Conference PaperPDF Available

Technological Innovation Challenges and Opportunities in India and the Developing Countries

Authors:
  • College of Engineering Vivekananda Institute of Professional Studies-Technical Campus

Abstract

The effect of demographic developments is expanding and our natural assets should be utilized more shrewdly. Our social orders face security challenges which are developing in scale. And again, rising expectations for everyday comforts open markets for new items and services and their developing capacities open doors for collaboration. Technological Innovation gives effective chances to create technological innovative product and services, helps in development and capacity building in India and developing countries. We have to grasp these opportunities, expand on our qualities and act quickly and conclusively to assemble our future, improve the welfare of our nationals and secure the intensity of our organizations. This paper briefly discusses the challenges and opportunities for innovation in India. it also discuss the technological reform in India and barriers that pose the challenges for innovation in India and then gives a brief account of initiatives that have been taken by Govt. of India to promote innovativeness. In the last section makes certain suggestions for using innovation as tool for growth and sustenance in today's turbulent times
Technological Innovation challenges and
opportunities in India and the Developing
countries
Bisma Mannan
Research Scholar, Department of
Mechanical Engineering
Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
India
E-mail: bisma138123@st.jmi.ac.in
Sonal Khurana
Research Scholar, Department of
Mechanical Engineering
Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
India
E-mail: sonal.khurana@gmail.com
Abid Haleem
Professor, Department of Mechanical
Engineering
Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
India
E-mail: ahaleem@jmi.ac.in
Abstract
The effect of demographic developments is expanding and
our natural assets should be utilized more shrewdly. Our social
orders face security challenges which are developing in scale.
And again, rising expectations for everyday comforts open
markets for new items and services and their developing
capacities open doors for collaboration. Technological
Innovation gives effective chances to create technological
innovative product and services, helps in development and
capacity building in India and developing countries. We have
to grasp these opportunities, expand on our qualities and act
quickly and conclusively to assemble our future, improve the
welfare of our nationals and secure the intensity of our
organizations.
This paper briefly discusses the challenges and opportunities
for innovation in India. it also discuss the technological reform
in India and barriers that pose the challenges for innovation in
India and then gives a brief account of initiatives that have
been taken by Govt. of India to promote innovativeness. In the
last section makes certain suggestions for using innovation as
tool for growth and sustenance in today’s turbulent times
KeywordsBarriers; Enablers; Innovation Councils:
Technological innovation;
I. INTRODUCTION
Technological innovation catches both the aspects of
product and process innovations, as characterized[12],
[14]An association's capacity to improve technologically
depends to a great extent on the pace of adding to another
item or adapting the most recent technological
advancements in procedures, number of innovation, being
the ""first"" to market , and the upgraded-ness on the
innovation utilized as a part of processes [2],[12], in which
such attributes of advancement are central Technological
development is a key factor of an association's
competitiveness and therefore key for firms which need to
create and keep up an upper hand and/or pick up passage
into new markets for the survival and sustainability of a
firm. Technological Innovation and competitiveness have a
dynamic, shared relationship. Innovation flourishes in a
focused domain and thus, assumes a key part in the
accomplishment of competitive environment. Advancement
and technological innovation creates financial worth, new
occupations in the economy and societies of business
enterprise and helps in building capacity.[19]
By goodness of its association with competitiveness,
Technological Innovation develops as a element in
advancing financial development. Given the way that the
Indian economy is developing at 6-8% for every year, while
trades and exports are developing at 30% Cumulative
Annual Growth Rate (CAGR), and numerous Indian firms
are effectively going up against global firms and brands, it
can be presumed that this has been made conceivable by a
blend of variables, including empowering environment,
rising capital and work culture and additionally enhanced
nature of product and services at lower expenses.[36]
II. NEED OF THE STUDY
India needs to meet the test of holding and strengthening its
aggressive position even with globalization. Different
nations are contributing like never before to shield their
future.
One of the other key pointers technological innovations of a
nation's foot impression in the worldwide knowledge
industry is the quantity of patent filings in the United States
Patent and Trademarks Office. The quantity of patent
applications documented by India has been expanding
discernibly since 1999. It is intriguing to contrast these and
the numbers documented by China, Brazil, and South
Korea. The quickly expanding hole between Brazil, China
and India from one viewpoint and South Korea on the other
is clear. China had generally double the quantity of patent
filings as India while Brazil has fallen significantly in these
nations. The stand out from Korea obviously underscores
the moderately low position of India on the global
knowledge economy[40]
Fig. 1: Patents filed at USPTO
III. CHALLENGES FOR TECHNOLOGICAL
Numerous developing nations still face tremendous
difficulties in accomplishing neediness diminishment and
comprehensive improvement. Added to these, there are
some more recent and pressing concerns, for example, those
impelled by environmental change and the requirement for a
movement to a green economy.
