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School Suspensions and Adverse Experiences in Adulthood

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Abstract

The “school-to-prison pipeline” and the negative effects of suspensions, expulsions and school arrests have received increasing national attention recently. Researchers have documented some of the potential harms of these exclusionary school discipline practices for students, including academic difficulties, increased misconduct, and future justice system contact. However, these investigations have been somewhat limited in scope, as they tend to focus only on students’ academic outcomes and juvenile justice system involvement. In this paper we seek to expand upon prior studies by considering how school suspensions may affect youth in peripheral and long-lasting ways. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health, we analyze whether being suspended from school relates to the likelihood of students experiencing a number of adverse events and outcomes when they are adults. We find that being suspended increases the likelihood that a student will experience criminal victimization, criminal involvement, and incarceration years later, as adults.

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... While the prevalence of drug use in South Africa has been reported to be increasing [8], the age of experimentation is declining [9], which means that drug use continues to attract younger users, with more severe consequences for physical, social and academic life. Although initially, learners are able to conceal their use of substances, the use is later demonstrated by intoxication and disruption of the classroom environment [10], where substance abuse is also associated with poor discipline [11], which include aggression [12], as well as poor academic performance, [13,14] dropping out of school [15,16] and being expelled from school [17]. ...
... Specific serious mental health problems associated with substance abuse at an early age include development of schizophrenia by Dada S , lower levels of psychological well-being, Twenge, Martin, & Campbell and subsequent disruption of executive mental function in the workplace, Crean, Crane, & Mason. The social consequences of drug use among adolescents include guilt and stigma, with resultant poor social health, Birtel, Wood, and Kempa, participating in a fight, going out at night, and the number of friends who use drugs [17,21]. ...
... In the absence of guidelines, schools often resort to expulsion of learners who are deemed to be unruly, which includes those that use drugs [25]. Literature reports that being expelled from school has long term negative consequences, which include substance abuse in adulthood and even homelessness [17,26]. Additionally, expulsion from school contributes to increased aggression behavior in social life [27,28]. ...
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Background: The increasing prevalence of substance abuse among at-school youth calls for the consistent use of available policies that guide interventions to combat the scourge, and so enable policy reviews and amendments to improve interventions. The National Policy of Drug Abuse Management in Schools in South Africa was published in 2002, but the extent to which it is implemented in schools has not been determined. Purpose: the purpose of the study was to determine the implementation of the National Policy of Drug Abuse Management in Schools in South Africa. Methodology: a qualitative design was used to collect data through in-depth interviews from 21 members of School management teams in a school district in North West Province, South Africa. Results: The National Policy of Drug Abuse Management in Schools is not known by any of the school management team members, and thus not implemented. The schools also lack written policies of their own that they deal with drug abuse matters in the school environment. Conclusion: Lack of knowledge about the National Policy of Drug Abuse Management in Schools, as well as absence of school specific policies on drugs depict a concerning gap in efforts to combat substance abuse among learners.
... School discipline approaches range from replacement techniques (e.g., direct instruction, positive reinforcement, use of restorative practices) to punitive measures (e.g., loss of privileges, suspension, expulsion) (Bear, 2010). The effects of school discipline expand beyond the intended creation of a safe and nurturing environment (Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). ...
... The negative effects of exclusionary sanctions are more profound for African American (Cameron, 2006;Hinojosa, 2008;Wallace et al., 2008) and socioeconomically disadvantaged students (Diamond et al., 2004), as they are disproportionality more likely to be disciplined in school. Exclusionary discipline leads to increased absences, which in turn, may hinder students' ability to learn and retain necessary information, decreasing their overall academic achievement, and consequently, increasing their preponderance for future sanctions (Christle et al., 2004;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). ...
... According to the National Association of Secondary School Principals (2015), time spent out of school due to exclusionary discipline has a large impact on student achievement and success. Exclusionary discipline is associated with increased misconduct and offending, incarceration, dropping-out, alienation, drug-use, and victimization (Fabelo et al., 2011;Mendez, 2003;Monahan et al., 2014;Pesta, 2018;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Exclusionary practices may "have dire consequences" for both students and their families, including intensified feelings of stupidity, lack of worth, and low self-esteem (Munn et al., 2000, p. 148). ...
