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Stainless steel coupled with carbon nanotube-modified epoxy and carbon fibre composites: Electrochemical and mechanical study


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The aim of this work is the study of the electrochemical and mechanical behaviour of stainless steel (SS304) adhesively bonded with carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced epoxies to either SS304 or carbon-reinforced composites substrates. For metal to metal (MtM) joints, the shear strength of nano-reinforced adhesives was studied using single lap shear specimen geometries. The lap shear strength was improved by almost 50% and the highest shear strength appeared for 0.6% CNT weight content in the adhesive. The metal to composite joint performed altogether better compared to the MtM joint, although the CNT inclusion had an adverse effect on the lap shear strength attributed to the physical property change of the epoxy. Although the incorporation of CNTs was found to increase the galvanic effect, it also enhanced corrosion protection, as the modified adhesives exhibited increased resistance to uniform corrosion and localised corrosion and prevented the electrolyte from reaching the substrate.
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Plastics, Rubber and Composites
Macromolecular Engineering
ISSN: 1465-8011 (Print) 1743-2898 (Online) Journal homepage:
Stainless steel coupled with carbon nanotube-
modified epoxy and carbon fibre composites:
Electrochemical and mechanical study
D. Baltzis, S. Orfanidis, A. Lekatou & A. S. Paipetis
To cite this article: D. Baltzis, S. Orfanidis, A. Lekatou & A. S. Paipetis (2016) Stainless steel
coupled with carbon nanotube-modified epoxy and carbon fibre composites: Electrochemical
and mechanical study, Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 45:3, 95-105
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Stainless steel coupled with carbon nanotube-
modied epoxy and carbon bre composites:
Electrochemical and mechanical study
D. Baltzis, S. Orfanidis, A. Lekatou and A. S. Paipetis
The aim of this work is the study of the electrochemical and mechanical behaviour of stainless steel
(SS304) adhesively bonded with carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced epoxies to either SS304 or
carbon-reinforced composites substrates. For metal to metal (MtM) joints, the shear strength of
nano-reinforced adhesives was studied using single lap shear specimen geometries. The lap
shear strength was improved by almost 50% and the highest shear strength appeared for 0.6%
CNT weight content in the adhesive. The metal to composite joint performed altogether better
compared to the MtM joint, although the CNT inclusion had an adverse effect on the lap shear
strength attributed to the physical property change of the epoxy. Although the incorporation of
CNTs was found to increase the galvanic effect, it also enhanced corrosion protection, as the
modied adhesives exhibited increased resistance to uniform corrosion and localised corrosion
and prevented the electrolyte from reaching the substrate.
Keywords: Stainless steel, Epoxy, Carbon nanotubes, Electrochemical behaviour, Lap shear strength
Stainless steel alloys are among the most commonly used
steel alloys for naval and marine applications. A member
of the steel alloys is stainless steel 304 (SS304) and it is
used in applications such as offshore and underwater
pipelines and storage tanks for liquid natural gas
(LNG) in tanker ships due to its excellent corrosion resist-
ance properties. In such applications, the most frequent
types of damage are stress corrosion and erosion because
of the hostile environment (seawater) and operational
conditions like freezethaw cycles. Hence, repair oper-
ations are frequently required in such structures. Tra-
ditional steel repairs, like riveted or welded steel
patches, are heavyweight, time-consuming and incorpor-
ate tedious welding works which restrain their use in pipe-
lines located both underground and underwater. In
addition welding repairs may induce additional stresses
on the weld area further enhancing stress corrosion.
Moreover, for applications where ammable gases or
liquids (LNG or gasoline) are present, welding is not an
option due to industrial safety reasons; in order to ensure
safety during the repair, the ammable materials must be
absent (e.g. emptying the storage tank or the pipeline)
increasing thus the cost of the repair.
Furthermore, due
to the stress concentration induced by the thermal
gradient during the welding, the weld may potentially
act as a cathode forming a galvanic corrosion cell.
Fibre-reinforced composites (FRCs) may provide an
effective repair alternative for such applications, when
employed as adhesively bonded patches. Composite
patch repair is advantageous and potentially more cost-
effective as it is safer compared to welding due to the
absence of ame and potentially faster particularly if
the cost of operational halt time is taken into account.
The performance of the bond between bre-reinforced
polymers (FRPs) and steel surface is primarily governed
by the adhesive strength of the joint. In the cases of
bonded joints, stresses along the entire area of the compo-
site/steel interface are uniformly transferred and stress
concentrations are minimised.
However, concerns may
arise when FRCs are selected as the choice for repair.
Differences in the mechanical and physical properties of
steel and FRCs create difculties in ensuring a strong
bond and reducing the possibility of delamination, par-
ticularly in the presence of temperature uctuations.
Another detrimental factor affecting the joint repair is
the steel surface morphology. Primer coating, grit blasting
and chemical etching are some of the studied surface
modication techniques proposed in the literature.
addition to surface morphology, the thickness of the
adhesive layer is well known to affect the bond repair,
as too thick or too thin adhesive layers may deteriorate
the bond performance.
Another parameter that needs attention when steel is
adhesively bonded with FRPs or other metallic alloys is
the performance of the structure in terms of galvanic cor-
rosion. Adhesive bonding can induce galvanic corrosion
Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Ioannina,
Ioannina 45110, Greece
Corresponding author, email
Fourth International Conference of Engineering Against Failure (ICEAF
IV), 2426 June 2015, Skiathos, Greece.
© 2016 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining
Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute
Received 11 November 2015; accepted 16 January 2016
DOI 10.1080/14658011.2016.1144339 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 2016 VOL 45 NO 395
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on the metallic surface due to differences in the corrosion
potential of the various constituent materials that are in
contact. A widely applied technique to avoid such
phenomena is the sealing of the bonded structures with
coatings that prevent the bond area to come in contact
with the environment and eliminate galvanic current.
In order to enhance the performance of the steel to FRC
bond, nanollers like multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
may be incorporated in the adhesive layer in order to
improve the shear strength of the interface and reduce
the probability of delamination and failure of the joint.
An additional advantage for CNT-modied polymers is
that they offergreater protection in corrosive environments
by reducing the water uptake in the polymer mass resulting
in better performance in terms of durability,
or even
improving the cross-linking of the epoxy.
However, the
galvanic corrosion is again an issue for the nano-modied
adhesives since in some cases the new conductive phase, i.e.
the CNTs, may accelerate galvanic corrosion in some met-
allic systems like aluminium.
In order to fully exploit the enhancement capabilities of
the CNT reinforcement, various parameters have to be
addressed. Such parameters include the selected type of
carbon nanotubes (single wall, multiwall, functionalised
or not, etc.), epoxy system,
the weight content of
the CNTs in the epoxy
and the employed dispersion
methodology. When it comes to dispersion methodology
various techniques like sonication,
high-speed shear
and three-roll calender mixing
Previous studies on the mechanical and environmental
performance of Al alloy (for aircraft applications) adhe-
sively bonded with CNT-modied epoxy systems demon-
strated the dependence of the response of the system on
the type of adhesive, hardener, process parameters and
CNT content.
In view of the above, this research focuses on the per-
formance of stainless steel adhesively bonded to neat
epoxy, CNT-modied epoxy and carbon bre (CF)-
reinforced epoxy, with the objective to explore the poten-
tial of using CNT-modied adhesives to repairs in off-
shore applications. Shear strength and galvanic
corrosion measurements were conducted in order to
study the interfacial performance of the above polymer-
based adhesives to steel substrates in terms of mechanical
and electrochemical response. Due to the high position of
carbon in the galvanic series of metallic materials in sea-
water, the electrochemical study was performed in aqu-
eous NaCl, in order to assess if the repair is
electrochemically active or not when coupled with the
steel structure.