Besides, various rising nations, regardless of being on a
direction of modern make up are under pressure to seek
comprehensive and practical improvement, especially
concerning environmental change. Innovative change and
monetary development have a commonly fortifying
relationship in developing nations. Feasible monetary
development that is based on profitability increments in
these nations does not depend on frontier innovation, as in
the industrialize nations but instead, on the likelihood to
learn and expand upon effectively existing technologies.
This obliges venture in the manufacturing segment, as well
as over a scope of exercises that bolster overall industrial
improvement, including advertising, administrative and
money related administrations, and additionally in
infrastructure and learning exercises.[3][38]
A. The main barriers of Innovation in India are:
Skill deficiencies because of absence of in-house
preparing
Excessive government regulation in Industry
Inability to move past first advancement and add to
a manageable model for consistent Innovation
Failure to keep a pace with technological
advancement
Failed instances of developments previously
Problems in measuring development intensity
Insufficient estimation to get esteem value from
Innovations
Insufficient business pressure to advance
Insufficient spending plan allotment to
advancement
Existence of conventional hierarchical progressive
systems
Lack of authoritative concentrate on Innovation as
a system for development and intensity
Less interest of partner association
Lack of compelling collaboration with research in
colleges and R&D organizations
Lack of accentuation on modern Innovation,
critical thinking, configuration, experimentation,
and so on in the education curricula
Cross-social issues and imperviousness to change
among representatives and top administration
Inefficient learning administration frameworks
inside of the organization
Poor comprehension of client needs, and business
sector elements
Weaknesses in IPR administration
Long time taken for innovations to achieve market
Capital escalation of innovation
Lack of joint effort with different firms
Fear of losing piece of the pie i.e. losing market
shares
B. Some of the facts that limit the scope of innovations
in India are listed as:
Innovations in Design should be sped up: India's
yield in new product 39 versus 53,000 in China in
(year, 2002).
India Ranked 119 of 149 nations in the 2004
Science Citation Index.
Encouraging exceptionally vital segments of the
economy to advance
Encouraging advancement in broad daylight
administration conveyance
Encouraging multidisciplinary and all around
focused methodologies for developments
The State Innovation Councils (SIC) will convey
NIC's order at the state level. They will:
Collaborate with the State Government to improve
Encourage neighborhood Universities, Colleges,
SMEs, R&D establishments
Provide SWOT investigation of the advancement
in the State
Identify, advance & reward ability & examples of
overcoming adversity
Organize courses, addresses, workshops to make
mindfulness
Help assemble advancement eco-framework in the
State
Organize Risk capital
Prepare Innovation Roadmap 2010-2020 for the
state
B. Setting up of Inclusive advancement reserve
Keeping in mind the end goal to make a stage for
empowering commercialization endeavors that attention on
arrangements went for creating comprehensive
development, Indian government propose to build up a Rs.
5000 crore (US $1 Billion) Inclusive Innovation Fund. This
Fund will be organized as a 'Store of Funds' with seed
capital utilized from the Government and developed by
speculation from the private and open area undertakings and
banks to raise cash.
C. Making of Innovation groups
Making problem areas or groups of advancement will be
basic to drive development and improvement. The sparkle
behind advancement is innately local where research,
business, risk capital and innovativeness meet up to
transform thoughts into items, procedures and
administrations. Driving the advancement plan broadly
would oblige fortifying the territorial limit for development.
D. Procurement of access to database through National
development gateway
There are numerous cases of effective developments and a
few associations are gathering samples of advancements.
This incorporates different Government Ministries, NGOs
and scholastic foundations. SRISTI, a NGO, through the
honey bee Network is archiving grassroots developments
and more than 100,000 grassroots advancements are
accessible in the database. SRISTI has additionally created
www.Techpedia.in as an asset for understudy ventures. The
Ministry of Urban Development has built up an Indian
Urban Space Foundation in organization with a NGO to
concentrate on advancements in urban arranging. IIT Delhi
has additionally collaborated to make an open development
entryway to connection industry, pioneers and the scholarly
world. There are numerous such endeavors, however there
is absence of mindfulness and access about these efforts.
E. Drawing separate roadmaps for Sector, State and
National Levels
The center thoughts, methodologies and proposals
formulated at the national, state and sectored levels will be
solidified as Roadmaps. These Roadmaps will be the
directing pointers and will give activity focuses and strategy
inputs to the legislature for development concentrated on
comprehensive development at the national level, state
levels and in each distinguished part.
F. Comprehensive innovation eco-framework
Advancement does not happen in a vacuum but rather is the
aftereffect of an intricate transaction of flow among
different players, for example, Government, Firms,
Schools/Education and Research Institutions, Finance,
Individual Innovators (Education strategy at Schools),
Customers/clients, NGOs/grassroots associations, and
Media. The approaches and exercises in these spaces, and
the communication among these players impact the
innovation eco-framework.
