety of certifications have recently been proposed to cloud markets, such as EuroCloud's "StarAudit", Cloud Security Alliance's "Security, Trust and Assurance Registry", and Competence Center Trusted Cloud's "GDPR Cloud Certificate" (Lins et al., 2016). While users may rely on these certifications when selecting a cloud service, they will have a limited understanding of the related assurances due to their novelty. ...
Article
Prior information system research remains inconsistent of the effects of system certifications. In their current use, certifications are often reduced to graphical seals. This approach fails to incorporate detailed assurance information emanating from the certification process. To address this gap, we adopt a design science approach and deploy a four-phase research design to clarify how to design impactful IS certification presentations. First, we identify sources of users’ limited understanding of seals and formulate a design proposal for a certification presentation by drawing upon the elaboration likelihood model. In the second phase, we formulate and validate a set of design meta-requirements and guidelines to improve certification presentation, using cognitive load theory and Toulmin’s model of argumentation as kernel theories. In the third phase, new certification presentations that comply with the proposed guidelines are developed and evaluated for their effectiveness. We show that presentations that augment seal-based certification presentations with richer assurance information improve certification effectiveness. This increases users’ assurance and trust perceptions when the presentations align with the users’ cognitive information processing needs in ways that reduce their cognitive load and enhance argument quality of assurance information.
... While privacy is one of the criteria for scaling and empirically ranking various quality and trust assurance for consumer cloud service (Ion et al., 2011), it is necessary for CSPs to develop appropriate techniques and implement privacy protections to gain users' trust. One of the methods proposed by Lins et al. (2016) is to involve automated monitoring and auditing techniques and transparent provision of audit relevant information to verify CSPs' ongoing adherence to certification requirements. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cloud computing is an evolving paradigm that changes the way humans share, store, and access their information in digital form. Although cloud computing offers tremendous benefits, it also brings security and privacy challenges. Certifications have been developed by governments and authorized organizations as a new approach to protecting users’ information in the cloud. While the security controls in the certifications have been well established and widely applied, the privacy protections provided by certifications are still ambiguous and yet to be examined. In this study, we identified and selected four cloud certifications that are commonly used for certifying the security and privacy of cloud computing, and we evaluated their performance on privacy protections specifically to understand how privacy is treated in these certifications according to their existing controls. Our research reveals a lack of privacy controls in the current certifications and inadequate privacy-related content; even when present, such content is not clear or is difficult to distinguish from security controls. Results demonstrate that without having a set of baseline privacy protection criteria or standards, it is very challenging to determine cloud certifications’ performance and adequacy for privacy protections. It also points to the urgent need for the development of a consistent and comprehensive privacy framework that can be utilized for such evaluations.
... Forschungsseitig erwachsen daraus eine ganze Reihe von Aufgaben: so gilt es, Verfahren zu entwickeln, um die einzelnen Anforderungen jeweils zu prüfen und zu belegen (wie z.B. oben erwähnt über die Funktionalitäten entsprechender Software). Interessant wäre es darüber hinaus, dies einerseits von unabhängiger Stelle und andererseits kontinuierlich vornehmen zu können (Lins et al. 2016). Des Weiteren werden Erkenntnisse benötigt, um den richtigen Grad der Symbiose zwischen dem menschlichen Wissensarbeiter und der technischen Assistenz für den jeweiligen Anwendungsfall festzulegen -und die geeigneten Schnittstellen zu schaffen. ...