The epoxy was reinforced at the nano-
scale with CNTs in order to evaluate and quantify the
potential to improve adhesion and tailor the electroche-
mical response, as has already been done in previous
Experimental section
The SS304 steel alloy was selected for this study as a
substrate material as it is one of the most widely used
steel alloys in naval applications for pipelines, storage
tanks, structural parts of ships, etc. The LY 5052
epoxy resin/Aradur 5052 polyamine hardener system
provided by Huntsman was used both as adhesive and
as a matrix material for the CF composite due to its
low viscosity and curing cycle. The low viscosity ensures
good impregnation of the bre reinforcement while the
versatile curing cycle enables the system to be applicable
in various operational conditions without the need for
special equipment. Based on the manufacturer data-
sheet, the selected curing cycle was curing for 24 hours
at 25°C and post-curing for 4 hours at 100°C in order
to achieve the optimum properties for the epoxy. The
Graphistrength multiwall CNTs provided by Arkema
(hereafter denoted as CNTs) were employed. Typical
diameters ranged from 10 to 15 nm while length ranged
from 1 to 10 µm. These CNTs came in the form of
agglomerates with average dimensions of 400 µm with
a range from 50 to 900 µm.
The bre reinforcement was a 140 g m
(UD) CF provided by R&G Composites. The CF-
reinforced polymers (CFRPs) were manufactured with
the aforementioned epoxy resin as the matrix material
with vacuum assisted hand lay-up, as it is an easily appli-
cable technique for on-site repairs with no special equip-
ment requirements and the nal material possesses very
satisfactory properties.
Specimen preparation for electrochemical
Τhe austenitic stainless steel 304 (SS304) was used as a
substrate for the electrochemical measurements. Neat
and nano-modied resins were employed in ve different
congurations, as shown in Table 1. Rectangular cou-
pons were cut from steel sheets to be used as bare
metal reference specimens and as substrates to the coat-
ings presented in Table 1. The bare metal surfaces were
polished using emery paper (grit from 400 to 1000) and
rinsed with distilled water and acetone. On the back sur-
face of each coupon, a copper wire was attached using
aluminium conductive tape. The assembly was insulated
using vacuum sealant tape and Teon to mask the per-
iphery and the back of the specimens, so as to ensure
that: (i) only a surface area of 1cm
would be exposed
to the electrolyte, (ii) the cutting edges and the periphery
of the specimens, being susceptible to stress corrosion
cracking because of cold working (cutting) due residual
stresses and dislocations, would not affect the corrosion
Table 1 Nomenclature of specimens and coatings used in the lap shear and electrochemical tests
Epoxy resin
Epoxy resin +
0.4% w/w CNTs
Epoxy resin +
0.5% w/w CNTs
Epoxy resin +
0.6% w/w CNTs
CF-reinforced epoxy
+ 0.6% w/w CNTs
MtM neat MtM doped
MtM doped
MtM doped
MtC neat MtC doped
Baltzis et al. SS coupled with CNT-modied epoxy and CF composites
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Specimen preparation for mechanical testing
For all single lap-joint shear tests, SS304 and CFRPs were
used in two different congurations: one employing only
metallic substrates bonded together (metal to metal con-
guration, MtM, according to ASTM D 1002-01) and a
second one was CFRP strips were bonded with SS304
strips (metal to composite, MtC, according to D 5868-
01) in a co-cure protocol. The dimensions of the nal
specimens can be seen in Fig. 1. The bond area was 2.5
cm in length. In order to ensure the aforementioned
bond length, Teon tape was wrapped around the speci-
mens at the predened length. The vacuum assisted
hand lay-up method was used for the CFRP composite
manufacturing and the steel strips were co-cured with
the CFRPs. To achieve similar stiffness as the steel sub-
strate, 15 layers of UD CF fabric were used for the
CFRP laminate. Before bonding, the stainless steel sur-
face was sand blasted.
Electrochemical testing
All electrochemical measurements were performed in a
standard three-electrode electrochemical cell based on
with Ag/AgCl (3.5 M KCl, E
200 mV) as the reference electrode, a platinum gauze
as the auxiliary electrode (AE) and the specimen as the
working electrode (WE). The GILL AC was provided
by ACM Instruments. Galvanostat/potentiostat was
employed. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests were car-
ried out at a scanning rate of 10 mV min
. The rest or
steady state potential (E
) was determined after 2 h of
immersion in 3.5% NaCl, at 25°C (open circuit state). Fol-
lowing the determination of the E
, potentiodynamic
polarisation curves were recorded. Compensation for IR
drop was automatically implemented on the potentiostat
by measuring the solution resistance between the WE
and the reference electrode with an AC signal and then
adjusting the output voltage (using Ohms law) with a pro-
portional integral derivative control algorithm.
Reverse polarisation was adopted in order to study the
susceptibility of the systems to localised degradation. The
main concept of this technique is that localised
degradation would occur if the current density of the
anodic portion of the return scan is higher than the cur-
rent density of the forward scan for the same anodic
potential. This type of hysteresis is labelled as negative
In order to study the galvanic effect between the metal
structure and the repair patch, the galvanic current vs.
time was continuously recorded by electrically connecting
the couple constituents to a zero resistance ammeter (Gill
AC by ACM Instruments of current range 10 pA to 500
mA). The galvanic effect of the following couples was
evaluated: SS304SS304 (as a baseline), SS304MtM
neat, SS304MtM doped 0.6% and SS304MtC neat.
SS304 coupon was connected to the working electrode 1
(WE1) input of the galvanostat and the coated steel to
the working electrode 2 (WE2). Should the galvanic cur-
rent of the couple receive positive values, then WE1 is,
by default, anodic to WE2. The electrolyte provided a
means for ion migration, whereby metallic ions moved
from the anode to the cathode. A positive current density
denoted the movement of the metallic ions from the
anode to the cathode through the electrolyte. The anode
would corrode more quickly than if it was on its own in
the electrolyte and, at the same time, the cathode cor-
rosion would be retarded. Both of the aforementioned
measurements were conducted in a 3.5% w/w NaCl aqu-
eous solution.
Mechanical testing
For the mechanical testing, the single lap-joint shear test-
ing was employed based on ASTM D 1002-01, D 5868-01
for the MtM and MtC geometry, respectively.
groups of specimens (MtM and MtC) were manufactured
in six different congurations as indicated in Table 2.
The shear strength tests were conducted on an Instron
5967 universal testing machine with extension rate set to
1.3 mm s
. Neat resin and doped resins with 0.4, 0.5
and 0.6% w/w CNTs were used as adhesives for the
MtM specimen conguration. As far as the MtC con-
guration is concerned, two composite plates were manu-
factured and co-cured with the metallic strips. One plate
incorporated neat resin and the second one incorporated
doped resin in 0.6% w/w CNTs loading as the matrix.
CNTsepoxy dispersion process
The CNTs dispersion in the epoxy resin was conducted in
a laboratory dissolver apparatus, (Dispermat AE dissol-
ver) equipped with a bead milling module (Torus Mill).
Seventy grams of 0.1 mm diameter beads was used. The
dispersion lasted for 45 minutes at 2000 rpm for each
different CNT loading. All doped resins were extracted
from a master batch doped resin with 2-hour dispersion
at 2000 rpm. Both the Dissolver and the Torus Mill mod-
ule were equipped with double walled containers and a
Grant pump and cooling bath was connected in order
to control the temperature at 25 ± 1°C.