G. Coordinated effort, training & support
All the aforementioned activities would give the right
components to joint effort, preparing and backing to drive
development and innovation. The Councils will unite key
partners to investigate issues and prescribe arrangements,
the cluster - physical and virtual - will make emotionally
supportive networks and framework for trailblazers, the
Innovation Fund would give the right assets and impetuses,
the Innovation Portal would give a stage to joint effort,
sharing and backing by making right collaborations whether
with monetary organizations or in between of industry and
the educated community.
H. Concentrate on core skills
Government would likewise concentrate on driving
innovation and developments in key areas where India has
an aggressive edge to further reinforce the advantages and
esteem in these divisions. Systems and strategies would be
prescribed to further goad advancements in high
development areas, for example, biotechnology,
pharmaceuticals, car segments, materials, account,
Information technology, programming, and IT empowered
sector (ITES).
I. Honors and competitions
Government will likewise encourage a motivator structure
to advance innovation by organizing national/state/region
recompenses and rivalries.
These honors and competitions will be centered around
giving motivating forces to particular developments as
opposed to compensating magnificence all in all.
J. Outreach
Their Outreach exercises will be discriminating in passing
on message to the general population furthermore in
including different partners to goad development endeavors
the nation over.
Taking advantage of the favorable breeding ground prepared
for innovation activities by the government, the firms can
devise proactive innovation strategies and gear themselves
up for facing competition at global level.
V. TECHNOLOGICAL REFORM IN INDIA
India had grown throughout the years since Independence, a
progressed logical and technological framework that
included i) an nuclear energy area with efficient capacities,
ii) a space sector that quickly moved from semi-trial status
to building up qualities in correspondences base, and remote
detecting abilities, iii) a chain of technological research labs
that secured an extensive variety of fields running from
calfskin innovation to advanced biotechnology, and iv) a
system of safeguard examination research facilities. The
level of technological improvement fluctuated crosswise
over distinctive segments. The advanced education in
innovation has demonstrated exceptional development with
the system of building organizations, both of a general and
particular character. Significantly, there has been a parallel
improvement of a system of Industrial Training Institutes
and polytechnics, considered key a wellspring of talented
labor.
When we consider the organizations, 'Technological
Innovation Intensity' (i.e. the rate of income got from
items/services which are under 3 years of age) has expanded
for substantial firms and SMEs, with SMEs enrolling a more
noteworthy increment in Technological Innovation Intensity
than big firms. More than a large portion of the increment in
piece of the overall industry, aggressiveness and
competitiveness, benefit and lessening in expenses because
of Technological Innovation has happened in SMEs because
of three sorts of Innovation new items, new procedures
and new administrations. In the meantime, the client is the
essential outside element that leads more than 50% of the
big firms to improve.
Almost 25% of the extensive firms and 50% of SMEs
change their Technological Innovation Intensity because of
expansion in competitiveness, increment in gainfulness,
decrease in expenses and increment in piece of the overall
industry. For big firms, technological Innovation has the
hugest effect on intensity, while for SMEs, technological
Innovation has the most noteworthy effect on expansion in
piece of the overall industry.[34]
‘Innovation Intensity’ has expanded for substantial firms
and SMEs, with SMEs enlisting a more noteworthy
increment in Innovation Intensity than vast firms. 42% of
the extensive firms and 17% of the SMEs are additionally
'Highly Innovative' firms (i.e. firms who have presented
'new to world' Innovations over the span of business in the
most recent five years).17% of the huge firms rank
Innovation as the top key need and 75% rank it among the
main 3 needs. As per a study (CII-BCG Executive Survey)
on 'Advancement and Manufacturing in India', a stunning
89% of the respondents said that the significance of
Innovation has expanded altogether in the course of the
most recent 10 years and 39% felt that Innovation has get to
be “critical to their operation”.[34]
VI. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Technology and innovation are both embedded features, and
there is no single indicator that measures them holistically.
Like other countries, India in its quest to achieve
industrialisation and improve the quality of life of its
people, has fostered an Industrial and S&T policy since the
early years of independence. Although it has achieved much
progress in the area of science and technology, a policy of
isolationism and a failure to develop an appropriate mix of
the determinants has meant that today, India’s performance
is much lower than would have been the case otherwise. To
meet the increasing challenge of globalisation, India has
drawn up a new science and technology policy document,
which will form the basis for enhancement in its
technological capability in the coming years. The new
document recognises the need to shift the emphasis from
S&T policy to “innovation” policy.
