Chapter

Vom Streben nach Wachstum zur Gestaltung von Schrumpfung

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Abstract

Grundschulen schließen, den Dorfladen gibt es nicht mehr, die Ortszentren sind menschenleer, immer mehr Häusern und Gärten mangelt es an Pflege, Hilfswillige fehlen tagsüber im Katastrophenfall, knappe Kassen beschränken den Handlungsspielraum – die Zeichen des Niedergangs von strukturschwachen Landgemeinden und ganzen Regionen sind mannigfaltig, aber altbekannt. Neu an dem sich meist schon über Jahrzehnte fortpflanzenden Abstieg ist jedoch, dass ein Perspektivenwechsel dahingehend ansteht, wie man diesen schleichenden Schrumpfungsprozessen hinkünftig angemessener begegnen kann. Denn bislang hat die Regional- und Kommunalpolitik bei Räumen mit rückläufigen Entwicklungen ausschließlich auf Strategien und Maßnahmen gesetzt, die mit einem Wachstumsversprechen verbunden waren. Nun aber mehren sich die Anzeichen, dass es in den meisten Fällen sinnvoller ist, sich vorderhand um Lösungen zu bemühen, die auf die Rückläufigkeit Bezug nehmen, statt sich weiter erfolglos gegen sie zu stemmen.

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... Alternatively, one can look at the situation of emigration as Weber and Fischer argue, namely that one must probably learn to deal with emigration movements and not focus exclusively on their containment. "Shrinkage should not be seen only in terms of loss, rather one must find out what 'other' lies within the 'less'" (Weber, 2016). For example, the increase in senior households holds the potential for local suppliers specializing in this market to locate in the region (Smallbone, 2009, p. 5;Weber, 2016, p. 101). ...
Thesis
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Destinations in rural areas have to be competitive on the market on the one hand and, on the other hand, have to meet the increasing demands of residents, stakeholders, and businesses. Improving the quality of life of the population is becoming a key factor to be attractive as a place to live and work in the future. Threatening migration tendencies force responsible persons of regions and destinations to establish common habitat management. The implementation of sustainability goals to improve the population’s quality of life is increasingly perceived as a decisive competitive factor. This thesis examines the relationships between competitive rural destinations, the fulfillment of sustainable development claims, and the influence on residents’ perceived quality of life. Incorporating concepts of integrated management, it will be possible to start and enrich a broad scientific discourse. In order to achieve the research objectives, a multi-method approach was adopted. Based on expert interviews, hypotheses were developed. Using quantitative methods, questionnaire results were analyzed in the first stage, and data from a created database were analyzed in a second. The hypotheses were tested using linear regression models. Based on all the research results, an attempt was made to present a holistic model of a region. The results showed that the perception of the impact of tourism within the sample is significantly related to the subjectively perceived quality of life. Economic impacts of tourism are most important. It was also proven that the higher the income from tourism, the higher the satisfaction with tourism is. The study also shows that tourism indicators at the level of service regions have no significant influence on the quality of life of the Austrian population. The developed framework Quality of life-promoting model of integrated rural tourism shows how a destination can be managed competitively and at the same time strengthen the quality of life of the population. Considering a common vision, a destination that sees itself as a living space and is developed as such can positively contribute to increasing the quality of life of the people. However, this can only be achieved if existing political and structural hurdles are overcome, and the principles of integrated and thus sustainable development are implemented without exclusion.
Book
Natural hazards are an essential condition for spatial development. Following the premise to safeguard people as well as property and infrastructure from damages by hazard events, different measures can be undertaken in an integrative natural hazard management. If no structural measures or adaptations of objects are possible, occasionally the deconstruction of endangered buildings and the relocation of the inhabitants is undertaken as a passive protective measure. Relocation in hazard areas poses a difficult state assignment. Furthermore, the relocation of people living in hazard prone areas also confronts the public sector with a complex, multilayered task. Austria can draw on experience with relocation in connection with natural hazards, especially because of flood hazards, since the 1970s. In the international discussion, relocation has always received a considerable amount of attention. For example, the UNHCR has published a “Guidance on Planned Relocation”2 and the measure is increasingly considered in Germany and Switzerland. Relocation is relevant in the context of existing hazards, as well as in the future due to changing climate conditions. The research investigates the legal framework of relocation, focusing on a planning perspective in the Austrian natural hazard management. This is complemented with a systematic presentation of practice examples and concludes with an evaluation of relocation processes. Especially with regards to the UNHCR guidelines, fields of action and recommendations for the further development of relocation in natural hazard management with a special focus on potentials in spatial planning are identified. The results of the research show, that relocation on a voluntary basis is possible within the existing legal framework. To ensure that concerned areas are kept undeveloped, mechanisms have been developed. Relocation as a measure for risk reduction is comparatively well established. Spatial planning measures, however, are currently hardly ever integrated strategically in such projects. Overall, there exists a potential of improvement for an integral process support. This concerns the coordination and cooperation of involved authorities and other public institutions on the institutional side. Regarding affected people it refers to their improved involvement in planning and implementation. Thus, an integrative approach with the consideration of individual demands is important.
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North Saxony is the most thinly populated district in the Free State of Saxony with a population density of less than 100 inhabitants per square kilometre. But it has the spatial proximity to the growing regional centre Leipzig and the regional and supra-regional arterial roads through the district. This is the reason why North Saxony has considerable potentials for development. However, due to age- and gender-selective migration of young adults the demographic situation of many municipalities is problematic. The project aimed to collect and analyse the consequences of demographic change in the different planning areas of the administrative district North Saxony. Furthermore it served to examine the chances, which arise from the growing city Leipzig. Therefore we wanted to reveal ways to overcome the trisection of the district: since 1990 North Saxony started to divide into growing hinterland councils, municipalities along the supra-regional road-axis, as well as in ageing and shrinking rural-peripheral subspaces. Based on population analyzes and surveys, a set of recommendations on five strategic goals was developed: - Establishment of a welcoming culture to safeguard and increase the attractiveness of rural areas - Strengthening of local self-government and expansion of the (financial) flexibility of the cities and municipalities situated in the administrative district - Improving the accessibility and security of public services - Consolidation of local ties and increase of national reputation - Establishment of a new culture of volunteering and citizen participation
Brain Drain - Hintergründe zur Abwanderung aus Kärnten
  • B Aigner-Walder
  • R Klinglemair
Gehen oder Bleiben? Die Motive des Wanderungs-und Bleibeverhaltens junger Frauen im ländlichen Raum der Steiermark und die daraus resultierenden Handlungsoptionen
  • G Weber
  • T Fischer
Zurück nach Kärnten? Eine Studie zur sozialräumlichen Selbstverortung von jungen Erwachsenen in Kärnten
  • S Leitner
  • S Stingl