Results and discussion
Single lap-joint shear test
As mentioned before, two different single lap-joint speci-
men congurations were used. In Fig. 2 typical indicative
load vs. extension diagrams are depicted from the respect-
ive tests. As can be seen, both of the studied
1 Specimen dimensions for the single lap-joint specimen
(top) and manufactured specimens from the MtC congur-
ation (bottom)
Baltzis et al. SS coupled with CNT-modied epoxy and CF composites
Plastics, Rubber and Composites 2016 VOL 45 NO 397
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congurations exhibit curves indicative of brittle
materials, as was expected. Figure 3 depicts a cumulative
bar chart with the average shear strength for the two
groups, derived from data of ve test specimens for each
conguration and CNTs loadings. Ιn the case of MtM
conguration, a signicant increase in shear strength is
exhibited after the addition of the CNTs in the host
matrix. The shear strength for the doped resin specimens
is improved by 35, 43 and 47% for 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% CNT
loading, respectively, when compared to the neat resins.
All the respective average and maximum shear stress
values are shown in Table 2. The results indicate that
the shear strength is CNT loading dependent since for
increasing CNT loading the shear strength improves mar-
ginally. Improvements in shear strength have been
reported in the literature for nano-enhanced epoxy
albeit, to the authorsknowledge, not at the
order of 50%. It is generally accepted that CNTs act
both as reinforcement and as tougheners (via crack
deecting and bridging) in the epoxy matrix resulting in
improved properties, in our case shear strength. The high-
est shear strength was achieved for 0.6% CNT loading
however the average values for the doped resins are
close and within standard deviation values. Based on the
aforementioned results, the 0.6% w/w loading was used
for the doped CFRP lamina for the MtC specimen
For the MtC conguration two CFRP plates were man-
ufactured, one with neat resin (MtC neat) and one with
0.6% doped resin (MtC doped) as the matrix material.
As can be seen in Fig. 3 and Table 2, the presence of
the CNTs in the matrix resulted to the reduction of the
shear strength of the adhesive bond. This may be attribu-
ted to poor wettability of the modied resin on the steel
surface, in conjunction with the increased viscosity caused
by the incorporation of CNTs. Indeed, this behaviour can
clearly be seen in Fig. 4, where stereoscopic micrographs
of the fractured lap shear faces are depicted. The gure is
covering, in both cases at approximately the same scale,
slightly more than two UD tows, with the transverse
stitching appearing in the foreground for one of them.
In Fig. 4a, the neat composite face of a lap shear coupon
is depicted after failure; the matrix is clearly seen to inl-
trate the bres, and almost uniformly covering the steel/
composite interface. In contrast, the doped composite
face (Fig. 4b) exhibits areas where the matrix has not
been able to inltrate the bres and ll the metal/compo-
site interface, particularly in the areas around the stitching
of the UD fabric. Thus, it is clearly seen that due to the
physical property changes invoked by the inclusion of
the CNTs, i.e. viscosity and/or surface tension, there is a
considerable reduction to the effectiveadhesion area
which is responsible for the deteriorated properties of
the doped system. In view of these observations, it may
be concluded that in order to fully exploit the potential
provided by the inclusion of CNTs, provisions must be
taken to improve the interface between the substrate
and the composite, either by including a doped resin
layer prior to the lay-up of the wet fabrics or by altering
the manufacturing conditions (higher vacuum and/or
higher temperature) if possible. In all cases, and as is
clearly seen in Fig. 3, MtC specimens (both neat and
doped) exhibit considerably higher values when compared
to the MtM ones (neat and doped). Hence from a repair
point of view, it is concluded that a CFRP patch repair
can lead to greater performance when compared to a
steel bonded repair.
Galvanic effect
Figure 5 presents the galvanic current vs. immersion time
plots for the couples: SS304SS304, SS304neat resin,
Table 2 Results from single lap-joint testing
Specimen MtM neat MtM 0.4% MtM 0.5% MtM 0.6% MtC neat MtC doped
Mean shear strength/MPa 4.68 ± 0.23 6.32 ± 0.32 6.71 ± 0.34 6.87 ± 0.34 10.51 ± 0.53 8.74 ± 0.44
Highest value/MPa 4.77 7.17 7.88 7.24 15.23 10.26
2 Typical load vs. displacement curves for the two systems. (MtM on the left and MtC on the right)
Baltzis et al. SS coupled with CNT-modied epoxy and CF composites
98 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 2016 VOL 45 NO 3
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SS3040.6 wt-% CNT doped resin and SS304CF-
reinforced epoxy. As expected, the SS304SS304 couple
exhibits current values close to nil. All electrode couples
exhibit positive current density values indicating that
the SS304 substrate is less noble when compared to the
various coatings. The relative nobility of the potential
repair patches implies that in the case that the electrolyte
and its reactive ions reach the metallic substrate, its cor-
rosion would be accelerated, as the substrate is anodic
to the patch. This set-up is susceptible to detachment of
the patch from its substrate in the case of electrolyte
access to the substrate.
The CNT doped epoxy presents the highest galvanic
effect with the substrate, whilst the epoxy reinforced by
CF presents the lowest galvanic effect. This nding is
unexpected, since the CNTs are expected to increase the
conductivity of the polymer
and, hence, decrease
the galvanic effect between a neat polymer and a (highly
conductive) metal. However, this notable galvanic effect
is compatible with the fact that the conductivity of com-
posites with identical ller concentration seems to vary,
with some exceptions, by one or two orders of magnitude
for identical matrices and by 10 or more orders of magni-
tude for different concentrations.
A major reason for
this is the existence of polymer tunnelling barriers
between CNTs in the form of sheathing layers around
the nanotubes, which result in the decrease in the overall
composite conductivity.
The current uctuations (in the form of spikes) in the (i
vs. t) curve of couple SS304MtM doped 0.6% in Fig. 5
can be attributed to instantaneous metastable pitting
phenomena in the anodic electrode (SS304), namely: pit
formation on SS304, deposition of instable corrosion pro-
ducts, dissolution of these products, reformation of pits,
re-passivation and so on. The maximum observed in the
(ivs. t) curve of couple SS304MtM doped 0.6% at
about 400 min of immersion suggests a peaking of active
corrosion activity in SS304. Immersion for longer time
relieves this activity by re-passivation as the decreasing
trend of current density with time (sustained for the rest
of the immersion time) shows.
The lowest galvanic effect is recorded for the SS304
CF-reinforced epoxy couple and it is attributed to the
high conductivity of the CFs.
Potentiodynamic polarisation
Figure 6 depicts the polarisation behaviour of all systems
immersed in 3.5% NaCl, at room temperature. Table 3
lists the critical electrochemical values of potential. As
can be seen in Fig. 6, the polarisation curves of the
0.6% CNT-modied epoxy and SS304 present the highest
current density differences, in compatibility with the gal-
vanic effect data.
Table 3 and Fig. 6 show that the CF-reinforced epoxy
presents the noblest corrosion potential most likely due
to the noble nature of the graphite reinforcement.
Before discussing the electrochemical response of the
patches, one has to bear in mind that water uptake in
polymer matrix composites (PMCs) follows three
(i) direct penetration into the bulk polymer, (ii)
water adsorption at the reinforcement/matrix interfaces
and (iii) water transport through various defects in the
matrix (pores, microcracks and, in general, areas of
poor cross-link density, etc.). Water diffuses into polymers
to a different extent depending on a number of molecular
and microstructural aspects, such as: (i) the polarity of the
molecular structure, (ii) the degree of cross-linking, (iii)
the degree of crystallinity in the case of a thermoplastic
and (iv) the presence of residuals in the material.
it has long been known that when only small amounts
of water diffuse into the polymer, conduction may occur
by a process of activated diffusion, whereby xed iono-
genic groups attached to the polymer backbone (e.g.
amide/amine groups in an epoxy) act as sites for ion
3 Average shear strength for the two single lap joint speci-
men congurations (MtM and MtC)
4 Optical stereoscopic images of the fracture surfaces of the MtC coupons composite face. aNeat composite and bdoped
Baltzis et al. SS coupled with CNT-modied epoxy and CF composites
Plastics, Rubber and Composites 2016 VOL 45 NO 399
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transfer through the membrane.