Based on the knowledge of various issues and concerns
discussed in the previous sections, some of the keys to
harness the innovative potential are pointed out here as:
A. Treat technological innovation as a discipline:
Technological Innovation administration is turning out to be
as much a business discipline as different exercises inside
enterprises. Linkages between the educated community,
examination and industry should be reinforced. Need more
efficiency from the current establishments.
B. Common, dedicated platforms increase technological
Innovation IQ and strengthen innovation culture
Creating the regular group for innovative development is a
sensational jump forward in how organizations foster
development. The same mechanisms of departmental-level
exchange and email are positively still accessible.
C. Technological Innovation benefits from a diversity of
perspectives Why does presentation to more noteworthy
differences of perspectives and learning enhance thoughts?
Thoughts advantage from individuals applying them to their
own circumstances, and thinking how they can enhance an
activity or client experience. It's too hard for one individual
to know everything, except tapping the more extensive
astuteness of the group plainly is an intense driver for
creating better thoughts. Associations' chance is to build up
a premise for specialists and thoughts to pick up more
prominent differing qualities of points of view
D. ‘Focus employees’- technological innovation priorities:
People believe that imperatives technological innovation are
inhibitors. They aren't. Unconstrained endeavors are
frequently undisciplined endeavors that prompt unimportant
results. The right limitations in the right places can be
development quickening agents.
E. Make a society of steady decisions:
Companies need to better use their workforce to remain
focused of signs of changes in the business. These
progressions show themselves as new thoughts for
businesses, items and operations.
F. Prevent employee self-censorship of ideas: Companies
need to comprehend why the self-restriction of thoughts
happens, and locate the issues head on. The
acknowledgment that there is valuable scholarly capital in
the thoughts that rise up out of workers' information and
exercises is center to enhancing corporate technological
innovation.
G. Recognize technological innovation as a funnel with
valuable leaks:
To get to technological innovation, thoughts must be
winnowed down through an assessment process. Indeed,
even thoughts that don't turn out to be full blown innovation
projects provide value. They goad workers to consider new
thoughts.
H. If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it:
Innovation administration ought to be dealt with in the same
manner as whatever other discriminating authoritative
procedure: it should be measured. Through measurement,
organizations increase discriminating experiences for their
advancement program:
- The present status of advancement inside the organization
- Conduct main driver investigation when results don't
coordinate desires
I. Pursue an adjusted portfolio:
In the domain of risk and prize, there are two to axes for
thought in advancement:
- Managing existing markets versus making new markets
- Leveraging existing innovation versus making radical new
innovation
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors extend their indebtedness to the anonymous
reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions that
helped in improving the quality of this study. The authors
are also grateful to Sunil luthra, Javed khan and Asim qadri
for their contribution.
REFERENCES
[1] A. Carden, 'The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: eradicating
poverty through profits - By C. K. Prahalad', Economic Affairs, vol.
28, no. 4, pp. 89-91, 2008.
[2] A. Chong, F. Chan, K. Ooi and J. Sim, 'Can Malaysian firms
improve organizational/innovation performance via SCM?', Industr
Mngmnt & Data Systems, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 410-431, 2011.
[3] A. Rao, 'From Jugaad to Systematic Innovation: The Challenge for
India', IIMB Management Review, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 64-65, 2011.
[4] A. YeeLoong Chong and K. Ooi, 'Adoption of interorganizational
system standards in supply chains', Industr Mngmnt & Data Systems,
vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 529-547, 2008.
[5] B. Mannan, S. Jameel and A. Haleem, Knowledge Management in
Project Management. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic
Publishing, 2013.
[6] B. Menguc, 'Creating a Firm-Level Dynamic Capability through
Capitalizing on Market Orientation and Innovativeness', Journal of
the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 63-73, 2006.
[7] B.Mannan, & S. Khurana, Enablers and Barriers for Introduction of
Robotics as an AMT in the Indian Industries (Case of SME’s)
International Journal of computer applications,Spacial issue,pp.19-
24,2012.
[8] B.Mannan, J.Khan & S. Khurana, Information Technology: A Green
Supply Chain Enable Emerging paradigms in marketing, Wisdom
Publisher India: pp.336-346,2012.
[9] B.Mannan, J.Khan & S. Khurana, “Enablers and barriers to KM in
project based-organization, Sustainability and development,
Bloomsbury Publishing India pvt. Ltd:pp.754-774,2013.
[10] B.Mannan, S. Khurana, & A. Haleem, “Identification and analysis of
critical factors of KM in project management: An interpretive
structural modelling approach”,XVI Annual International conference
of Society of Operation Management, Jointly hosted by IIT Delhi and
IIM Lucknow,2012.
[11] C. LIU, 'An empirical study on the construction of a model for
measuring organizational innovation in Taiwanese high-tech
enterprises', Int. J. Innov. Mgt., vol. 09, no. 02, pp. 241-25, 2005.