Chapter
The employment and work of the future is taking place in service provider systems, which are a result of the digital revolution. Nevertheless, politics, science and research have insufficiently considered the consequences of the digital revolution for the organisation of work in the field of service provision. Using the example of logistics, this book presents the social economy, knowledge services, and the consequences and design options for work and employment at the levels of ‘society’, ‘services, markets and the economy’, ‘service development’, ‘service production’ and ‘model development’ from different technical perspectives. The essay ‘Services are becoming high-tech’, written by twenty academics, outlines a design concept for top-class service research, which can serve as a trailblazer for international competitiveness, high customer value and good work in the digital revolution. With contributions by Ursula Bach, Bernd Bienzeisler, Tilo Böhmann, Jost Buschmeyer, Wolfgang Dunkel, Martin Eisenmann, Gerhard Ernst, Michaela Evans, Gerhard Finking, Michael Fischer, Walter Ganz, Philipp, K. Görs, Birgit Graf, Winfried Hacker, Ewald Heinen, Markus Hoppe, Henning Hummert, Heike Jacobsen, David Kremer, Vanessa Kubek, Niklas Kühl, Hendrik Lager, Andrea Lohmann-Haislah, Andrea Martin, Nadine Müller, Claudia Munz, Friedhelm Nachreiner, Friedemann Nerdinger, Ulrike Pietrzyk, Gerhard Satzger, Birte Schiffhauer, Christian Schiller, Lothar Schröder, Martin Schütte, Udo Seelmeyer, Guiseppe Strina, Anne Traum, Anne-Sophie Tombeil, Michael Vilain, Alfredo Virgillito, Philipp Waag, Harald Weber, Johannes Wendsche, Claus Zanker, Klaus J. Zink, Klaus Zühlke-Robinet
... S. Linset. Al [13] constantly investigates dynamic affirmation prerequisites to guarantee secure and dependable cloud services and introduces solid cloud administration accreditations. Cloud administration frameworks and procedures are generally received, and utilitarian accreditation of cloud services is in fact and monetarily feasible. ...
Data
While cloud computing is picking up notoriety, various security and protection issues are developing that ruin the fast reception of this new computing worldview. What's more, the advancement of protective arrangements is lingering behind. To guarantee a safe and dependable cloud condition it is fundamental to recognize the restrictions of existing arrangements and imagine bearings for future research. Cloud computing changed our general surroundings. Presently individuals are moving their information to the cloud since information is getting greater and should be available from numerous gadgets. In this manner, putting away the information on the cloud turns into a standard. In any case, there are numerous issues that counter information put away in the cloud beginning from virtual machine which is the intend to share assets in cloud and completion on cloud stockpiling itself issues. In this paper, we present those issues that are keeping individuals from receiving the cloud and give a study on arrangements that have been done to limit dangers of these issues. For instance, the information put away in the cloud should be classified, safeguarding honesty and accessible. In addition, sharing the information put away in the cloud among numerous clients is as yet an issue since the cloud specialist organization is dishonest to oversee confirmation and approval. In this paper, we list Cloud computing security, Benefits, Risks and suggestions for data security
... 4 However, the cloud is not trusted to delete data correctly and must support verification for deletion. Such a cloud-based model is known as trust-but-verify and widely considered in many cryptographic algorithms [17,25,43]. The trust-but-verify model is motivated by situations (e.g., GDPR), where the cloud provider wishes to protect itself against spurious litigation about violating data retention policy by providing verifiable proof of deletion. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The growing deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) systems aims to ease the daily life of end-users by providing several value-added services. However, IoT systems may capture and store sensitive, personal data about individuals in the cloud, thereby jeopardizing user-privacy. Emerging legislation, such as California's CalOPPA and GDPR in Europe, support strong privacy laws to protect an individual's data in the cloud. One such law relates to strict enforcement of data retention policies. This paper proposes a framework, entitled IoT Expunge that allows sensor data providers to store the data in cloud platforms that will ensure enforcement of retention policies. Additionally, the cloud provider produces verifiable proofs of its adherence to the retention policies. Experimental results on a real-world smart building testbed show that IoT Expunge imposes minimal overheads to the user to verify the data against data retention policies.
... 4 However, the cloud is not trusted to delete data correctly and must support verification for deletion. Such a cloud-based model is known as trust-but-verify and widely considered in many cryptographic algorithms [17,25,43]. The trust-but-verify model is motivated by situations (e.g., GDPR), where the cloud provider wishes to protect itself against spurious litigation about violating data retention policy by providing verifiable proof of deletion. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The growing deployment of Internet of Things (IoT) systems aims to ease the daily life of end-users by providing several value-added services. However, IoT systems may capture and store sensitive, personal data about individuals in the cloud, thereby jeopardizing user-privacy. Emerging legislation, such as California's CalOPPA and GDPR in Europe, support strong privacy laws to protect an individual's data in the cloud. One such law relates to strict enforcement of data retention policies. This paper proposes a framework, entitled IoT Expunge that allows sensor data providers to store the data in cloud platforms that will ensure enforcement of retention policies. Additionally, the cloud provider produces verifiable proofs of its adherence to the retention policies. Experimental results on a real-world smart building testbed show that IoT Expunge imposes minimal overheads to the user to verify the data against data retention policies.
