Article

Fermentative degradation of putrescine by new strictly anaerobic bacteria

Archives of Microbiology (Impact Factor: 1.67). 05/1989; 151(6). DOI: 10.1007/BF00454865
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT

Three strains of new strictly anaerobic, Grampositive, non-sporeforming bacteria were isolated from various anoxic sediment samples with putrescine as sole carbon and energy source. Optimal growth in carbonate-buffered defined medium occurred at 37~ at pH 7.2-7.6. The DNA base ratio of strain NorPutl was 29.6 _+ 1 mol% guanine plus cytosine. In addition to a surface layer and the eptidoglycan layer, the cell wall contained a second innermost layer with a periodic arrangement of subunits. All strains fermented putrescine to acetate, butyrate, and molecular hydrogen; the latter originated from both oxidative putrescine deamination and 4-aminobutyraldehyde oxidation. In defined mixed cultures with methanogens or homoacetogenic bacteria, methane or additional acetate were formed due to interspecies hydrogen transfer. Also 4-aminobutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate were fermented to acetate and butyrate, but no hydrogen was released from these substrates. No sugars, organic acids, other primary amines or amino acids were used as substrates. Neither sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfur, nitrate nor fumarate was reduced. Most of the enzymes involved in putrescine degradation could be demonstrated in cell-free extracts. A pathway of putrescine fermentation via 4-aminobutyrate and crotonyl- CoA with subsequent dismutation to acetate and butyrate is suggested.

Full-text preview

Available from: link.springer.com
  • Source
    • "Aerobic decomposition of amines starts with oxidative deamination or elimination of the amino group by transamination (Prieto-Santos et al., 1986 ; Lehninger, 1975). In a study on anaerobic degradation of primary amines, a strictly anaerobic, putrescine-degrading, fermenting bacterium that grew only with putrescine, 4-aminobutyrate or 4-hydroxybutyrate as substrates was enriched and isolated (Matthies et al., 1989). This organism initiates putrescine degradation by a transamination reaction forming 4-aminobutyraldehyde "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, non-spore-forming bacterium strain NorPut1T ferments putrescine to acetate, butyrate, molecular hydrogen and ammonia. It also utilizes 4-aminobutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate as growth substrates. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis confirmed a phylogenetic affiliation of this strain to the phylum of gram-positive bacteria with low DNA G+C content. Together with its closest relative, 'Clostridium aminobutyricum' (DSM 2634), and several Eubacterium species, strain NorPut1T represents a well-defined monophyletic group. Moderate overall 16S rRNA sequence similarities (< 91%) were found for the NorPut1T/'Clostridium aminobutyricum' pair and several Eubacterium species. The type species, Eubacterium limosum, is not a member of the group and, together with Eubacterium barkeri and Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, represents a distant phylogentic cluster. Therefore, a new genus, Anaerovorax, is proposed as harbouring strain NorPut1T (= DSM 5092T), which is described as a new species, i.e. Anaerovorax odorimutans.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2000 · International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
  • Source
    • "Aerobic decomposition of amines starts with oxidative deamination or elimination of the amino group by transamination (Prieto-Santos et al., 1986 ; Lehninger, 1975). In a study on anaerobic degradation of primary amines, a strictly anaerobic, putrescine-degrading, fermenting bacterium that grew only with putrescine, 4-aminobutyrate or 4-hydroxybutyrate as substrates was enriched and isolated (Matthies et al., 1989). This organism initiates putrescine degradation by a transamination reaction forming 4-aminobutyraldehyde "

    Preview · Article · Jan 2000
  • Source
    • "Many monomers of synthetic polyesters and polyamines (higher dicarboxylic acids of 6 and more carbon atoms, diamines, O-aminocarbonic acids, O-hydroxocarbonic acids) can be degraded and mineralized by microorganisms, but only by a few specialists. For instance, only recently were bacteria isolated and described which can fermentatively degrade diamines such as putrescine [15] or higher dicarboxylic acids ([16]; Matthies and Schink, in preparation). It cannot be expected that such bacteria, which can hardly grow at the expense of the monomeric substrates, will produce hydrolases for degradation of an artificial polymer that does not exist in nature. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In landfills, deposited waste material is usually faced with strictly anoxic conditions. This means that the design of new biodegradable polymers must take into consideration that degradation should be possible especially in the absence of molecular oxygen. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate is depolymerized by the anaerobic fermenting bacterium Ilyobacter delafieldii through an extracellular hydrolase. Monomers are degraded inside the cells through classical beta-oxidation. Polyalkanoates containing odd-numbered or branched-chain acid monomers should he degraded in an analogous manner; in most cases the final mineralization of these residues requires special pathways. A comparison of the chemistry of natural polymer biodegradation leads to the conclusion that synthetic biodegradable polymers should be designed in the future to contain linkages which can be cleaved by extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Recent findings on aerobic and anaerobic bacterial degradation of synthetic polyethers suggest that natural evolution of new depolymerizing enzymes, perhaps from existing hydrolases, could be possible in a reasonable amount of time, provided that the monomers are likely energy sources for a broad variety of microbes.
    Preview · Article · Jan 1993 · FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Show more