[12] D. Prajogo and A. Sohal, 'The relationship between TQM practices,
quality performance, and innovation performance', Int J Qual &
Reliability Mgmt, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 901-918, 2003.
[13] D. Ashraf Ali and U. Sheikh, 'Good Governance; An Endeavour
towards Achieving Inclusive Growth', GRA, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 16-19,
2012.
[14] F. Damanpour and S. Gopalakrishnan, 'The Dynamics of the
Adoption of Product and Process Innovations in Organizations', J
Management Studies, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 45-65, 2001.
[15] F. Damanpour, 'Organizational innovation: a meta-analysis of effects
of determinants and moderators.’ Academy of Management Journal,
vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 555-590, 1991.
[16] F. Smith, 'Unemployment and technical innovation: A study of long
waves and economic development', Long Range Planning, vol. 16,
no. 3, pp. 126-127, 1983.
[17] G. George, A. McGahan and J. Prabhu, 'Innovation for Inclusive
Growth: Towards a Theoretical Framework and a Research Agenda',
Journal of Management Studies, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 661-683, 2012.
[18] H. Singh, 'Building firm capabilities through learning: the role of the
alliance learning process in alliance capability and firm-level alliance
success', Strategic Direction, vol. 24, no. 2, 2008.
[19] J. Cooper, 'A multidimensional approach to the adoption of
innovation', Management Decision, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 493-502, 1998.
[20] J. Griggs, 'Scotland: How to build a start-up nation', New Scientist,
vol. 222, no. 2971, pp. 13-14, 2014.
[21] Khurana,S., Khan,J., Mannan,B., Enablers and Barriers for
implementing Technology Transfer Projects: A study of SMEs in
India”,emerging paradigms in marketing, Wisdom Publisher
India,pp.303-311,2012.
[22] M. Hossain, 'Adopting Open Innovation to Stimulate Frugal
Innovation and Reverse Innovation', SSRN Electronic Journal.
[23] M. Khan, 'The New Age of Innovation: Driving Co-created Value
through Global Networks. By C. K. Prahalad and M. S. Krishnan',
R&D Management, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 210-211, 2010.
[24] N. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. Haleem and P. Gahlot, 'Implementing lean
manufacturing system: ISM approach', Journal of Industrial
Engineering and Management, vol. 6, no. 4, 2013.
[25] 'Putting innovation into practice', BDJ, vol. 218, no. 6, pp. 365-365,
2015.
[26] R. Gadagkar, 'Role of Science, Technology and Innovation in
Ensuring Sustainable Inclusive Development', Proceedings of the
Indian National Science Academy, vol. 80, no. 2, p. 181, 2014.
[27] S. Kumar, S. Luthra and A. Haleem, 'Critical success factors of
customer involvement in greening the supply chain: an empirical
study', International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management,
vol. 19, no. 3, p. 283, 2014.
[28] S. Kumar, S. Luthra and A. Haleem, 'Critical success factors of
customer involvement in greening the supply chain: an empirical
study', International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management,
vol. 19, no. 3, p. 283, 2014.
[29] S. Kumar, S. Luthra and A. Haleem, 'Customer involvement in
greening the supply chain: an interpretive structural modeling
methodology', Journal of Industrial Engineering International, vol. 9,
no. 1, p. 6, 2013.
[30] S. Kumar, S. Luthra and A. Haleem, 'Customer involvement in
greening the supply chain: an interpretive structural modeling
methodology', Journal of Industrial Engineering International, vol. 9,
no. 1, p. 6, 2013.
[31] S. Luthra, D. Garg and A. Haleem, 'Identifying and ranking of
strategies to implement green supply chain management in Indian
manufacturing industry using Analytical Hierarchy Process', Journal
of Industrial Engineering and Management, vol. 6, no. 4, 2013.
[32] S. Luthra, S. Kumar, D. Garg and A. Haleem, 'Barriers to
renewable/sustainable energy technologies adoption: Indian
perspective', Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 41, pp.
762-776, 2015.
[33] S. Luthra, V. Kumar, S. Kumar and A. Haleem, 'Barriers to
implement green supply chain management in automobile industry
using interpretive structural modeling technique: An Indian
perspective', Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, vol.
4, no. 2, 2011.
[34] S. Khurana, B.Mannan, & A.Haleem, “Integrating innovation with
sustainability: a study of practices / status for Indian manufacturing
industries (SMEs)”, AGBA’s 11th World Congress Conference, held
at IIT Delhi, 2014.
[35] S.Khurana, J. Khan, B. Mannan, “A study on Technology
Management: Enablers and Barriers in its implementation in the case
of SMEs in India”, Sustainability and development, Bloomsbury
Publishing India pvt. Ltd, pp.754-774,2013.
