A New Method to Treat Oily Water Using Rice Husk Ash Onboard Vessel

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All vessels must have bilge water. The bilge is referred as water come from rough seas, rain, leaks in the hull or other interior spillage. The water that collects in the bilge must be pumped out to prevent the bilge from becoming too full and threatening to sink the ship. Depending on the design of the ship and function, bilge water may contain water, oil, urine, detergents, solvents, chemicals, particles, and other materials. Absorption process is widely being used by various treatment plants, either for treating water or wastewater. The main function of absorption is to remove any contaminants such as heavy metals, organic and inorganic chemicals from it. One of the components of absorption is rice husk ash. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of rice husk ash as an absorbent, specifically to absorb oil in bilge water. Zinc chloride was added to the rice husk ash since an activated carbon enhanced absorption capacity. It was found that oil was removed from the water and clear water was produced after the absorption process. Thus, the use of rice husk ash water has proven to be one of the best options for ship-owner in oily water treatment.

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Activated carbons were produced from acorn shell by chemical activation with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) at 600 °C in N2 atmosphere and their characteristics were investigated. The effects of activation temperature, duration time, impregnation concentration of agent and impregnation time were examined. Adsorption capacity was demonstrated with BET and iodine number. The obtained activated carbons were characterized by measuring their porosities and pore size distributions. BET surface area of the best produced activated carbon was 1289 m2/g. The surface chemical characteristics of activated carbons were determined by FT-IR spectroscopic method. The microstructure of the produced activated carbons was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal gravimetry (TG) and derivative thermal gravimetry (DTG) analysis of produced activated carbon was carried out.
This chapter emphasizes the role of adsorption, ion exchange, and catalysis in environmental protection. Adsorption includes the uptake of gaseous or liquid components of mixtures from the external or internal surface of porous solids. The ability to exchange ions is due to the properties of the structure of the materials. Catalysis is one of the most important technologies used extensively in industries for production and in waste treatment for the removal of pollutants. There are many common features among these processes. Ion exchange is similar to adsorption, since mass transfer from a fluid to a solid phase is common in both processes. Ion exchange is also a sorption process, but ions are the sorbed species in contrast to adsorption, where electrically neutral species are sorbed. The first step in heterogeneous catalysis is the adsorption of the molecules and the development of catalysis is closely related to the evolution of adsorption. Furthermore, catalysis of reactions by ion exchangers can be explained in terms of the catalytic activity of the exchanging ions and is analogous to homogeneous-phase catalysis by dissolved electrolytes. The adsorption on inexpensive and efficient solid supports is a simple and economical viable method for the removal of dyes from water and wastewater. Ion exchange is mainly used in wastewater treatment. Finally, Earth ecosystems result in the growth of environmental catalysis. So, catalysts are not only used to promote processes in the production field, but also to reduce the emissions of undesirable or hazardous compounds to the environment.
The activated carbon prepared by carbonisation of rice husk with sulphuric acid followed by CO2 activation showed 88% removal of total chromium and greater than 99% removal of hexavalent chromium. As with commercial carbon, the removal was maximum at a minimum proton to chromium ratio of 5.0 and chromium to carbon ratio of 0.0065. The above ratios were found to be valid over a wide range of Cr (VI) concentrations. The Freundlich adsorption plots gave identical slope values indicating similar type of adsorption mechanism are involved for the removal by both carbons. Coloumn studies showed capacity of 8.9 mg/g and 6.3 mg/g for rice husk and commercialc arbons respectively, for Cr (VI) removal. The average percentage of Cr (VI) recovery was found to be 22.5% and 30.6% respectively when alkali followed by acid were used for regeneration. The developed carbon was used to remove Cr (VI) from the waste waters of a chromium plating shop.
Rice husk, which is a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various pollutants from water and wastewaters. Various pollutants, such as dyes, phenols, organic compounds, pesticides, inorganic anions, and heavy metals can be removed very effectively with rice husk as an adsorbent. This article presents a brief review on the role of rice husk and rice husk ash in the removal of various pollutants from wastewater. Studies on the adsorption of various pollutants by rice husk materials are reviewed and the adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, etc., discussed in this article. It is evident from the review that rice husk and its ash can be potentially utilized for the removal of various pollutants from water and wastewaters.
The use of rice husk ash (RHA) as an adsorbent for the adsorption of humic acids from water was studied. Optimum conditions for humic acids adsorption were found in batch method as follows, 60 min equilibrium time and initial in the range of pH 3-4. In addition, RHA was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Again, the adsorption behavior of the modified rice husk ash (RHA-NH(2)) was studied. Optimum conditions for humic acids adsorption were found to be 30 min equilibrium time and initial pH in the range of 3-4. The adsorption capacity of RHA-NH(2) was higher than that of RHA. Experimental adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir equation and the maximum adsorption capacity was 8.2mg/g. at pH 6. The column method was also performed. The comparative adsorption efficiencies of RHA-NH(2) and commercial activated carbons showed insignificant difference. The RHA-NH(2) adsorbent was applied for humic acids removal from surface water.
Removal of contaminants in water by using rice husk ash (RHA) as absorbent
  • S N Islam