Exposure of PMCs to
aqueous chlorides leads to an increase in the effective
water diffusivity mostly owing to favouring water trans-
port through the bulk of the polymer.
The conductive behaviour of the neat epoxy (MtM
neat), seen in Fig. 6, is attributed to an increase in the
inherent low conductivity of the epoxy by the following
(i) water sorption by the free volume of the
polymer, (ii) hydrogen bonding of water molecules into
hydrophilic sites and (iii) localised water sorption in
areas of poor cross-link density due to solidication and
curing. In epoxy systems, regions of poor cross-link den-
sity can form networks (more or less extended), even if
they occupy very low volume fractions. At this point it
should be noted that the epoxy system used in the present
work shows different electrochemical values than the
epoxy systems employed in previous efforts,
suggesting that the electrochemical behaviour of polymers
is material and preparation method dependent. Indeed, in
the earlier work by Brown and Coomber
it was shown
that open circuit potentials of CFRPmetal couples can
vary signicantly between resin systems.
The very low conductivity of the 0.6% CNT doped
epoxy is compatible with the galvanic effect
measurements and it can be explained, as aforemen-
tioned, by the existence of polymer tunnelling barriers
between CNTs in the form of sheathing layers around
the nanotubes. Two complementary reasons for the
observed very low corrosion kinetics of the 0.6% CNT
doped epoxy coating are: the hydrophobic nature of
and the uniform distribution of CNT into the
polymer matrix. The latter may limit transport of electro-
lyte through microcracks or other forms of microdamage,
such as pores or small channels already present in the neat
polymer or generated by water attack, since CNTs can act
as crack deectors. Zhang et al.
have shown that CNTs
may suppress fatigue crack growth in a 0.5 wt-% CNT-
reinforced epoxy by pull-out of nanotube bres that
bridge the crack interface. Xia et al.
noted three tough-
ening mechanisms in CNT-reinforced Al
crack bridging by CNTs, crack deection at the CNT/
matrix interface and CNT pull-out on the fracture
The CF-reinforced polymer exhibits an intermediate
kinetic behaviour; CFs may also limit water transport
by the free polymer volume by acting as crack deectors.
Anodic polarisation
The most common cathodic reaction in PMCs in water is
the reduction of oxygen:
However, there is an uncertainty in identifying the
occurring anodic reactions. Organic polymer coatings,
formed on metallic substrate, show ideal behaviour as
dielectrics. During exposure to a corrosive agent, electro-
lyte activates conductive tracksin organic coatings that
may lead the electrolyte to the coating/metal interface;
there, anodic dissolution of metal will take place.
Hence, in the case of a steel substrate, a likely anodic reac-
tion would be the oxidation of Fe in discontinuities of the
passive lm. However, Fig. 6 shows that the polymer coat-
ings exhibit anodic polarisation behaviour that is greatly
different than that of SS304, in terms of anodic polaris-
ation curve shape, overpotential and current density
values. Hence, it is indicated that the electrolyte inter-
action with the coated substrate is much different than
the electrolyte interaction with the bare steel.
A possible interaction can be postulated taking into
account the galvanic effect between the patches and
SS304, as rstly described in the technical literature by
Electrochemical reactions will initiate by the
anodic dissolution of iron in the defects of the passive
2Fe 2Fe2++4e(2)
According to Faudree,
accumulation of OH
produced by the reduction of oxygen at the graphite
bre/polyamide interface will lead to an increase in the
pH in these conned areas. There, a form of crevice cor-
rosionof the polymer will take place leading to the for-
mation of amide salts. However, epoxies are considered
resistant to this type of attack, unless oxygen reduction
has occurred in areas of low cross-link density. Further-
more, there is always the possibility of production of per-
hydroxyl ions (HOO
) by oxygen reduction:
5 Galvanic current vs. time for the couples: SS304SS304,
SS304MtM neat, SS304MtM doped 0.6% and SS304
MtC neat; 3.5 wt-% NaCl, 25°C
6 Potentiodynamic anodic polarisation curves of bare stain-
less steel (SS304) and stainless steel coated by neat
epoxy (MtM neat), CF-reinforced epoxy (MtC neat) and
0.6% CNT doped epoxy (MtM doped 0.6%), in 3.5 wt-%
NaCl at 25°C
Baltzis et al. SS coupled with CNT-modied epoxy and CF composites
100 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 2016 VOL 45 NO 3
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ions, in the presence of an electrophilic centre, can
react very rapidly with the polymer, before they decom-
pose by reaction (4).
Another likely anodic reaction in the three types of
patches could be carbon dissolution at areas of low
cross-link density:
The electrochemical potential of reaction (5) is E
0.007 V vs. Ag/AgCl in acid media, but it is believed to
be slow in that potential range. Therefore, carbon oxi-
dation should normally occur at high overpotentials,
unless a catalytic process lowers the activation energy.
Nevertheless, a carbon with a relatively high degree of dis-
order, as carbon in poor cross-linked polymer areas,
would be prone to oxidisation more rapidly than graphi-
tised/ordered carbon.
In the case of existence of electroactive surface func-
tional groups in the polymer, another likely anodic reac-
tion could be their oxidation.
As pH increases at the cathode, due to the liberation of
by reaction (1),CO
produced from reaction (5) as
well as CO
in the aerated NaCl solution will undergo
As pH increases at the cathode, CO2
3production is ther-
modynamically favoured.
It is well known that osmosis occurs when the resin acts
as a semi-permeable membrane allowing only water to
diffuse. Therefore, if the resin contains water-soluble sub-
stances (such as carbonates, NaOH from reaction of Na
with OH
or water-soluble impurities), thermodynamics
will drive water further into the resin. Osmotic pressure
(π) is a colligative property directly proportional to the
molar concentration of the soluble substance:
=RTc (8)
where Ris the gas constant, Tis the absolute temperature
and cis the molar concentration of the solubilised parts.
Therefore, water-soluble substance segregation in
microsurfaces such as, microdefects or ller/matrix
interfaces, will drive further epoxy degradation by
The anodic polarisation curves of the neat epoxy coat-
ing and the 0.6 CNT-modied coating present stabilis-
ation current regimes at the high anodic potentials,
which are sustained through the whole range of the
measured potentials. The anodic polarisation curve of
the neat epoxy reinforced by CF exhibits a passive
regime starting at 54 mV vs. Ag/AgCl and sustained
for about 870 mV. These regimes can be explained by
the saturation of the polymer
with water, the deposition
of polymer reductive degradation products that limit dif-
fusion of O
or even the deposition of unstable polymer
oxidation products.
In the case of the CNT- and CF-
reinforced polymers, these current stabilisation regimes
start at E
potentials that are much closer to the cor-
rosion potential in comparison with the neat polymer
coating (see (E
) values in Table 3), because: (i)
they present a polymer free volume that is smaller than
that of the neat polymer and (ii) the reinforcements may
limit water transport through defects of the polymer
structure, as previously mentioned.
Figure 6 and Table 3 also show that the forward anodic
curves of the neat epoxy and the CF-reinforced epoxy
present breakaway potentials (i.e. attened gradients sus-
tained for one to two orders of current density magni-
tude, similar to those observed in the polarisation
curves of metallic materials susceptible to localised
forms of corrosion). Thus, these attened gradients
may be explained by localised degradation of low resist-
ance conduction pathways associated with the localised
presence of decient cross-link density regions.
In the
case of CF-reinforced epoxy, an additional reason for
the localised degradation can be the localised existence
of weak matrix/CF interfaces that induce preferential
water adsorption at the bre/matrix interfaces.