[36] 'Special Report: Management Innovation', Business Strategy Review,
vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 62-87, 2007.
[37] T. Azomahou, M. Goedhuys and B. Verspagen, 'Introduction to the
special issue on ‘Innovation, inclusive growth and sustainable
developmenT', Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, vol. 23,
no. 4, pp. 403-405, 2012.
[38] T. Birtchnell, 'Jugaad as systemic risk and disruptive innovation in
India', Contemporary South Asia, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 357-372, 2011.
[39] 'The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty
Through Profits', Int J Productivity & Perf Mgmt, vol. 54, no. 2,
2005.
[40] Y. Gazit and R. Sauer, 'Economic Concentration in the Start-Up
Nation: Is Privatisation to Blame?', Economic Affairs, vol. 34, no. 2,
pp. 213-222, 2014.
... The expansions, transformation, growth of these opportunities, have highly impact the growth, the improvement of nations. This also shows by Bisma, et al. technological innovation gives effective chances to create technological innovative product and services, helps in development and capacity building in developing countries [21]. This implies technological innovation and competitiveness have a dynamic, shared relationship. ...
... Dynamic capabilities is define dynamic capabilities as the organization's ability to integrate, build, and reconfigure technologies, resources, and functions inside and outside the organization in order to adapt to continuously changing environments. While an innovation is defined as, an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption [21,24]. As such, nearly any contemporary idea, practice, or product that an organization wishes to adopt and employ for the purpose of obtaining gains in performance can be thought of as an innovation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this study is designed to investigate and develop innovative supply chain integration approaches so as to improve the performance and competitiveness of manufacturing industries in general Small and Medium Industries (SMIS) in particular. Mainly this study is conduct through primary data from industry field visit and secondary data from literature review on research articles, books, manuals, company report and electronic-sources which are related to the concepts, strategies and issue on supply chain and innovative supply chain capabilities. The survey data were analyzed qualitatively in descriptive and quantitatively through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) tools. This study shows that manufacturing industries are under stresses to find new innovative methods to improve and gain competitive advantages and increasing their performance at regional and global levels. This stresses are found due to product demand-supply uncertainty, the complexity of new products, unstable world, unbalanced technological change, manufacturing firm needs for emphasis for single companies moving the competition in supply chain networks. Whereas the developed innovative and integrated supply chain approaches provides to use as a weapon to tackle manufacturing industry challenges in various scenario and segments within manufacturing and business process. This innovative approach also provides to enhance innovation capitalists on the firm through strong collaboration manufacturer with the customer in new product development, innovations in distribution, transforming raw ideas to technology transfer and commercialization. As well to attain an effective and efficient cooperation, coordination and relationship, supply chain partners within SMIs. Thus, these innovative supply chain integration strategies fully considered the integration of firm through sustainable and green economic and competitive advantages.
... Sometimes intense competition may have an adverse influence on innovation. The developing countries for example India and China have cheap labour but find global competition difficult as innovation and technology management is not utilised properly (Albury 2005;Mannan et al. 2015a;Mannan et al. 2015b;Shah 2017). MSMEs should have viable coordinated effort with their customers and suppliers and should also possess competitive strength for innovation, development and supply chain management. ...
... Sometimes intense competition may have an adverse influence on innovation. The developing countries for example India and China have cheap labour but find global competition difficult as innovation and technology management is not utilised properly (Albury 2005;Mannan et al. 2015a;Mannan et al. 2015b;Shah 2017). MSMEs should have viable coordinated effort with their customers and suppliers and should also possess competitive strength for innovation, development and supply chain management. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Innovation management is vital for the growth and development of the global economy. Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) have emerged as a dynamic and vibrant part of the economy of the developing countries. MSMEs are auxiliary units of large organisations, and this segment contributes towards the development and growth of developing countries and also contributes to the socioeconomic development. In the past, the majority of researches on innovation management were concentrated on large organisations of developed countries. Therefore, in this study, the critical factors (CFs) of innovation management have been identified which influence MSMEs of developing countries and after that develop a model of CFs utilising Interpretive Ranking Process (IRP) approach that helps in improving the competitiveness of MSMEs. IRP result shows that the governance followed by funding has the high dominating power which drives the other CFs. This study gives an insight and overall idea about the innovation management of CFs. Understanding CFs and performance variables of innovation management in MSMEs is essential for both academicians and practitioners for the growth and the development of the organisation as well as the economy of developing countries as a whole.
