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THE DEVELOPMENT OF A POLICY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DINGO POPULATIONS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA

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Abstract

Competing concerns between conservation and sheep-growing interests in South Australia over problems associated with the naturalized dog,Canis familiaris dingo, prompted the development of a policy for the management of this subspecies. The background to the development of this policy is outlined. The policy provides for a compromise between the need to protect the livestock industry while ensuring the continued survival of the dingo as a wildlife species.

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... There is also extensive debate concerning the taxonomy and definition of dingoes [2,3]. However, dingoes are considered a native species, protected in national parks [4][5][6][7] and are listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List [8]. Conservation and management programs, adequately informed by scientific knowledge, must be developed to protect the identity of the dingo before it is lost. ...
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Dingoes play a strong role in Australia’s ecological framework as the apex predator but are under threat from hybridization and agricultural control programs. Government legislation lists the conservation of the dingo as an important aim, yet little is known about the biogeography of this enigmatic canine, making conservation difficult. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA studies show evidence of population structure within the dingo. Here, we present the data from Illumina HD canine chip genotyping for 23 dingoes from five regional populations, and five New Guinea Singing Dogs to further explore patterns of biogeography using genome-wide data. Whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data supported the presence of three distinct dingo populations (or ESUs) subject to geographical subdivision: southeastern (SE), Fraser Island (FI) and northwestern (NW). These ESUs should be managed discretely. The FI dingoes are a known reservoir of pure, genetically distinct dingoes. Elevated inbreeding coefficients identified here suggest this population may be genetically compromised and in need of rescue; current lethal management strategies that do not consider genetic information should be suspended until further data can be gathered. D statistics identify evidence of historical admixture or ancestry sharing between southeastern dingoes and South East Asian village dogs. Conservation efforts on mainland Australia should focus on the SE dingo population that is under pressure from domestic dog hybridization and high levels of lethal control. Further data concerning the genetic health, demographics and prevalence of hybridization in the SE and FI dingo populations is urgently needed to develop evidence based conservation and management strategies.
... A broad genetic survey of dingoes in National Parks and State Forests in southeastern states would be needed to pinpoint high dingo ancestry populations and thus where to focus conservation efforts. Currently state and federal legislation do not protect the dingo sufficiently and allow widespread fatal control measures (Davis, 2001;Downward & Bromell, 1990;Fleming et al., 2001Fleming et al., , 2006. Revision of legislation must be achieved to reflect the ecological, cultural, and taxonomic importance of the dingo, balancing the need to conserve this enigmatic canine with any agricultural concerns. ...
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It is increasingly common for apex predators to face a multitude of complex conservation issues. In Australia, dingoes are the mainland apex predator and play an important role in ecological functioning. Currently, however, they are threatened by hybridization with modern domestic dogs in the wild. As a consequence, we explore how increasing our understanding of the evolutionary history of dingoes can inform management and conservation decisions. Previous research on whole mitochondrial genome and nuclear data from five geographical populations showed evidence of two distinct lineages of dingo. Here, we present data from a broader survey of dingoes around Australia using both mitochondrial and Y chromosome markers and investigate the timing of demographic expansions. Biogeographic data corroborate the presence of at least two geographically subdivided genetic populations, southeastern and northwestern. Demographic modeling suggests that dingoes have undergone population expansion in the last 5,000 years. It is not clear whether this stems from expansion into vacant niches after the extinction of thylacines on the mainland or indicates the arrival date of dingoes. Male dispersal is much more common than female, evidenced by more diffuse Y haplogroup distributions. There is also evidence of likely historical male biased introgression from domestic dogs into dingoes, predominately within southeastern Australia. These findings have critical practical implications for the management and conservation of dingoes in Australia; particularly a focus must be placed upon the threatened southeastern dingo population.
... for the control of animals that cause impacts on human values such as livestock production under approved management plans (e.g. within the Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts 2005). A Territory-wide strategic plan facilitates control of wild dogs for protection of livestock and other values [190]. [191] on the management of dingo populations in South Australia, dingoes are a declared pest (to be controlled by all landholders) in the 40 percent of the state south of the dog fence (where sheep are present). Of the 60 percent of the State north of the fence, about 25 percent is pastoral cattle zone. No baiting is done in the other desert ...
Article
By 1925, the introduced prickly pear (Opuntia and Nopalea spp.) covered up to 60 million acres of Queensland and New South Wales in what was perceived as prime agricultural land. After 40 years of experimentation, all Queensland Government strategies had failed. Faced with this failure and a diminishing expectation that the land would ever be conquered, buffer zones were proposed by the newly formed Queensland Prickly Pear Land Commission. A close reading of government documents, newspaper reports and local histories about these buffer zones shows how settler anxieties over who could or should occupy the land shaped the kinds of strategies recommended and adopted in relation to this alien species. Physical and cultural techniques were used to manage the uneasy coexistence between prickly pear, on the one hand, and farmers and graziers on the other. Furthermore, this environmental history challenges the notion of racially homogenous closer settlement under the White Australia Policy, showing the many different kinds of livelihood and labour in prickly pear land in the 1920s.
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Sminthopsis crassicaudata is a small dasyurid marsupial that may be exposed to 1080 poison during the baiting of dingoes with fresh meat baits. A group of Sminthopsis were conditioned to feed freely on meat in the laboratory, but when they were offered meat poisoned with 1080 their intake was significantly reduced and they vomited. Some of them refused to eat meat altogether even when a choice of poisoned and unpoisoned meat was provided. Fewer Sminthopsis died after eating poisoned meat than expected from the LD*50 estimated by a standard technique of oral dosing with 1080 in water. Loss of appetite and aversion to the taste and/or smell of meat containing 1080 are discussed as reasons for the low intake of poisoned meat. Implications of these results are considered in the light of assessing risk to other non-target species exposed to baits containing 1080.
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