PMCs, water has the tendency to segregate at the
reinforcement/matrix interface,
where dissolution of
carbon may take place; further water ingress due to
osmotic effect will intensify localised degradation, as
The 0.6% CNT doped epoxy does not present deviation
from a uniform corrosion behaviour, indicating a uniform
CNT distribution that has densied localised poor cross-
link density regions.
Reverse polarisation
Figure 7 shows the cyclic polarisation behaviour of all sys-
tems in aqueous 3.5% NaCl. The negative hysteresis in
Fig. 7a(namely higher reversecurrents than the for-
wardones at the same potential in the anodic scan)
suggests that bare SS304 is susceptible to pitting in aqu-
eous NaCl. Pitting in stainless steels is associated with
local discontinuities in the passive lm. Two of the most
common local discontinuities are sulphide (Mn,Fe)S
inclusions and small regions of low Cr
in a wide
matrix of high Cr
Regarding the rst type
of discontinuities, the low pH and high sulphide ion con-
centration resulting from the dissolution of the sulphide
Table 3 Electrochemical values of the materials immersed in 3.5% NaCl
Ag/AgCl E
/mV E
SS304 362 85 (E
) 350(E
)56 406 306
MtM neat 656 47 7 609
MtM doped 0.6% 497 280 217
MtC neat 170 797 54 967 116
, equilibrium potential; E
, breakaway or breakdown potential; E
, potential at the start of
current limiting domain.
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inclusions produce a local environment that prevents
establishing passivity in the pit.
Regarding the second
type of discontinuities, reductive dissolution of the
component of the Cr
-poor passive lm
Fe2O3+6H++2e2Fe2++3H2O (9)
Reaction (9) leads to a decrease in the lm thickness and
localised breakdown of passivity.
The neat epoxy and the CF-reinforced epoxy coatings
present negative hysteresis indicative of localised degra-
dation phenomena in compatibility with the aforemen-
tioned breakaway state upon forward polarisation. The
negative hysteresis in the polarisation curves of the neat
epoxy patch and the CF-reinforced patch suggests that
surfaces during reverse scanning are more conductive
than the ones during forward scanning at the same poten-
tial. The comparatively high conductivity of the involved
surfaces during reverse polarisation is attributed to the
fact that they contain more water and water-soluble sub-
stances than the respective ones during forward polaris-
ation. The much larger area of the negative hysteresis
loop in the curve of the CFR epoxy, as compared to
that of the neat epoxy, can be explained by the additional
water uptake by the CF/matrix interfaces. There, the
osmosis driven increased concentration of water-soluble
products has led to surface conductivities that are con-
siderably higher than the respective ones during forward
The only system presenting a positive hysteresis is the
CNT doped coating due to the absence of localised degra-
dation phenomena. The slightly lower surface conduc-
tivity of the 0.6% CNT doped patch during reverse
polarisation in comparison with the surface conductivity
during forward polarisation indicates a reversibility in
the water ingress processes. Thus, it is suggested that the
0.6% CNT doped patch has not suffered irreversible
damage (e.g. damage due to hydrolysis of chemical
bonds or interface rupture due to osmotic pressure).
Indeed, Fig. 8 conrms the evidence of cyclic polarisation
for the CNT-modied epoxy adhesive: the stainless steel
substrate does not present any signs of corrosion after cyc-
lic polarisation in aqueous NaCl. The absence of any cor-
rosion products from the surface of the steel substrate is
manifested in Fig. 9. The line scan across the imaged
cross-section reveals a uniform distribution of oxygen
along the line, conrming the absence of any corrosion
depositions on the steel substrate. Should the electrolyte
reached the surface of the substrate, oxygen concentration
7 Cyclic polarisation behaviour of abare steel (SS304), bsteel coated by neat epoxy (MtM neat), csteel coated by 0.6% CNT
doped epoxy (MtM doped 0.6%) and dsteel coated by CF-reinforced epoxy (MtC neat), in 3.5 wt-% NaCl at 25°C
8 SEM cross-sectional micrograph of stainless steel sub-
strate and 0.6% CNT-modied epoxy patch after cyclic
polarisation in 3.5% NaCl, 25°C. The surface of the sub-
strate is free of corrosion signs
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102 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 2016 VOL 45 NO 3
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at the surface would be higher than that in the bulk of
steel. Surface concentration of Fe would also be different.
(The abrupt decrease in the concentration of Fe in the line
scan of the steel corresponds to the large crack formed
upon cross-sectioning and grinding.)
Therefore, although anodic polarisation may have been
initiated by dissolution of Fe
(reaction (2)), carbon dis-
solution (reaction (5)) and/or oxidation of polymer sur-
face functional groups seem most likely as anodic
reactions at least for the continuation of oxidation,
depending on the pH and the anodic overpotential.
Cathodic polarisation
As expected, the stainless steel presents the highest cathodic
current densiti es (Fig.6), namely the highest fraction of con-
ductive surfaces large enough to support cathodic reactions.
The 0.6% CNT-modied epoxy adhesive presents the lowest
cathodic currents, namely the lowest fraction of conductive
surfaces large enough to support cathodic reactions.
At the polymer cathode, oxygen will be reduced accord-
ing to reaction (1). Alternatively, reductive degradation of
the polymer may occur as a result of electron transfer to
functional groups. The process is enhanced by electroac-
tive agents, such as solvent hydrolysis products.
The cathodic polarisation curve of SS304 differs from
the cathodic curve of the epoxy-based coatings in that it
presents a deection denoting the change in the governing
cathodic reaction. In more detail, the cathodic branch has
started with reduction of oxygen ending in a short concen-
tration polarisation regime; at lower potentials, the deec-
tion in the curve shows that the reduction of hydrogen
became operative.
The present work focused on the evaluation of the
adhesion properties of nano-reinforced epoxies and their
composites bonded on typical stainless steels for offshore
applications. Both the mechanical and electrochemical
behaviour of the studied systems was evaluated. The
study was performed in order to assess the potential appli-
cation of FRP bonded repair in naval structures.
The assessment of the adhesion efciency was per-
formed for two congurations, i.e. MtM bonding with
neat and nano-modied epoxy employed as an adhesive
and MtC bonding where the composite was co-cured
with the steel substrate in either plain (neat epoxy matrix)
or doped (CNT-reinforced matrix) form. Vacuum assisted
hand lay-up was employed as the manufacturing method-
ology, as it is the most suitable candidate method for on-
site applications. The overall assessment of the nano-
reinforcement indicated that the inclusion of CNTs may
lead to benecial results, both for electrochemical and
mechanical properties.
The nano-modication of the epoxy in the case of the
MtM bonding indicated an impressive improvement of
almost 50% in single lap shear strength. The improvement
was attributed to the well-known stiffening and toughen-
ing effects of the CNTs, resulting cumulatively from the
CNT elastic properties, as well as from crack bifurcation
and arrest, crack reection and bridging. As should be
noted, although CNTs have been reported to improve
lap shear strength in similar systems (e.g. aluminium to
aluminium bonds) an improvement of almost 50% is
reported for the rst time to the authorsknowledge.
The best performance was achieved for the highest CNT
content examined (i.e. 0.6% w/w CNTs) but, within exper-
imental error, it was achieved already at 0.5% w/w.
The MtC bonds performed signicantly better to MtM
bonds, exhibiting more than double the lap shear strength
in the case of the neat systems, clearly showing the potential
of FRP repairs. However, the CNT-modied MtC bond
did not performed as good as the neat MtC bond. This
was attributed to the physical property changes of the
matrix due to the inclusion of the CNTs which should be
accounted for in orderto fully exploit and properly quantify
the potential of the matrix nano-modication.