Article
This research strives to enrich criminological and educational literature by providing a better understanding of relationships among school performance and achievement, attendance, and demographic information based upon the number of exclusionary disciplinary actions within public high schools. Using data on 409 traditional high schools from the Pennsylvania Department of Education, this quantitative study uses path analysis to examine the relationships between school factors, including demographics and achievement measures, and exclusionary discipline. The findings indicated a direct relationship between a schools’ drop-out rate, AP courses, and standardized test scores and the schools’ total number of exclusionary disciplinary actions. In addition, socioeconomic status and attendance rates indirectly impacted exclusionary disciplinary actions. The study also determined a correlation between the number of minority students within a school and the total number of disciplinary actions. These findings have a number of implications for school systems that hope to eliminate the school-to-prison pipeline.
... This trend has led to the discussion of the "school to prison pipeline," a pathway through which youth face school punitive disciplinary policies which move them through the school system and into the criminal justice system (Wald & Losen, 2007). Indeed, suspension may function as an early criminalization experience, with a large body of work showing that students who receive a suspension are more likely to be arrested than those who do not (Mowen & Brent, 2016;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Moreover, suspension is related to other risk factors for arrest, such as dropping out of high school (Losen & Martinez, 2013;Shollenberger, 2015). ...
... Others have found no race differences, showing that the relationship between suspension and aggression in elementary school is similar regardless of race (Jacobsen, 2019), and that Black and White students have similar odds of dropping out following suspension (Pesta, 2018). Many other studies have merely controlled for other risk factors to isolate the individual impact of exclusionary school discipline (Skiba et al., 2011;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017) but have not assessed their interactive impact with suspension. ...
... Overall, findings support prior research on the impact of suspension on arrest (Mowen & Brent, 2016;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017) and dropout (Losen & Martinez, 2013;Shollenberger, 2015). We also find support for research showing the relationship between high ACEs and dropout (Metzler et al., 2017). ...
Article
Despite its widespread use, school suspension is related to negative outcomes in adolescence, including delinquency and low academic attainment. However, it remains less clear how other sources of adversity affect the relationship between suspension and negative outcomes. Drawing on longitudinal data on a sample of at-risk youth, this study examines the roles of two sources of disadvantage—being a racial minority and experiencing high levels of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)—in the relationships between school suspension in childhood and arrest and high school dropout in adolescence. Results reveal that suspension increased odds of dropout and arrest regardless of race, even after accounting for high ACEs and other covariates. Among Black youth only, the impact of suspension on dropout was amplified for those with high ACE exposure. Findings shed light on the complex connections between sources of adversity and their relation to negative outcomes in adolescence.
... Among adolescents, being suspended or expelled from school is associated with a host of adverse consequences including disengagement from the school community (Skiba & Rausch, 2006), significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms (Rushton et al., 2002) and victimization and incarceration in adulthood (Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Yet, how exclusionary discipline policies influence those who have never been suspended or expelled (non-excluded), remains relatively understudied. ...
... The use of exclusionary discipline in America's schools arose from the 1994 Gun Free Schools Act in order to send a strong message that school violence would not be tolerated. However, school exclusion has become increasingly prevalent and is now used to punish students for relatively minor infractions such as insubordination and dress code violations (Hoffman, 2014;Losen & Martinez, 2013;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Today, only five percent of suspensions result from violent behavior compared to 51 percent resulting from disruptive behavior (Skiba & Rausch, 2006). ...
... Despite their widespread use, the efficacy of these policies has been contested with many studies identifying exclusionary discipline as an ineffective means for deterring school-crime (Cook et al., 2010). Further, there is ample evidence that exclusionary discipline is inversely associated with students' behavior (Tanner-Smith & Fisher, 2016;Way, 2011), educational outcomes (Perry & Morris, 2014;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017), positive school climate (Tanner-Smith & Fisher, 2016), and school connectedness (McNeely et al., 2002). ...