... Existing privacy protection studies also focus on security verification, assurance and certification [28], [29]. Lin et al. [30] developed a comprehensive mobile provable data possession scheme to determine the integrity and availability of outsourced data. ...
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel betrachtet abschließend das Marktpotenzial einer kontinuierlichen Zertifizierung. Dabei wird die Akzeptanz einer kontinuierlichen Zertifizierung durch Cloud-Service-Anbieter und Zertifizierungsstellen untersucht sowie Gestaltungsempfehlungen zur Realisierung von Vorteilen und Potenzialen für Cloud-Service-Kunden abgegeben.
Chapter
In the last ten years cloud computing has developed from a buzz word to the new computing paradigm on a global scale. Computing power or storage capacity can be bought and consumed flexibly and on-demand, which opens up new opportunities for cost-saving and data processing. However, it also goes with security concerns as it represents a form of IT outsourcing. We investigate how these concerns manifest as a decisive factor in cloud provider selection by interviews with eight practitioners from German companies. As only a moderate interest is discovered, it is further examined why this is the case. Additionally, we compared the results from a systematic literature survey on cloud security assurance to cloud customers’ verification of their providers’ security measures. This paper provides a qualitative in-depth examination of companies’ attitudes towards security in the cloud. The results of the analysed sample show that security is not necessarily decisive in cloud provider selection. Nevertheless, providers are required to guarantee security and comply. Traditional forms of assurance techniques play a role in assessing cloud providers and verifying their security measures. Moreover, compliance is identified as a strong driver to pursue security and assurance.
Chapter
Privacy means that a person is free from all interference. Privacy control is the administrative, technical, and physical safeguards employed within agencies to protect and ensure the proper handling of personally identifiable information or prevent activities that create privacy risk. Privacy breaches may create a lot of trouble for cloud users. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and Canadian Institute of Charted Accountants (CICA) define privacy as “the right and obligation of individuals and organizations with respect to the collection, use, retention, and disclosure of personal information.”
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The adoption of cloud computing has created tremendous prospects and cost savings for a variety of organizations. Although increasing resources and effort have been devoted to fighting cyber-threats in cloud environments, cloud computing continues to be associated with a range of severe and complex security and privacy issues that may challenge the overall benefits that CSPs offer. While security protections in cloud computing has been widely discussed and comprehensive guidelines have been established, privacy protections in the cloud does not have the same level of focus or set of guideline or framework that has been established. In this paper, we present a systematic review of previous literature related to privacy issues in cloud computing, analyze multiple general privacy frameworks, policies, and principles to highlight the critical need for creating privacy protection criteria’s for cloud computing. Our research and review illustrates that privacy protections focused on cloud computing is deficient and it can serve as an initial guide towards building and improving privacy protections in order to meet cloud privacy requirements and ensure data protection.
Chapter
Mehr als die Hälfte der Unternehmen sind in Sorge, dass bei der Nutzung eines Cloud-Services die Einhaltung des Datenschutzes durch den Cloud-Service-Provider nicht gewährleistet ist. Um die Einhaltung der Datenschutzanforderungen nachzuweisen, lassen sich eine Großzahl der Cloud-Service-Provider zertifizieren. Doch die Wirkung von Zertifikaten, diese Bedenken zu senken, ist durchaus umstritten. Wissenschaftliche Studien zeigen gegensätzliche Ergebnisse auf, inwieweit Zertifikate den Cloud-Service-Kunden bei seiner Kauf-Entscheidung unterstützen. Aus diesem Grund soll im Rahmen dieses Kapitels evaluiert werden, welche Auswirkung der Einsatz von dynamischen Zertifikaten auf den wahrgenommenen Datenschutz und die Entscheidung des Cloud-Service-Kunden hat und welche Rolle dabei die Reputation des Zertifizierers spielt.