As far as the electrochemical behaviour is concerned, the
incorporation of CNTs in the epoxy increased the galvanic
effect between epoxy and SS304. In all cases, the SS304 sub-
strate appears less noble compared to the various coatings/
composites. The CNT doped epoxy is exhibiting the highest
galvanic effect compared to the other galvanic couples
attributed to the existence of polymer tunnelling barriers
around CNTs. The lowest galvanic effect is recorded for
couple SS304-CF reinforced epoxy and it is attributed to
the high conductivity of the CFs. Additionally, both neat
9 SEM cross-sectional micrograph of stainless steel sub-
strate and 0.6% CNT-modied epoxy patch after cyclic
polarisation in 3.5% NaCl, 25°C. The surface of the sub-
strate is free of corrosion signs. The line scan across
the imaged cross-section reveals a uniform distribution
of oxygen along the line
Baltzis et al. SS coupled with CNT-modied epoxy and CF composites
Plastics, Rubber and Composites 2016 VOL 45 NO 3103
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epoxy and CF-reinforced epoxy systems present negative
hysteresis during the reverse polarisation semi-cycle indica-
tive of localised degradation. In its turn, this is indicative of
higher conductivity and is attributed to water uptake and
osmosis driven localised degradation. In the case of the
CF-reinforced epoxy system, localised degradation may
be promoted due to additional water uptake and osmotic
effects at the CF/matrix interface. Interestingly enough,
this is not the casefor the CNT doped resin, where the mar-
ginally lower surface conductivity during reverse polaris-
ation in comparison with the surface conductivity during
forward polarisation directly implies the absence of loca-
lised degradation phenomena, suggesting that the patch
has not sufferedirreversible damage. The latter is conrmed
by SEM/EDX examination of the 0.6% CNT/epoxy coated
SS304 specimen.
Recapitulating, the CNT modication may result to an
impressive increase in the bond strength of steel to steel
joints. The FRP to metal bond performs considerably bet-
ter compared to the MtM bond, but caution should be
taken in order to exploit the CNT matrix modication,
as the bond strength is governed by the changes invoked
in the physical properties of the matrix. In this case,
further study is required in order to assess if the effect
of CNT inclusion is benecial. Finally, the inclusion of
CNTs was found to substantially increase the galvanic
effect, but at the same time to suppress localised degra-
dation phenomena leading to increased protection of
the steel substrate.
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... The effect of the introduction of CNTs and CNFs into CFRP as nano-fillers on the galvanic corrosion of technologically relevant metals/alloys coupled to CFRP is an area that require detailed study. However, there are just few reports in literature on galvanic corrosion of metals coupled to nano-filler modified fiber reinforced polymers [275][276][277] Ireland et al. [275] investigated galvanic corrosion between aluminum 7075 and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GRFP) composites modified with carbon nanotubes and reported statistically significant increase (approximate doubling) of corrosion rate and mass loss rate on coupling MWCNT/GFRP samples with aluminum 7075 compared to baseline GFRP samples. It is important to note that in the MWCNT/GFRP -AA7075 galvanic couple studied by Ireland et al. [275], the reinforcing fiber (glass fiber) in the GFRP is not electrically conductive in contrast to CFRP in which the reinforcing fiber (carbon fiber) is electrically conductive. ...
... It is important to note that in the MWCNT/GFRP -AA7075 galvanic couple studied by Ireland et al. [275], the reinforcing fiber (glass fiber) in the GFRP is not electrically conductive in contrast to CFRP in which the reinforcing fiber (carbon fiber) is electrically conductive. Baltzis et al. [276] investigated the performance of austenitic stainless steel 304 (SS304) adhesively bonded to neat epoxy, CNT-modified epoxy and carbon fiber (CF)-reinforced epoxy (CFRRP), and reported that though the incorporation of CNTs increased the galvanic effects, it also retarded uniform corrosion and localized corrosion as the modified adhesives prevented the electrolyte from reaching the substrate. Arronche et al. [277] studied galvanic corrosion between AISI 1018 carbon steel coupled to CFRPs modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and reported that the addition of MWCNTs do not have a statistically significant effect on the corrosion and mass loss rates compared to unmodified CFRP. ...
... Arronche et al. [277] studied galvanic corrosion between AISI 1018 carbon steel coupled to CFRPs modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and reported that the addition of MWCNTs do not have a statistically significant effect on the corrosion and mass loss rates compared to unmodified CFRP. Comparing their result [277] which is at variance with other works [275,276] that reported "CNT-induced" increase in galvanic corrosion of metals coupled to fiber reinforced polymer composites, they attributed their non-observance of an increase in metallic (AISI 1018 carbon steel) corrosion rates on galvanic coupling to MWCNTs modified CFRP to the already conductive nature of carbon fiber reinforcement with respect to the CNT fillers. This attribution in our opinion is most probably incorrect, because addition of CNTs above its percolation threshold in the polymer matrix is bound to increase the conductivity of the matrix phase of the composite so that the entire CFRP composite surface becomes conductive. ...
Full-text available
Carbon is used as a reinforcing phase in carbon-fiber reinforced polymer composites employed in aeronautical and other technological applications. Under polarization in aqueous media, which can occur on galvanic coupling of carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) with metals in multi-material structures, degradation of the composite occurs. These degradative processes are intimately linked with the electrically conductive nature and surface chemistry of carbon. This review highlights the potential corrosion challenges in multi-material combinations containing carbon-fiber reinforced polymers, the surface chemistry of carbon, its plausible effects on the electrochemical activity of carbon, and consequently the degradation processes on carbon-fiber reinforced polymers. The implications of the emerging use of conductive nano-fillers (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers) in the modification of CFRPs on galvanically stimulated degradation of CFRP is accentuated. The problem of galvanic coupling of CFRP with selected metals is set into perspective, and insights on potential methods for mitigation and monitoring the degradative processes in these composites are highlighted.
... Previous studies reported that mixing CNTs into epoxy resin could improve the adhesion properties of neat epoxy adhesively bonded joints by increasing the fracture toughness of the epoxy [26,27] and restricting the crack propagation within the bondline layer [28][29][30]. Furthermore, the extraordinary high aspect ratio of CNTs could create an extraordinarily large contact area with the surrounding epoxy, resulting in a good load transfer to guarantee a sound cooperative work between CNTs and the epoxy adhesive matrix [23,24]. ...
... On the other hand, previous researches [27][28][29][30] found out that the bonding strength of CNT-reinforced epoxy adhesively bonded joints increased as the CNT fractions increased to around 0.75%, and then decreased gradually with further additions of CNTs owing to the aggregation of CNTs [32,[43][44]. The experimental results in Table 3 (Columns 6-7) confirmed that for epoxy adhesively bonded joints with the same adhesive thicknesses, as the CNT fraction increased from 0% to 0.75%, both bonding strengths and fracture strains increased continuously. ...
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are generally considered as a promising particle reinforcement of incorporating advanced properties and characteristics into epoxy nanocomposites. This paper investigated the bonding performances of CNT-reinforced epoxy adhesively bonded joints on steel substrates using the single lap shear (SLS) tests. The bonding performances (including bonding strength, fracture strain, toughness, and failure mode) were studied with three adhesive thicknesses (1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.25 mm) and three CNT weight fractions (0%, 0.375%, and 0.75%). The experimental results indicated that thinner bondlines and higher CNT additions could significantly improve the bonding performances and modify the failure mode of CNT-reinforced epoxy adhesively bonded joints. However, the effects of adhesive thickness became less significant with the increase of CNT weight fractions. In addition, the plastic behaviour of CNT-reinforced epoxy, CNTs pulling-out, and the aggre-gation of CNTs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis on the fracture surfaces of CNT-reinforced epoxy adhesively bonded joints, indicating the potential effectiveness of the CNT reinforcement.