... Such practices give the business owners the ability to practice lay down rules and regulations enshrined in the labor laws which will boost the employees' morale. Hence, where there are better skills and human development on the part of management, growth and sustainability sets in (Etuk, & Michael, 2014;Zorpas, 2010;Mannan et al.,2016;Bloom et al., 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the practices that have accounted for the survival of hotels in a developing nation. The study is a qualitative inquiry; the researchers saw the need to adopts document analysis as a methodology to achieve the study objective. The usage of document analysis was to have access to a voluminous scientific paper published in the study area and to make a concrete revision out of that. The study centered on hotel industries in mid-sized to large enterprises. The database of Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus was used to access the information needed through the keywords search to draw a meaningful conclusion. The researchers discussed the impacts of decision-making, technology adoption, and human resources by management on hotels. In all, thirty-Nine scientific papers were used out of the numerous papers downloaded which were all published in English. The study, therefore, has both theoretical contributions to literature and likewise to industry players or practitioners in the current era of the business environment in the field of hotel industries. A study limitation is also discussed in the study.
... A growing number of enterprises, especially MSMEs, rely more on outside knowledge and association done for research for carrying out innovation and gaining competitive advantages [5,15,[17][18][19]21]. ...
... Western world has changed because of theInnovation, Development, and industrialization, and particularly the US, from horticultural economy, through the industrial and commercial Revolution into the high-end R&D. The impact of high-end R&D changes the US into the most powerful and dominant economy of today's world with the highest GDP (Mannan, Khurana and Haleem, 2015). However, globalisation and information revolution that we are facing today are also changing the world. ...
Article
Full-text available
Innovation has driven the United States and now US become most dominant and powerful economy, but due to the globalization, there is a swift growth in the economies in the other part of the world—particularly in China and India. Also, both India and China are gradually becoming engines of growth and global economy and become the highestemergent economies having high GDP rates. This paper is a detailed study of the seven factors (like the economy, culture, government policies, infrastructure, education, demography, and market structure) that drive growth and innovation of India, China and US. In most of the cases the US leads followed by China and then India but in the case of demography, the US and China are both ageings, and especially from an age viewpoint, the plus point go to India. Still, both India and China have vast challenges with the education quality and literacy levels of the personnel in general.
... In this case, the survey was made up of a total of seventy-two (72) items, of which thirty-nine (39) will measure the variable Strategic management and thirty-three (33) the variable Technological innovation, which were derived from the study variables, dimensions and indicators; this allowed them to be structured in five (5) Likert scale response alternatives classified as: Always (S), Almost always (CS), Sometimes (AV), Almost never (CN) and Never (N); which was specified in the construction of the Table 2. ...
... The thrust areas for raising competitiveness and profitability of micro, small and medium enterprises may include technology capabilities; procurement; and human resource management practices involving the development of skills; and finance and supply chain management. Innovation may be observed in various forms from 'operational excellence and optimizations' to 'products/services originality' (Mannan et al. 2015). Innovation ecosystem of India has been acquiring increasing granularity, and Indian innovation scenario has been becoming more local (regarding end-use conditions) noticeable by the availability of wide range of products and services (http://www.ficci.com). ...
Article
Innovation may be a key towards business success and winning over competition prevailing in the market. Effective management of innovations may be recognized as a requirement to sustain the existing position of an organization and also to attract new customers for gaining a competitive advantage over other players in the market. Product innovativeness, regarding ‘new’/‘significantly improved’: features; functions, aesthetics etc., may be valued as an increasingly important research area in Indian context for domestic and international business sustainability. It has been attempted to identify and understand important requisites for product innovation management in Indian organizations. Literature review approach has been used for identifying requisites and benefits of product innovation management. AHP methodology has been used to understand the importance of requisites of product innovation management. ‘Total interpretive structural modelling’ has been utilized to develop and appropriately construe interpretive structural model of requisites and benefits of product innovation management. This paper may also help to practicing innovation managers of various Indian organizations to identify, understand and analyse ‘strengths and weaknesses’ of their organization in managing resources and activities involved in ‘product innovation management processes’.
... This also shows by technological Innovation gives effective chances to create technological innovative product and services, helps in development and capacity building in developing countries [14]. This implies technological Innovation and competitiveness have a dynamic, shared relationship. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the roles of technological innovation on basic metal industries and then developed technological innovation framework for enhancing sustainable supply chain integrations to basic metal industries. This sustainable supply chain integration assures mutual benefits and competitive advantage of manufacturing firms. Since the previous research work indicate that technological innovation have critical impact in promoting basic metal industries to improve their performance (in terms of productivity, information shearing, resource utilization, knowledge and technology transfer) and achieve sustainable competitive environments. The filed observation, questioner and expert interview result from basic metal industries indicates that the technological capability of local industries to invention, adoption, modification, improving and use a given innovative technology is very poor. As the result, this poor technological innovation were occurs due to improper innovation and technology transfer framework, noncollaborative operating environment between foreign and local industries, very weak national technology policies, problems research and innovation centers, the common miss points on basic metal industry innovation systems were investigated in this study. However the study indicates that to tackle such problems, adopting flexible innovative and sustainable technological innovation systems to manufacturing industries used as a vehicle for improving the performance and competitiveness of the firms. Also one of the conclusion of the article is that, through using the developed technological innovation framework in this study, basic metal industries improve sustainable supply chain integrations, improve innovation process and support an innovative culture for sector capabilities and achieve sustainable competitive advantage to basic metal industries.