Article
Storage is one of the main services that the cloud provides users. Utilizing the cloud to store large amounts of data can alleviate the cost of storage and the hardware investment on the local side, which is very important for resource-restricted clients. An emerging issue for clients is how to verify the database in the could after outsourcing their data to the cloud. Many verifiable database (VDB) schemes have been proposed by researchers that can solve this issue. However, some of the existing schemes cannot satisfy the practical requirements of database verifiability. In this paper, we propose a secure verifiable database scheme that is based on the polynomial commitment for cloud computing, which can realize the verifiability of database records in the cloud. Moreover, the proposed scheme can support public verifiability in that all clients in the system can verify the database. In addition, we use the BLS signature and the index-hash table to construct dynamic operations for the database. Security analysis shows that our scheme can achieve real-world security requirements. The simulation results show that our scheme is more efficient than similar schemes.
Article
With the rapid development of cloud services, the resources-constrained enterprises and individuals can outsource the huge sensitive data into the Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) who fully control the data physically. Since CSPs are not fully trusted, it is essential to protect the integrity and confidentiality of users' data. Plenty of researchers have devoted considerable attention to solve this issue in the last decade such as various PDP and POR schemes. In this paper, we propose an algebraic signature-based data integrity auditing scheme that ensures the cloud data integrity and confidentiality with batch auditing. Moreover, one advantage of the scheme is that it can also support data dynamics by using only one cloud server. The security analysis shows that our construction can achieve the desired security properties. We also provide the simulation results of dynamic operations on different numbers of data blocks and sub-blocks, which show that our scheme is efficient for real-world applications.
Chapter
Cloud computing is an evolution of information technology and a dominant business model for delivering IT resources. With cloud computing, individuals and organizations can gain on-demand network access to a shared pool of managed and scalable IT resources, such as servers, storage, and applications. Recently, academics as well as practitioners have paid a great deal of attention to cloud computing. We rely heavily on cloud services in our daily lives, e.g., for storing data, writing documents, managing businesses, and playing games online. Cloud computing also provides the infrastructure that has powered key digital trends such as mobile computing, the Internet of Things, big data, and artificial intelligence, thereby accelerating industry dynamics, disrupting existing business models, and fueling the digital transformation. Still, cloud computing not only provides a vast number of benefits and opportunities; it also comes with several challenges and concerns, e.g., regarding protecting customers’ data.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel werden die Grundlagen zu Cloud-Computing und der Zertifizierung von Cloud-Services kurz erläutert. Es werden die grundlegenden Charakteristiken des Cloud-Computings, die Service- und Bereitstellungsmodelle beschrieben sowie Risiken beim Einsatz von Cloud-Services erörtert. Anschließend wird eine kurze Einführung zur Zertifizierung von Cloud-Services gegeben, in welcher der Nutzen von Zertifizierungen für Cloud-Service-Anbieter und -Kunden dargelegt wird, gefolgt von einer Marktübersicht zu existierenden Cloud-Service-Zertifizierungen.
Chapter
Information systems (IS) are composed of different, interrelated elements that aim to fulfill desired features. This chapter introduces the concept of IS architecture as a way to meaningfully describe and design the underlying structure of an IS. It presents nine basic principles of IS architectures and explains them using the example of the cloud-based storage service Dropbox. This introduction to IS architecture also introduces the most common architectural patterns (i.e. the client-server architecture, tier architectures, peer-to-peer architecture, model view controller, and service-oriented architecture) in the realm of Internet computing and briefly discusses their strengths and weaknesses.
Chapter
Over the past decades, the Internet has fundamentally influenced almost all areas of our everyday lives. It has profoundly changed the ways in which we communicate, gather information, and consume media, and has led to the emergence of Internet companies that are based on fundamentally new business models. This chapter introduces Internet computing as a scientific field that is concerned with applications provided via the Internet, the underlying architectures and technologies necessary to build such applications, and systemic matters that inform the design of such applications. Based on these foundations, this chapter outlines this book’s structure. In addition to defining Internet computing and briefly presenting the chapters, an overview of the historical background and development of the Internet is provided. This chapter also introduces the concepts of information systems (IS) and distributed systems as important related scientific fields that shaped the ways Internet-based applications have been designed. To round off this introduction, several common Internet-based applications are presented.