Article
We apply the theory of collateral consequences and a social stress process framework to school discipline to examine whether exclusionary school discipline policies are associated with the mental health and wellbeing of adolescents who have never been suspended or expelled and whether this association varies across race/ethnicity. Data are from 8,878 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Hierarchical linear models examined associations between discipline policies and adolescent depressive symptoms and school-connectedness, and modification by race/ethnicity. Schools had high levels of exclusionary discipline for both violent and non-violent infractions. More exclusionary policies were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (b = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.15, 1.91, p < .05). Sense of school-connectedness was not associated with disciplinary policies. Neither association was modified by race/ethnicity.
... Several explanations for this link have been suggested, including that the forces leading some students to break school rules also lead them to break criminal laws (Mittleman 2018) or that youth may get arrested in school for the same specific instances of misbehavior that result in discipline (Cuellar and Markowitz 2015;Nolan 2011). Another suggestion is that opportunities for legitimate success, such as college education and employment, may be diminished by school discipline (Fabelo et al. 2011;Robison, Blackmon, and Rhodes 2016;Simmons 2017;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). Further, it is plausible that the stereotyping of students as "troublemakers" or "delinquents" can follow discipline that stigmatizes, thereby increasing the likelihood of attracting enhanced scrutiny among teachers and school administrators as well as criminal justice personnel. ...
... Department of Justice 2019) and subsequently incarcerated in jail and prison as adults (Carson 2020; U.S. Office of Justice Programs 2021). Prior research also has demonstrated that one's subjection to exclusionary (rather than restorative) school discipline increases the likelihood of subsequent involvement in the justice system (e.g., Barnes and Motz 2018;Gentile 2013;Jaggers et al. 2016;Monahan et al. 2014; Mowen and Brent 2016;Shollenberger 2015;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). However, what is not yet known is whether exclusionary school discipline intervenes in the specific association between race and ethnicity and one's future likelihood of exposure to justice system consequences of arrest and ensuing incarceration, as would be predicted by a cumulative disadvantage theoretical framework (Kurlychek and Johnson 2019;Sampson and Laub 1997;Wooldredge et al. 2015). ...
... Such discipline has been linked to poor school performance, negative attitudes toward school, truancy, grade retention, and dropping out (Monahan et al. 2014;Pesta 2018;Skiba and Rausch 2006), as well as lower graduation rates, a reduced likelihood of receiving a college education (Kim, Losen, and Hewitt 2010), and fewer individual professional opportunities (Lasnover 2015;Vincent and Tobin 2011). While there is no research to suggest that exclusionary discipline is a productive response to student infractions (Losen 2015), there is abundant evidence indicating that these punishments are harmful to students, their families, and their school communities and that they can-and do-exacerbate social disadvantage (Kupchik 2016;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). ...
Article
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Using the cumulative disadvantage theoretical framework, the current study explores whether school suspension and expulsion provide an indirect path through which race and ethnicity affect the likelihood of experiencing arrest, any incarceration, and long-term incarceration in adulthood. To address these issues, we use data from Waves I, II, and IV of the Add Health survey (N = 14,484), and we employ generalized multilevel structural equation models and parametric regression methods using counterfactual definitions to estimate direct and indirect pathways. We observe that Black (but not Latinx) individuals are consistently more likely than White persons to experience exclusionary school discipline and criminal justice involvement. However, we find a path through which race and Latinx ethnicity indirectly affect the odds of adulthood arrest and incarceration through school discipline. Disparate exposure to school suspension and expulsion experienced by minority youth contributes to racial and ethnic inequalities in justice system involvement. By examining indirect paths to multiple criminal justice consequences along a continuum of punitiveness, this study shows how discipline amplifies cumulative disadvantage during adulthood for Black and, to a lesser extent, Latinx individuals who are disproportionately funneled through the “school-to-prison pipeline.”
... While exclusionary discipline strategies are rooted in the principles of deterrence theory (Mongan and Walker 2012), a competing perspective suggests that rather than dissuading antisocial behavior, experiencing exclusionary punishment serves as a negative turning point that escalates the likelihood of experiencing involvement in the criminal justice system at a later point in time (Mowen and Brent 2016). This latter possibility is supported by a growing body of evidence demonstrating that those who experience exclusionary discipline have a substantially higher likelihood of being subsequently arrested or incarcerated (Hemez, Brent, and Mowen 2020;Mittleman 2018;Monahan et al. 2014; Mowen and Brent 2016;Novak 2019;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). ...