... For that reason, additives (filler) with nanoparticles size such as Carbon Nanotube (CNT) is considered as one of the most practical candidates. In the past few years, studies that involved the combination of CNTs with various polymer matrices have greatly intensified [14]- [17]. These combinations have been proven effective in improving the mechanical and electrical properties of many polymers and it has been widely used in different industries [18]- [20]. ...
... The individual average and maximum shear stress values of tested grouts are shown in [14], [33]. Close examination of the failure surface of the tested grouts can be seen in Figure 11. ...
Epoxy grout properties are theoretically important in predicting the behaviour of the composite pipeline repair system. Usually, it is used as an infill material to fill the gap or irregularity on the surface caused by pipe corrosion and ensures a smooth bed before fibre wrapper can be applied to recover the pipeline strength. In this research, the existing commercially available epoxy resin grout has been strengthened by using Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the amount 0.1% of weight fractional to evaluate their apropos behaviour to the neat epoxy grout. The various mechanical tests were performed on this modified grout to identify its compression, tensile, flexural and lap shear strength. In addition, the dispersion process of CNTs was carried out by using ultrasonication and three-roll mill technique to ensure an optimum enhancement in the properties of the polymer matrix. By comparing the strength, 0.1% of CNTs filler has significantly improved the strength of grout in flexural, tensile and shear bonding but not in compression. In addition, the results also indicate that CNTs filler has increased the modulus of elasticity of the infill material. Therefore, it demonstrates the intrinsic potential of the CNTs in modifying the properties of the epoxy grout.
... 55−57 Therefore, CNTs can be effectively dispersed in the resin by in situ growth or chemical grafting of CNTs onto continuous fibers. Baltzis et al. 58 found that the modification of epoxy resin by carbon nanotubes can improve its wettability to 304 stainless steel, thus significantly enhancing the bond strength of the resin to stainless steel. ...
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Combining metal and polymer into hybrid composite materials is finding increasing interest in many industries. Special attention is being paid to increase the adhesion between the metal and polymer interface. In this paper, the current research progress of surface treatment methods for improving the interfacial adhesion of stainless steel and resin is reviewed. It involves the stainless steel surface treatment method, resin surface treatment method, and adhesion test methods of stainless steel and resin. The methods of improving the interfacial adhesion of stainless steel and resin are summarized and prospected according to the research status.
... Among the nano reinforcements, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are commonly used as nano fillers in FRPs due to their extraordinary mechanical [10,11], electrical [12,13], and thermal properties [14]. Thus, enormous efforts have been attempted to produce CNT/polymer composites [15][16][17][18][19][20][21] and CNT/FRP composites [22][23][24][25] for functional applications. These functionalities include enhanced interlaminar fracture behaviour [22], self-sensing of strain and damage monitoring [3,25], and electromagnetic shielding [26] when CNTs are added to FRP composites. ...
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This study investigates the carbon nanotube (CNT) penetration phenomenon in vacuum infusion (VI) process by means of electrical conductivity measurement. Effects of resin temperature, CNT content, and the processing technique on the overall composite laminate quality were investigated by monitoring electrical properties of composite sheets. Epoxy/woven glass fibre composites loaded with various CNT contents were also manufactured using compression moulding and vacuum bagging techniques for comparison purposes. VI was achieved at two different temperatures (25°C and 50°C) to study the effect of variation in viscosity on CNT penetration during infusion. The results showed that electrical conductivity measurement was a very effective tool to assess the CNT penetration state of composite laminates in VI method. Both the resistive and capacitive behaviour in composite laminates due to filtration of CNTs at higher CNT contents was observed. However, the CNT penetration was improved by increasing the temperature of epoxy/CNT mixture before the infusion.
... On average, modified epoxy grout with 0.1 wt% and 0.5 wt% of MWCNTs show comparable shear strength despite differences in nanofiller content. The improvements in shear strength using this nanofiller have also been reported in the literature [10], [36]. The failure surface of the tested grouts is shown in Fig. 10. ...
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The properties of the infill material are an important parameter in predicting the performance and behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite for effective design. This paper identifies the potential of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) as nanofiller in enhancing the performance of infill material. Two compositions of MWNTs at 0.1% and 0.5% of weight fractional were evaluated toward neat epoxy on tensile and lap shear test. By comparing MWCNTs-based modified epoxy grouts and neat epoxy grout, a significant increase in tensile strength was observed, especially with 0.5% of MWCNTs by almost 53.3%. While the inclusion of MWCNTs showed a comparable increment in shear strength in both 0.1% and 0.5% weight fractional by 13%. The image of morphologies showed that MWCNTs were well incorporated into the matrix, making the cross-section of the fracture rougher by sharing stress. This shows the potential of the MWCNTs in changing the properties of the modified epoxy grout, provided that the MWCNTs are appropriately dispersed throughout the resin matrix.
... Even though the idea of minimising composite wrapper for pipeline repair through reinforced putty is well acknowledged, current efforts are rather insufficient. Research on the performance and behaviour of the reinforced putty material has been limited to bonding performance [21,22]. The actual capability of reinforced putty on the overall performance of the repair system is still unknown. ...
Composite pipeline repair systems involving infill material and composite wrapper are a common method of enhancing the integrity of damaged oil and gas pipelines. Composite wrappers can be theoretically optimised by minimising the layers of wrapper whilst reinforcing the infill material; i.e., putty. Integrating nanomaterial into putty to enhance its strength is a novel approach to provide secondary layer protection of damaged pipelines. A finite element (FE) model simulating a composite repaired pipe was developed to investigate the influence of reinforced carbon nanotube (CNTs) putty on the system's overall repair performance and behaviour. The result was verified with a previous experimental hydrostatic burst pressure test and industrial standard resulting in less than a 15% error margin. The result shows the damaged artificial pipe segment filled with two different putties, namely Grout A and Grout B, ruptured at 32.22 MPa and 32.93 MPa, respectively. The reinforced putty improved the load-bearing capacity of the repaired pipe by a marginal increment of 2.2%. It demonstrated a better load-transfer and load-sharing mechanism than the common composite repair system. The recorded burst failure of the repaired pipe was less abrupt, thus minimising the sudden rupture of the pipeline by acting as a secondary layer of protection in the event of a composite wrapper failure.
... Epoxy resins, with high strength-to-weight ratio, good environmental stability and ease of application, have become a favorable polymeric coating material in the last few decades, especially for corrosion mitigation and prevention on pipeline and steel bridges. However, the weak bonding performance of the epoxy coatings on steel substrates [4,5] limited their long-term applications for effective and efficient corrosion protection in these fields since the debonding of the coatings could occur easily under external stresses [6]. The epoxy coatings have relatively weak bonding performance not only because they are brittle materials which yield relatively low ductility and resistance to crack propagations [7], but also given the fact that the steel and epoxy resins are dissimilar materials, the interfacial adhesion forces between steel and epoxy resins are mainly hydrogen and van der Waals force in the form of secondary bonding, which are weaker compared to adhesion between similar materials [8,9]. ...
This paper investigated the bonding performances of epoxy coatings reinforced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as additives on mild steel substrates. Pure epoxy and CNT-reinforced epoxy coatings on four different surface roughness of steel substrate were tested using single lap shear (SLS) tests. The SLS experimental results indicated that, on rougher substrates, the addition of a small percentage of CNTs (0.75% by weight) could significantly improve the bonding performance and change the failure mode from adhesion fracture to partly cohesive failure by improving the toughness of coatings and the interfacial adhesion between the coatings and substrates. In addition, the contact angle tests and the surface characterizations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis before and after fracture indicated that the wettability of coatings on steel substrates improved significantly with the increase of surface roughness and mechanical interlocking was the main reinforcing mechanism on rougher substrates.
