Digital technology furnishes an extensive array of options for open and closed-loop control of automotive electronic systems. A large number of parameters can be included in the process to support optimal operation of various systems. After receiving the electric signals transmitted by the sensors, the ECU processes these data in order to generate control signals for the actuators. The software program for closed-loop control is stored in the ECU’s memory. The program is executed by a microcontroller. The ECU and its components are referred to as hardware. The Motronic ECU contains all of the algorithms for open and closed-loop control needed to govern the engine-management processes (ignition, induction and mixture formation, etc.).