... Accordingly, one or both actors may enter into a given interaction primed for conflict, thereby escalating the likelihood that a police stop becomes hostile/intrusive and/or terminates in an arrest. In short, police encounters are ultimately co-produced in the sense that expectations for the interaction are conditioned by prior punishment experiences (including those administered by school authorities), which likely results in youth anticipating hostile and coercive police encounters (Kupchik and Catlaw 2015) and may result in police having greater expectations that the "troublemaking" youth will be particularly difficult and worthy of censure (Liberman, Kirk, and Kim 2014;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). To the extent that early exclusionary punishment changes the trajectory of a youth's future interactions with law enforcement, it remains possible that the nature and context of stops may be different for youths with a history of exclusionary discipline. ...
... Finally, it is possible that childhood exclusionary discipline may not only increase the risk of justice involvement more broadly, but may also set in motion police-youth dynamics that heighten the likelihood of adverse mental health responses to police encounters. Past research contends that the potential labeling and alienation effects stemming from both exclusionary discipline and police contact may yield negative mental health repercussions in the short-and long-term (Del Toro et al. 2019;Geller 2017;Geller et al. 2014;Jackson et al. 2019;Skiba and Rausch 2006;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). Recent research, moreover, has indicated that the psychological health outcomes stemming from police contact are found to be particularly severe in cases where the youth experienced intrusive police contact (Geller 2017;Jackson et al. 2019;Turney 2020). ...
Article
A growing body of literature demonstrates exclusionary discipline (e.g., suspension, expulsion) elevates the risk of arrest and incarceration. Even so, the bulk of research to date overlooks the influence of exclusionary discipline during childhood on police contact experiences that may not result in a formal arrest. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), we find that, regardless of early delinquent involvement, early exclusionary discipline increases the risk of being stopped by police. Further analyses demonstrate that among youth reporting police stops (N = 918), early exclusionary discipline increases the risk of 1) a younger age at first stop, 2) multiple stops, and 3) experiencing officer intrusiveness during the stop. Finally, stopped youth with a history of exclusionary discipline reported more traumatic responses to police stops, and experiences of officer intrusiveness explain a significant portion of this association. Implications for school and criminal justice policies are discussed.
... Additionally, for less serious forms of misbehavior such as in-class disruptions and disrespectfulness, school staff commonly use detentions and office referrals to sanction students (Anyon et al., 2014;Rocque, 2010). The many negative consequences stemming from the "criminalization of school discipline" (Hirschfield, 2008) have been well-documented, with an abundance of research evidence demonstrating that youth who receive suspension or expulsion, as well as other less severe forms of punishment, have a heightened risk of experiencing a decline in academic performance, dropping out, and becoming involved with the criminal justice system (e.g., Kupchik, 2016;Mittleman, 2018;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). ...
... Further, since the survey item asked about lifetime exposure to these events, it is unclear how many times these sanctions were assigned and how recently they occurred relative to the administration of the survey. Despite these limitations, however, this measure was included in the analyses in light of prior research which has shown that both suspension and expulsion from school can have profound negative consequences on a wide range of outcomes over the life course (Kupchik, 2016;Ramey, 2020;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Additionally, since suspension/expulsion can be associated with increases in various forms of misbehavior and delinquency, the inclusion of control variables that use more proximate recall periods (e.g., the past 12 months, the past 4 weeks) produces conservative estimates of the relationships of interest. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research has provided consistent evidence that minority students are more likely than White youth to experience punitive forms of discipline in schools. Scholars have theorized that these disadvantages are closely connected to gender and socioeconomic status, but little research has explored how these factors independently and jointly might moderate the effects of race/ethnicity. Using data from the 2012 to 2018 8th and 10th grade cohorts of the Monitoring the Future survey (N = 53,986), these analyses find that minority students are more likely than Whites to experience suspension/expulsion and office referrals, and this pattern is especially prominent among females. Further, racial/ethnic disparities are amplified for youth whose parents have higher levels of educational attainment, though some differences by gender also emerge.