Article
This paper investigates how relationship between customer citizenship behaviour and new product adoption is moderated by Customer Switching Intention at mobile phone customers in Dakahliya Governorate. Data were collected from 438 mobile phone customers. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was employed to test the hypotheses. The findings confirmed that customer citizenship behaviour significantly impacted new product adoption. And customer citizenship behaviour significantly negative impact on Customer Switching Intention. Moreover. the results showed that Customer Switching Intention mediate the relationship between customer citizenship behaviour and new product adoption.. Finally. some theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study focuses on orqanizaticns in the manufacturing industry, particularly the automobile manufacturers in the Indian context. The vehicle manufacturers, which are large enterprises, are supported by a network of vendors iuhich.are small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) whose role lrt technology transfer is vital. Several studies confirm that. a nation's growth is dictated, to a large extent, by the performance oj small businesses. However, the reality is that SMEs are constantly struggling to survive and maintain their schedule of activities [Sutuannapirom, 2008). This is evident in the track record of the majority ofSMEs in the developing countries: t.1.eyhave been unable to reap the benefits of globalization (SME-IIP2007). This unfortunate predicament may be attributed to the fact that many developzng countnes face major challenges in suitably developing, attracting, and using modem technologies (Suwannapirom. 2008). The productive entities that have been most affected by problems specific to technology transfer are the SMEs. It IS, therefore, inevitable that a large majority of micro and small firms In countries in the Asian and Pacific region have focused on traditional industries (Benjamin, 2000) where the activities are mostly characterized by low technological complexity and extensive use of unqualified labour. In India, the Ministry of Industry and the Department of Science and Technology (DST), alonq with other agencies, introduced specific programmes for SMEs and cluster development it t the recent past, which are directed towards networking their needs alld demands with knowledge institutions [Suuiannapirom, 200R).
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigatesthe role that Information Technology (IT)for the transformation of a Supply Chain into a Green Supply Chain. Green Supply Chain Management is about integrating environmental concem mto the inter-organizational partnerships. Today, companies are seeking ways to meet environmental benefits through CO 2 reduction when they operate their supply chain. Faced with the climate crisis, several companzes are striving to adopt 'green' approach to lower the carbon footprint and conserve the environment. However, most companies are unaware of how to implement climate change initiative in their business models. They must. overcome the challenge of transforming the drive to lower the Green House Gas (GHG)emission in the supply chain into business benefit. An effectwe green supply chain enables a company to track and measure its carbon footprint, minimize carbon-heavy processes, and populanze green product. In order to achieve this, companies must first develop robust techniques, change regulations goveming environmental sustainability, and educate customers on the environmental protection. This paper serves as guide to understand the goals and boundaries of green supply chain and how Information Technology (IT)is used to measure and reduce carbon footprints by serving as an enabler to green supply chain
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since the Brundtland report in 1987, a wide debate has emerged on integrating innovation with sustainability, that is, the integration of ecological and social aspects into products, processes, and organizational structures. While prior research has often dealt with the large firms, the last decade has seen the focus of research being shifted to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) as they are increasingly recognized as central contributors to sustainable development. Also, the Government of India has declared 2010 as a Decade of Innovation. So this provides an opportunity to create a roadmap for Sustainable Innovation for the country. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the factors that act as barriers in integrating innovation with sustainability. Emphasis is also laid on the innovation practices at the product, process, and organizational level. Finally, the major research gaps are identified with regard to streamlined innovation methods and the role of SMEs in industry transformation.
Article
Affordability and sustainability, not premium pricing and abundance, are the new tenets of effective innovation. Westerners are struggling with the shift in mind-set, but a few emerging-market pioneers are showing the way: They're designing inexpensive products and manufacturing them with so little capital and on a scale so vast that their prices-1 cent for a one-minute telephone call, $2,000 for a car are the lowest in the world. Nowhere is this approach, which the authors call "Gandhian innovation," more evident than in India. Smart companies have used it to penetrate the country's burgeoning mass market. This article provides a framework to help executives understand three types of Gandhian innovation that have brought corporations success: disrupting business models, as Bharti Airtel did when it shifted its focus from average revenue per user to gross profit and expanded its market reach; modifying existing business capabilities, as Computational Research Laboratories did when it came up with a whole new supercomputer design that used standard components; and creating or sourcing new capabilities, as Lupin did when it reversed the usual drug development process to create an affordable treatment for psoriasis.