Chapter
This chapter explores how organizations can seek to secure a public cloud environment for use in big data operations. It begins by describing the challenges that cloud customers face when moving to the cloud, and proposes that these challenges can be summarized as a loss of control and visibility into the systems and controls around data. The chapter identifies thirteen areas where visibility and control can be lost, before progressing to highlight ten solutions to help regain these losses. It is proposed that planning is the most significant step a customer can take in ensuring a secure cloud for big data. Good planning will enable customers to know their data and pursue a risk-based approach to cloud security. The chapter provides insight into future research directions, highlighting research areas which hold the potential to further empower cloud customers in the medium to long term.
Conference Paper
In the last ten years cloud computing has developed from a buzz word to the new computing paradigm on a global scale. Computing power or storage capacity can be bought and consumed flexibly and on-demand, which opens up new opportunities for cost-saving and data processing. However, it also goes with security concerns as it represents a form of IT outsourcing. We investigate how these concerns manifest as a decisive factor in cloud provider selection by interviews with eight practitioners from German companies. As only a moderate interest is discovered, it is further examined why this is the case. Additionally, we compared the results from a systematic literature survey on cloud security assurance to cloud customers' verification of their providers' security measures. This paper provides a qualitative in-depth examination of companies' attitudes towards security in the cloud. The results of the analysed sample show that security is not necessarily decisive in cloud provider selection. Nevertheless, providers are required to guarantee security and comply. Traditional forms of assurance techniques play a role in assessing cloud providers and verifying their security measures. Moreover, compliance is identified as a strong driver to pursue security and assurance.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel beschreibt Anforderungen und Handlungsempfehlungen zur Durchführung von kontinuierlichen Zertifizierungsverfahren aus einer rechtlichen, technischen und organisatorischen Perspektive. Zudem werden mögliche Grenzen und Risiken einer kontinuierlichen Zertifizierung diskutiert.
Chapter
Zur Durchführung einer kontinuierlichen Zertifizierung ist eine fortlaufende Überprüfung von ausgewählten Zertifizierungskriterien notwendig, um die Glaubwürdigkeit einer Zertifizierung zu erhöhen. In diesem Kapitel werden sowohl Methodiken und Metriken exemplarisch vorgestellt, welche ein Cloud-Service-Anbieter implementieren kann, um benötige zertifizierungsrelevante Daten zur Verfügung stellen zu können (zur Förderung von monitoring-basierten Messverfahren), als auch Methodiken und Techniken, welche es Cloud-Service-Auditoren ermöglichen eigenständig Daten zu erheben und zu analysieren (zur Förderung von test-basierten Messverfahren). Ein automatisierter Abgleich von Ergebnissen aus Messverfahren mit Zertifizierungskriterien setzt zudem das Etablieren von Regeln voraus, die definieren, wie Verstöße gehandhabt werden. Aus diesem Grund wird abschließend in diesem Kapitel ein Regelwerk zur Identifizierung von Verstößen und Initiierung von Maßnahmen vorgestellt.