... In addition, much efforts have been devoted to improve the joint strength of various metal and/or composite components by introducing CNTs into the joining interface. CNT-reinforced epoxy was developed to use as adhesives, and the bonding strength and durability of the joints between two stainless steel plates [29] or aluminum alloy plates [30] were found to increase significantly with the incorporation of CNTs. During the friction stir welding process for joining HDPE and ABS, adding CNTs could improve the tensile strength and elongation of the dissimilar joints [31]. ...
The joining of titanium (Ti) alloy and composite parts with weight reduction and cost saving is being developed to improve aircraft performance. The high-efficiency resistance welding technology was explored for joining Ti alloy plate and glass fabric reinforced polyetherimide (GF/PEI) laminate in this work and a carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced laminae was embedded into the interface of the welding region to enhance the strength of the hybrid joints of Ti -GF/PEI. The CNTs were in-situ grown on the surface of the Ti alloy plate, and their structures and morphologies were characterized by Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The single lap shear strength (LSS) of the hybrid joints was evaluated with tensile tests. The LSS values first increased and then decreased with welding time (tw) due to the combined effects of the improving molten state of PEI resin and its local thermal degradation induced by excessive heat accumulation. The optimum LSS of the hybrid joint with CNT reinforced lamina is increased by 146% to 17.28 MPa in comparison with that of the hybrid joint without CNTs. The failure modes shift from interlayer debonding of the Ti alloy plate and the implant to the cohesive fracture of the implant and the delamination of the GF/PEI laminate with increasing tw. The ultrasonic C-scan images also show an increase of the number of internal defects of GF/PEI laminates with tw.
... % did not alter the electrical behavior of the system. Additionally, as previous studies have indicated [14,30], electrical percolation is reached at ca. 0.5 wt. % CNTs [14]. ...
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Nano-reinforced composites are widely studied by the scientific community. The main factors affecting the final nanocomposite performance are the filler type and content, as well as the duration of the dispersion. In this work, we report the effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNTs) and milled Carbon Black (CB) dispersion in epoxy resin on the electrical and mechanical properties of the resulting composites. Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) was utilized to assess the dielectric properties of the specimens. The mechanical properties were evaluated by fracture toughness tests, while Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed to study the influence of the reinforcement on the failure mechanisms acting on the fracture surfaces of the specimens. IS results for epoxy/CNT systems revealed the creation of a 3D conductive network for concentrations above 0.3 wt. %, while CB did not result in the formation of such a network for filler contents up to 2 wt. %. However, the synergistic effect of CNTs/CB was successfully manifested by both the optimal electrical properties and the 81% enhanced fracture toughness in comparison to the neat resin. Fractography confirmed the aforementioned results and revealed the fracture mechanisms of all systems, such as crack pinning and deflection, and particle pull-out phenomena.
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Steel structures coated with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have gained wide acceptance in marine industry due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, good protection from environmental degradation, and impact loads. In this study, adhesive bonding performance of single-lap bonded joints composed of steel coated with FRP has been investigated experimentally for three different surface roughness and two epoxy types. Single-lap bonded joints have been tested under tensile loading. The adhesive bonding performance has been evaluated by calculating the strain energy values. The results reveal that the surface roughness of steel has a significant effect on the bonding performance of steel to FRP combinations and the performance of the resin can be improved by using the primer in an economical way.
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Conventional and nanostructured WC-12 %wt Co powders were HVOF sprayed on Al 7075-T6. The nanocoatings presented slightly less microporosity, higher microhardness, higher fracture toughness but higher decarburization, than the conventional ones. The nanocoatings exhibited greater resistance to general corrosion and localized corrosion in 3.5% NaCl than their conventional counterparts. Other than an occasional removal of WC nanoparticles, corrosion modes appeared similar for both types of coatings, characterized by selective dissolution of Co, formation of protective surface films and crevice corrosion along interlayer boundaries. Both types of coatings exhibited high dry sliding wear resistance. Nevertheless, the wear performance of the nanocoatings was even superior than that of their conventional counterparts. Main wear modes included plastic deformation of binder, oxidative wear leading to the formation of lubricating oxides and adhesive wear leading to the formation of alumina-rich surface depositions. Coating of Al 7075 with nano WC-12Co was proved effective in terms of microstructural features, corrosion and wear behaviour.
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This was the discovery that "plastics can corrode" under galvanic conditions and was a factor that led to change in the F-22 Raptor Aircraft design). (faudree effect, フォードリー結果) 電気化学的過程とグラファイト/ポリイミド複合材料の関係 ABSTRACT: The possibility of galvanic action between graphite composites and metals has long been recognized. Recently, at General Dynamics Fort Worth Division, it was discovered that imide-linked resins can degrade under certain laboratory conditions involving the galvanic process. The galvanic coupling was found to cause hydroxyl ions to be formed at the gaphite cathode, hence attacking the O-C-N bond of the polyimide ring structure. Degradation was found ro initiate at exposed graphite sites at salt water/fuel or salt water/stagnant air interfaces. The phenomenon was found to occur in bismaleimides (BMI), condensation polyimides, triazines, and blends thereof. Standard galvanic protection schemes were demonstrated to be effective in preventing degradation, particularly when proper treatment of the composite was provided. Note: Since this was the first time polymer degradation (corrosion) by glavanic action was mentioned in the literature, that "plastics can corrode" these results have been referred to as "faudree effect" by workers in the aerospace industry and peer-reviewed publication.
This edition has been greatly enlarged and updated to provide both scientists and engineers with a clear and comprehensive understanding of composite materials. In describing both theoretical and practical aspects of their production, properties and usage, the book crosses the borders of many disciplines. Topics covered include: fibres, matrices, laminates and interfaces; elastic deformation, stress and strain, strength, fatigue crack propagation and creep resistance; toughness and thermal properties; fatigue and deterioration under environmental conditions; fabrication and applications. Coverage has been increased to include polymeric, metallic and ceramic matrices and reinforcement in the form of long fibres, short fibres and particles. Designed primarily as a teaching text for final-year undergraduates in materials science and engineering, this book will also interest undergraduates and postgraduates in chemistry, physics, and mechanical engineering. In addition, it will be an excellent source book for academic and technological researchers on materials.
Fundamentals of Electrochemical Corrosion covers the underlying chemistry and materials science associated with the corrosion behavior of metals in aqueous environments. It begins with a review of corrosion processes and the reactions that occur in the interface area between the metal and corrosive media. It describes the basic elements of a corrosion circuit, the criteria for metal-solution reactions, and the effect of corrosion products. It discusses the thermodynamic principles governing the stability of metals in aqueous environments, the kinetics of metal-ion transfer, the role of diffusion, and the influence of solution velocity. It explains how to calculate corrosion rates and estimate corrosion potential and current density. It addresses practical issues such as galvanic coupling, cathodic protection, and the effect of anodic polarization on various metals and alloys. It also covers corrosion-rate measurements, localized and metallurgically influenced corrosion, environment-sensitive fracture, and corrosion fatigue. The book includes charts, graphs, tables, equations, and chapter review questions, and is appropriate for use in upper-level undergraduate and graduate instruction, professional education, individual study, and as a reference and data resource. For information on the print version, ISBN 978-0-87170-676-8, follow this link.
The last few years have witnessed a tremendous growth in the use of composite materials in various fields, spanning the whole range from sporting goods to structural materials for the aerospace industry. Such applications almost invariably entail contacts with liquids or vapours—either aqueous or organic—bearing on both the immediate and the long-term performance of the material. Hence, problems pertinent to the role of permeability of composite materials must be of prime consideration as limiting factors. This applies particularly to the most common phenomenon of moisture penetration.