Fully Integrated and Automated Project Process (Fiapp) for the Project Manager and Executive

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... According to Sheppard (2004), 75-80% of the 4D simulation's cost involves creation of the underlying 3D model. Griffis and Sturts (2003) 4D scheduling has been around for many years (Dawood and Mallasi, 2006). It has become contractual in some large and complex projects (Jackson and Baykal, 2014). ...
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4D simulation is commonly used in building construction projects as part of Building Information Modeling (BIM) processes. 4D simulation is generated by linking a project 3D model with the Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) schedule. The PDM is an accepted standard in the construction industry and a recognized method in courts in case of delay claims. A construction project progresses through different phases. At each of these phases, the project schedules and 3D models have various levels of development (LOD’s) ranging from summarized to detailed models. The quality and purpose of 4D simulation is dependent on these LOD’s and they impact the development of 4D simulation. The 4D simulation can consider multiple LOD’s to grasp essential concerns of a rehabilitation plan. Distinctively, 4D simulation is becoming more prevalent in the construction industry to, among other benefits, decrease productivity losses and delay claims. It can further be used to help prevent the numerous and severe accidents of the construction industry with the consideration of nine dominant critical risks that have been identified in the construction phase for the hydroelectric industry. In delay claims, it can be used for the visualization of the critical path to identify the cause-effect relationships and the responsible entity in the context of claims avoidance or claims resolution. However, 4D simulation is still not frequently used in courtrooms because it is considered costly, complex and risky. The experience in litigation systems reveals that many expert witnesses at present are not familiar with 4D simulation and are reserved about using technology. Visualizing and analyzing the specifics of delay claims in relation to effects-causes, and assigning responsibility are a challenge for attorneys, jurists and judges. 4D simulation can be considered as a part of a claim management system for representing the responsibility and impact, and can be used as the main scheduling method of claims resolution. Building Information Modeling (BIM), 4D simulation, delay effects and causes (DEC), and claims are knowledge domains with active research in the construction industry, which are individually described in the literature using taxonomies and ontologies. However, there is a gap in integrating these ontologies in a more formal and overarching ontology-based approach to grasp essential concepts such as liability, causality and quantum in a delay claim using 4D simulation. This thesis explores methodologies with different objectives: (1) providing a guideline about 4D-LOD’s definitions that are based on needs and project progress, (2) introducing a formal method for developing 4D simulation of major capital construction projects in the context of hydropower business considering different time horizons, (3) using 4D simulation for the visual comparison of float values when analyzing shifts in the critical path caused by delays. The findings are provided using a specific delay claim analysis method (i.e. Time Impact Analysis) to model a hydropower workshop inspired by the industry context, (4) to discuss the efficiency and value of 4D simulation in construction claims as a tool for supporting legal arguments, stakeholder’s viewpoints and interrogatory considerations. In delay claims, conventional methods, tools and 4D simulation concepts were used, (5) to develop a 4D simulation technique to minimize potential accidents at different phases of a project considering different 4D levels of development (4D-LOD). This thesis proposes a new method for using 4D simulation for visual analytics of delay claims based on an integrated ontology (called Claim4D-Onto), which includes a taxonomy of the quantum, causality, and assigned responsibility. This method can provide a promising multidisciplinary tool for quicker and fair settlement of construction delay claims by facilitating hearing procedures and catalyzing pre-trial negotiations. Several case studies are used in this thesis to demonstrate how the proposed guideline and 4D simulation method can provide a handy reference for the project personnel and helps reducing the project cost. 4D simulation has evolved to be a reliable method for delay claim analysis. The case study presented considered the appropriate Level of Development (LOD) for claims: summary for the full scope and detailed for event specific information. One of these case studies was presented to seven lawyers. A survey extended with semi-structured interviews was sent to 14 additional external construction litigation lawyers. The results show the advantages and conditions of using 4D simulation for different contractual dispute resolution situations considered in construction claims for avoidance, resolution and litigation. The 4D simulation is developed based on Building Information Modelling (BIM) that can be binding or non-binding. In the latter case, it can be developed to strengthen the position of one party’s argument and visualize multiple scenarios (as-built, as-planned, claim events). Other results considering the rules of law show a list of influence factors with 4D simulation in delay claims, types of evidence and limitations, such as suitable formats and courts for 4D simulations. Further, 4D simulation is used to visualize construction operations at low and then high 4D-LOD. As a predictive tool, 4D simulation scenarios can be evaluated in relation to the number of risky activities considering their periods and zones, which can be prioritized and visualized. A case study is used to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method for using 4D simulation for visual analytics of delay claims based on Claim4D-Onto. Case studies are presented to support the method involving subprojects of powerhouses.
... This integration also helps anticipating potential time-space conflicts and accessibility problems, thus facilitating interface management, especially in complex projects. In addition, Griffis and Sturts (2003) reported that using 4D models resulted in an average of 5% savings in cost growth, 4% savings in schedule growth and 65% reduction in rework. There has been little research conducted to identify barriers and benefits of BIM implementation, and there is no evidence for any study within the Middle East and specifically in Qatar. ...
Conference Paper
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Gantt Charts have been used for decades as a tool for project planning and scheduling. However, they lack the desired output when it comes to schedule visualization. Building Information Modeling (BIM) has proven to be a very powerful design tool. BIM implementing firms are now investigating possibilities to expand the use of BIM to cover more aspects of projects. The first application of this would be construction planning and schedule development where design and construction come together for the first time. There is potentially much work needed to ensure appropriate people skills are in place to take advantage of BIM 4D capability. This paper’s aim is to assess the level of awareness and experience of 4D planning and BIM in the Qatar construction industry as well as to identify possible challenges/barriers to widespread implementation. This assessment is achieved through a survey administered to industry professionals in Qatar. The survey identified and ranked 17 different barriers to BIM/4D implementation in Qatar.
... The uses and benefits of three-dimensional design in residential and commercial buildings have not been shown (Griffis and Sturts 2003). ...
... The use of 4D models and their associated database on site results in an average of 5% savings in cost growth, 4% savings in schedule growth and 65% savings in rework. Use of these tools, by the project management personnel, pre project planning, design, procurement and material management, construction, start-up and commissioning phases of a project can result in unanticipated savings [7]. There are many benefits that we expected to gain from utilizing the 4D construction model or BIM. ...
Conference Paper
This study investigated whether a 4D model can help project participants of construction sites to detect possible errors in construction process. Identifying problems in work sequence and elements are possible when necessary measures are implemented to rectify the problems in advance using a 4D model. The common problem associated with a construction project is a time-space conflict which may lead to project delays and cost overrun. Construction space management and activity sequencing are important aspects for timely project completion within an estimated budget. This research explored the effective use of 4D visualization that could help overcome timespace problems. In order to fulfill this research goal, a 4D model was developed that incorporated spatial requirements along a chronological schedule of events. The model produced logical evidence that a 4D model could effectively be usedin a construction site to detect time-space conflicts.
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