... Such an orientation will facilitate positive attitudes and motivation towards studying [31]. In the same way, and in relation to that which was mentioned previously, it is important for teachers, families, and the students themselves to understand the consequences of school failure, such as academic abandonment and reduced labour insertion [32]. ...
... This, at the same time, breeds an appropriate work climate and the motivation needed for students to orientate towards learning [30]. In this same sense, as stated by Wolf et al. [32], it is necessary to urge families, teachers, and other social agents to assume responsibility, not only for achieving targets, but also for the personal and social consequences that lead to school failure. ...
Article
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Many present-day students orient towards outcomes instead of learning. This is leading to failure that affects students, families, the educational system itself, and occupational and financial systems in Spain. Indeed, current data points to an 18.2% university drop-out rate during the first year. The present study seeks to identify teachers’ perceptions of the deficiencies pertaining to study orientations, their involvement in training processes, and student knowledge about the actual state of affairs regarding this topic. The target population for this incidental study was 1769 university lecturers, with a final participating sample of 317. A cross-sectional study was conducted, which was descriptive and inferential in nature. Linear regression was employed to explain variance. Outcomes showed a high degree of homogeneity in teachers’ responses. Outcomes indicate that orientations towards academic learning and study are deemed necessary. Furthermore, such orientations do not prevail due to a lack of teacher engagement, possibly due to a lack of teacher training directed towards managing and balancing class time with monitoring practices. A degree of insufficiency was observed with regards to teacher training for study management, in addition to greater teacher engagement amongst hired teaching staff with indefinite contracts working at public or private institutions, relative to official permanent teaching staff.
... Disparities in disciplinary practices are concerning due to the relationship between exclusionary school discipline and an increased risk of academic failure, criminalization, and incarceration in adulthood (Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Gregory et al. (2017) proposed a framework for eliminating these disparities that integrates both prevention and intervention efforts. ...
... Studies reviewed provided a variety of examples of culturally adapted and culturally responsive practices and interventions. These examples may help educators create an environment in which behavior is supported proactively and exclusionary discipline is not used, a step critical to addressing discipline disproportionality and preventing the long-term determinantal effects of time out of class, suspension, etc. (Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
School discipline disproportionality has long been documented in educational research, primarily impacting Black/African American and non-White Hispanic/Latinx students. In response, federal policymakers have encouraged educators to change their disciplinary practice, emphasizing that more proactive support is critical to promoting students’ social and behavioral outcomes in school. Results from a literature review conducted nearly a decade ago indicated that there was, at that point, a paucity of empirical research related to considering students’ culture (e.g., race, ethnicity) and supporting school behavior. The purpose of this study is to replicate and expand the previous review to summarize the characteristics of the most recent school-based quantitative research addressing interventions to promote social and behavioral outcomes for racially and ethnically minoritized youth. We screened 1687 articles for inclusion in the review. Upon coding 32 eligible research studies, we found that intervention and implementer characteristics within these studies varied, but noted strong intervention effects in studies that included established evidence-based practices, adapted interventions, as well as new practices piloted with student participants. Results inform recommendations to continue to study interventions that promote positive social and behavioral outcomes for racially and ethnically minoritized students to disrupt a long history of subjection to exclusionary discipline disproportionately.
... A relatively large body of research indicates exclusionary discipline experiences increase risk of negative outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, including delinquent behavior and justice system contact and involvement (Gerlinger et al., 2021;Mowen & Brent, 2016;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Much of this research employs a labeling and life-course framework to elucidate the relationship between exclusionary experiences and subsequent negative outcomes, suggesting youth who experience school suspension and expulsion may be more likely to face an accumulation of negative outcomes following their suspension experience (Mowen & Brent, 2016). ...
... Research suggests experiencing exclusionary discipline in childhood and adolescence increases odds of experiencing subsequent exclusion throughout schooling, and subsequently increases odds of experiencing delinquency and/or arrest in adolescence (Gerlinger et al., 2021;Mowen & Brent, 2016;Novak, 2021). Additionally, exclusionary discipline may increase risk of experiencing justice system contact in early adulthood, including arrest (Rosenbaum, 2020) and incarceration (Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). ...