Chapter
Cloud computing is a model that enables convenient access to network resources like web services, such as email, virtual servers and file transfers, over the network. Reliability of cloud services is one of the key concerns in cloud services. However, reliability of cloud services is not an easy task in large scalable environments and where there is a large amount of traffic from converged data networks. Also, converged data networks present many challenges in the cloud environment. The challenges can range from bandwidth concerns and security flaws. Hence, this study explores the reliability concerns of cloud services. It also seeks to explore the effects of convergence in cloud services. In achieving the objectives of this study, qualitative methods were used. Qualitative data was collected using an open‐ended questionnaire. The data was then interpretively analyzed using the content analysis method. Based on the analysis, bandwidth, security and traffic issues were found to be the main issues.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel beschreibt das Fazit dieses Buches und gibt einen Ausblick in die weitere Forschung zum Thema Cloud-Service-Zertifizierung.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel beschreibt das Problem eines hoch dynamischen Cloud-Service-Umfelds und die dadurch entstehenden Herausforderungen für bestehende Zertifizierungsprozesse. Denn die Durchführung von traditionellen Zertifizierungsprozessen erfordert eine gewisse Stabilität des Cloud-Services, damit davon ausgegangen werden kann, dass die Prüfergebnisse über die gesamte Geltungszeitspanne identisch bleiben. Da sich Cloud-Services durch dynamische Charakteristiken, einer schnelllebigen Technologie und einer sich stetig verändernden Umwelt auszeichnen, ist jedoch die Einhaltung von Zertifizierungskriterien über die Geltungszeitspanne stark gefährdet. Zur Lösung wird ein kontinuierlicher Zertifizierungsprozess vorgestellt, welcher automatisierte Überwachungs- und Auditierungstechniken umfasst, um eine fortlaufende Ermittlung, Bewertung und Entscheidung zu ermöglichen, sowie Mechanismen zur transparenten Bereitstellung von zertifizierungsrelevanten Informationen beinhaltet, um die Einhaltung der Zertifizierungskriterien kontinuierlich zu bestätigen. Zudem wird der Umfang kontinuierlicher Zertifizierungsprozesse diskutiert und das veränderte Wertschöpfungsnetzwerk dargelegt.
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Um die Einführung und den Betrieb eines dynamischen Zertifizierungsdienstes zu erleich-tern, werden in diesem Kapitel die organisatorischen Anforderungen illustriert und diskutiert. Hierzu wird ein Ordnungsrahmen erarbeitet, welcher die Rahmenbedingungen für die Prozesse und die Organisation des dynamischen Zertifizierungsdienstes vorgibt. Ausgehend vom Ord-nungsrahmen wird ein Vorschlag für zwei Vorgehensmodelle, die dynamische Auditierung und die dynamische Zertifizierung, dargestellt und erläutert.
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Cloud service certifications attempt to assure a high level of security and compliance. However, considering that cloud services are part of an ever-changing environment, multi-year validity periods may put in doubt the reliability of such certifications. We argue that continuous auditing of selected certification criteria is required to assure continuously reliable and secure cloud services and thereby increase the trustworthiness of certifications. Continuous auditing of cloud services is still in its infancy, thus, we performed a systematic literature review to identify automated auditing methods that are applicable in the context of cloud computing. Our study yields a set of automated methods for continuous auditing in six clusters. We discuss the identified methods in terms of their applicability to address major concerns about cloud computing and how the methods can aid to continuously audit cloud environments. We thereby provide paths for future research to implement continuous auditing in cloud service contexts.
Conference Paper
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One characteristic of a cloud computing infrastructure are their frequently changing virtual infrastructure. New Virtual Machines (VMs) get deployed, existing VMs migrate to a different host or network segment and VMs vanish since they get deleted by their user. Classic incidence monitoring mechanisms are not flexible enough to cope with cloud specific characteristics such as frequent infrastructure changes. In this paper we present a prototype demonstration of the Security Audit as a Service (SAaaS) architecture, a cloud audit system which aims to increase trust in cloud infrastructures by introducing more transparency to user and cloud provider on what is happening in the cloud. Especially in the event of a changing infrastructure the demonstration shows, how autonomous agents detect this change, automatically reevaluate the security status of the cloud and inform the user through an audit report.
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Cloud computing introduces several characteristics that challenge the effectiveness of current certification approaches. Particularly, the on-demand, automated, location-independent, elastic, and multi-tenant nature of cloud computing systems is in contradiction with the static, manual, and human process-oriented evaluation and certification process designed for traditional IT systems. Cloud-specific certification processes can improve trust in the cloud computing paradigm, and can lead to the wide adoption of cloud services in enterprises by mastery of uncertainty, lack of transparency, and trust. Through third party evaluation cloud customers could receive more unbiased information about cloud-based services and security measures implemented as well as they could compare different cloud service providers much easier. Common certificates are a backward look at the fulfillment of technical and organizational measures at the time of issue and therefore represent a snapshot. This creates a gap between the common certification of one to three years and the high dynamics of the market for cloud services and providers. The proposed dynamic certification approach adopts the common certification process to the increased flexibility and dynamics of cloud computing environments through using of automation potential of security controls and continuous proof of the certification status. Dynamic certification is based on a new semi-automated certification process and the continuous monitoring of critical parameters of cloud services.