Article
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Recent policy briefs have drawn attention to the use of exclusionary discipline in early learning settings; however, little is known about child-level correlates associated with risk of exclusion. This omission is important, as early childhood education may reduce the likelihood of later delinquent and criminal behavior. Additionally, exclusion from early learning may label a child as deviant, contributing to an accumulation of disadvantage that may place the child at greater risk for delinquency and crime over the life-course. The current study applies Moffitt’s (1993) life-course theory to better understand child-level correlates associated with exclusionary discipline in early childhood. Using data from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (N = 5876), results indicate neuropsychological deficits in early childhood are associated with a 1.38 unit increase in odds of removal from early learning environments. Furthermore, in support of Moffitt’s (1993) interactional hypothesis, exposure to adverse experiences (ACEs) was found to moderate the association between neuropsychological deficits and odds of exclusion, such that children with more indicators of neuropsychological deficits and a greater number of ACEs were more likely to experience exclusion than those with fewer ACEs. Implications for policy and directions for future research are discussed.
... While a few studies have linked exclusionary discipline during the K-12 years to later life outcomes (i.e. Wolf & Kupchik, 2017), such research is comparatively sparse. This is unfortunate given that what research does exist suggests that exclusionary discipline may have lasting impacts on students' academic and life trajectories (Balfanz et al., 2015;Kunesh, 2017;Marchbanks et al., 2015;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). ...
... Wolf & Kupchik, 2017), such research is comparatively sparse. This is unfortunate given that what research does exist suggests that exclusionary discipline may have lasting impacts on students' academic and life trajectories (Balfanz et al., 2015;Kunesh, 2017;Marchbanks et al., 2015;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). While such studies generally do not employ research designs that allow for definitive causal estimates, the consistency of the findings across studies and the increasing use of quasi-experimental designs including student fixed effects models and propensity score matching suggest that the relationships observed are at least in part due to the experiences of exclusionary discipline rather than confounding factors. ...
Article
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For the past decade and a half, many institutions of higher education have asked about high school disciplinary experiences, including suspensions, on their applications. Advocates have argued that this “discipline box” has a negative effect on suspended students’ likelihood to apply and be accepted to institutions of higher education with such a box. This study leverages application-level data along with novel historical records of institutions’ undergraduate applications to examine the relationship between a discipline box and application and acceptances for suspended students. Leveraging both student and institution fixed effects, the study finds mixed evidence with regard to whether the presence of a discipline box is systematically related to students’ likelihood to apply or be accepted to IHEs with discipline boxes, once accounting for other factors. Implications for policy are discussed and suggestions for future research that can address existing data limitations are proposed.
... The school-to-prison pipeline, or systematic funneling of students out of schools and into the justice system, is believed to work in two ways. First, overreliance on exclusionary discipline, such as suspensions and expulsions, increases students' likelihood of dropping out, which may indirectly lead to justice system involvement (Monahan et al. 2014;Mowen and Brent 2016;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). Another pipeline is through direct contact with the justice system and its representatives. ...
... The school-to-prison pipeline has been the topic of decades of research, with scholars focusing primarily on the harms of school punishment and how it can lead to later justice system involvement (Monahan et al. 2014;Mowen and Brent 2016;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). Another direct link to the justice system is via youth's school-based encounters with police. ...
Article
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Objectives: Individual- and school-level factors associated with youth being stopped, searched, or arrested in school are identified. Correlates of community-based contact are also examined. Methods: Longitudinal student surveys and corresponding school-level data come from 21 middle and high schools in 6 districts in St. Louis County, Missouri. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors related to a three-category dependent variable, distinguishing youth with: (1) no police contact, (2) in-school contact, and (3) out-of-school contact. Independent variables capture student-level demographics, behavior, experiences, and perceptions and school-level characteristics and practices. Results: Factors associated with in-school contact include substance use, peer associations, prior contact, and prior school sanctions. Odds of school-based contact also increase when youth are less aware of school rules and perceive greater disorder. Among school-level characteristics, only officers responding to school problems is significantly associated with in-school contact. Conclusions: There is some consistency in individual-level factors associated with police contact across locations, particularly related to prior sanctions, but findings highlight potential mechanisms that vary across contexts. This study also provides evidence that some schoolwide responses may contribute to youth's likelihood of having police contact in school, but solutions should consider the fluidity of contact in schools and communities.
... The school-to-prison pipeline, or systematic funneling of students out of schools and into the justice system, is believed to work in two ways. First, overreliance on exclusionary discipline, such as suspensions and expulsions, increases students' likelihood of dropping out, which may indirectly lead to justice system involvement (Monahan et al. 2014;Mowen and Brent 2016;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). Another pipeline is through direct contact with the justice system and its representatives. ...
... The school-to-prison pipeline has been the topic of decades of research, with scholars focusing primarily on the harms of school punishment and how it can lead to later justice system involvement (Monahan et al. 2014;Mowen and Brent 2016;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). Another direct link to the justice system is via youth's school-based encounters with police. ...
... Additionally, studies show that Black students are more likely to receive office discipline referrals (ODRs) than any other group of students (Anyon et al., 2014;Bradshaw et al., 2010;Gregory et al., 2010;Losen & Whitaker, 2017;Skiba et al., 2011). In evaluating the short-and long-term risks involved with exclusionary discipline, Black students are at a greater risk of losing access to instruction and services provided in school, becoming involved with law enforcement, and dropping out of school (U.S. Departments of Education & Justice, 2014; Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). ...
Article
This study examined the extent to which disparities in Black and White students’ risks of receiving office discipline referrals (ODRs), and out-of-school suspensions (OSSs) were related to differences in implicit and explicit racial biases assessed at the community level. The sample consisted of discipline records for 1,354,010 students enrolled in 2,100 U.S. schools in 183 communities distributed across the United States. Analyses estimated and compared the contributions of average implicit and explicit racial biases in schools’ localities to school-level disproportionality in ODRs, OSSs, and OSSs controlling for disproportionality in ODRs. Results showed that community-level racial biases were related to racial disparities in ODRs and OSSs in schools, with some important differences by type of discipline decision. IMPACT STATEMENT This study provides evidence that community-level explicit and implicit racial biases are associated with school-level racial disproportionality. Results indicate that a significant proportion of racial disproportionality may result from the effects of bias on the decision to issue an office discipline referral, as opposed to the decision tosuspend a student, indicating that a focus on classroom systems has the strongest potential to increase equity in school discipline.
... An intersectional approach that addresses multiple disadvantages should be adopted to tackle inequalities in school attendance. Researchers should address several gaps, such as directly comparing SES effects across different reasons for absenteeism and examining the mechanisms by which SES leads to absenteeism. of dropping out from school, attaining lower qualifications, showing risky sexual and drugrelated behaviours, or being involved in criminal activities (Alexander et al., 1997;Hallfors et al., 2002;Balfanz et al., 2007;Gottfried, 2010;Balfanz & Byrnes, 2012;Morrissey et al., 2014;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). In the longer term, school absenteeism lowers employment probability (Cattan et al., 2017) and leads to greater economic difficulties in early adulthood (Ansari et al., 2020). ...
Article
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School absenteeism is detrimental to life course outcomes and is known to be socioeconomically stratified. However, the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and school absence is complex given the multidimensional nature of both family SES (e.g., income, education, occupational status) and absenteeism (e.g., truancy, sickness, suspension). Despite the vast literature on socioeconomic inequalities in school attendance, no systematic review on SES and school absenteeism exists. This study systematically reviewed and provides a narrative synthesis of journal articles (n = 55) published between 1998 to 2019 on the association between SES dimensions and forms of absenteeism. The majority of studies from high-income contexts found an association between SES and absenteeism in the expected direction, albeit on average with small effect sizes. Studies largely confirmed these findings among populations at risk of school absence and those from low- and middle-income countries. There was greater evidence for an association between absenteeism and SES measured at the family than the school level. Studies using SES measures of financial resources (e.g., free or reduced-price lunch) provided more evidence for this association than studies measuring sociocultural resources (e.g., parental education). We found limited evidence that socioeconomic gaps in absenteeism vary by the reasons for absence. Research on the mediating pathways between SES and absenteeism is sparse. A key implication is that attempts to address inequalities in educational outcomes must include tackling SES gaps in school attendance.