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Cloud computing is an evolving paradigm that affects a large part of the IT industry, in particular the way hardware and software are deployed: as a service. Despite advantages of cloud computing, small and medium enterprises in particular remain cautious implementing cloud service solutions. Promoting transparent information exchange between cloud service providers and cloud users are essential premises to accomplish broad diffusion of cloud computing in the market. We believe that certification of cloud services by independent certification institutions can cope with the challenging lack of transparency, trust, and acceptance.
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Cloud computing has emerged as a popular computing paradigm in recent years. However, today's cloud computing architectures often lack support for computer forensic investigations. Analyzing various logs (e.g., process logs, network logs) plays a vital role in computer forensics. Unfortunately, collecting logs from a cloud is very hard given the black-box nature of clouds and the multi-tenant cloud models, where many users share the same processing and network resources. Researchers have proposed using log API or cloud management console to mitigate the challenges of collecting logs from cloud infrastructure. However, there has been no concrete work, which shows how to provide cloud logs to investigator while preserving users' privacy and integrity of the logs. In this paper, we introduce Secure-Logging-as-a-Service (SecLaaS), which stores virtual machines' logs and provides access to forensic investigators ensuring the confidentiality of the cloud users. Additionally, SeclaaS preserves proofs of past log and thus protects the integrity of the logs from dishonest investigators or cloud providers. Finally, we evaluate the feasibility of the scheme by implementing SecLaaS for network access logs in OpenStack - a popular open source cloud platform.
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The key barrier to widespread uptake of cloud computing is the lack of trust in clouds by potential customers. While preventive controls for security and privacy are actively researched, there is still little focus on detective controls related to cloud accountability and auditability. The complexity resulting from large-scale virtualization and data distribution carried out in current clouds has revealed an urgent research agenda for cloud accountability, as has the shift in focus of customer concerns from servers to data. This paper discusses key issues and challenges in achieving a trusted cloud through the use of detective controls, and presents the TrustCloud framework, which addresses accountability in cloud computing via technical and policy-based approaches.
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Cloud service certifications (CSC) attempt to assure a high level of security and compliance. However, considering that cloud services are part of an ever-changing environment, multi-year validity periods may put in doubt reliability of such certifications. We argue that continuous auditing (CA) of selected certification criteria is required to assure continuously reliable and secure cloud services, and thereby increase trustworthiness of certifications. CA of cloud services is still in its infancy, thus, we conducted a thorough literature review, interviews, and workshops with practitioners to conceptualize an architecture for continuous cloud service auditing. Our study shows that various criteria should be continuously audited. Yet, we reveal that most of existing methodologies are not applicable for third party auditing purposes. Therefore, we propose a conceptual CA architecture, and highlight important components and processes that have to be implemented. Finally, we discuss benefits and challenges that have to be tackled to diffuse the concept of continuous cloud service auditing. We contribute to knowledge and practice by providing applicable internal and third party auditing methodologies for auditors and providers, linked together in a conceptual architecture. Further on, we provide groundings for future research to implement CA in cloud service contexts.
Article
A growing body of literature related to continuous auditing topics has developed. Advances in information technology and web-based applications are making monitoring and control of operations through continuous auditing increasingly important. The objective of this paper is to describe, summarize and provide a framework for classifying the contributions of the diverse literature addressing the topic of continuous auditing. This paper was intended to provide researchers and practitioners with a background in continuous auditing topics. Our broad view the literature is also designed to discover areas holding the potential for future research. Research streams are divided into five major categories: demand factors, theory and guidance, enabling technologies, applications, and impacts. Over eighty papers have been identified that relate to these areas. Many more articles exist especially in the area of enabling technologies. However, the focus of our paper is the literature most closely related to continuous auditing.
Oruta: Privacy-Preserving Public Auditing for Shared Data in the Cloud
  • B Wang
  • B Li
  • H Li