... Worldwide, concerns persist about rising rates of exclusionary disciplinary practices in schools (Jacobsen et al., 2019;Skiba, 2013;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). In Australia, publicly available data from the state of Queensland shows an annual increase in use of suspension and exclusion, with obvious spikes at important transition points such as entry to school and graduation to secondary settings (Graham, 2018). ...
Article
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Positive behaviour for learning (PBL) was introduced to the state education sector in Queensland in the early 2000s in an effort to move schools away from use of punitive disciplinary practices towards a positive and supportive approach to student behaviour. Although around half of state schools in Queensland have received training to implement PBL, as yet no studies into the outcomes of PBL implementation in that state have been conducted. In the October, 2019 edition of Interchange an article by Paul and Cindy-lou Bleakley claimed to demonstrate a link between the widespread adoption of PBL and increasing rates of suspensions in Queensland state schools. In our article, we refute this claim and respond to several errors and misconceptions in the paper by Bleakley and Bleakley. First, we counter the claim that PBL takes a punitive approach to student behaviour and point out the ways in which PBL has been misconstrued. Next, we discuss flaws in the methodology used to assert a causal relationship between increasing rates of suspension and the introduction of PBL. To conclude, we reject the assertion that PBL replaced restorative justice as the preferred model of behaviour support in Queensland and argue that a restorative justice approach is not incompatible with implementation of PBL.
... A discussion of the complex factors (e.g., the vulnerability of students of color and students with disabilities, inappropriate responses by schools to behavioral and emotional difficulties of students) that lead to student incarceration is beyond the scope of this article. Such discussion is left to researchers who have investigated this important social problem (e.g., Annamma et al., 2014;Curtis, 2014;Erevelles & Minear, 2010;Losen, 2011;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). However, the concern remains that students with disabilities make up a disproportionate number of incarcerated youth (i.e., up to 85%) and that Black students are suspended or expelled from school three times more often than White students for offenses such as insubordination or willful defiance. ...
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National rates of juvenile incarceration show that about 33% of the population in correctional confinement has disabilities such as behavioral disorders or specific learning disabilities. All students identified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) as having a disability are entitled to special education and transition services when they are incarcerated if they need specialized services. Despite the requirements for education and transition, research shows that rates of recidivism increase from about 55% for the general population of incarcerated youth to approximately 85% for youth with disabilities. This article addresses three related questions: (a) What educational and transitional services does IDEIA require schools to offer students in juvenile correctional facilities in the United States? (b) How are parents involved with the education and rehabilitation of their children with disabilities in correctional confinement? (c) What are the challenges associated with parental involvement and transition to and from incarceration for students with disabilities?
... Research across jurisdictions has shown that many young people within the justice system (Sanders, Liebenberg and Munford 2020) and a high percentage of adult offenders have been excluded from school (Ministry of Justice 2012; Halsey and De Vel-palumbo 2020). Moreover, some studies have revealed that school exclusion can have life-long unfavourable consequences, including increased likelihood of criminal victimisation, involvement in crime, and imprisonment (Wolf and Kupchik 2017). A wide range of academic studies have identified a relationship between school exclusion and offending, finding both an increased likelihood of offending following exclusion and an increase in severity (Berridge et al 2001). ...
Article
This article explores the relationship between school exclusion and youth crime and considers what criminological research can add to our understanding. The article first explores the history of the ways in which the criminological implications of school exclusion have been conceptualised, including the link between exclusion and young people’s offending, and the so-called ‘school-to-prison pipeline’. There is a long history of work in the UK and the US that explores how processes of school exclusion contribute to youth crime, the trajectory from the label of ‘troublemaker’ to more serious deviance, and how disciplinary polices can themselves lead to criminalisation. As we show, the relationship is complex and establishing causality is difficult. We then consider more recent work on how school exclusion contributes to the vulnerability and exploitation of marginalised young people. Finally, we argue for understanding young people’s lives, their educational experiences, and their involvement in offending, holistically and ‘in the round’, taking account of all their relationships and activities and employing contextual approaches to addressing these problems.
... Balfanz and colleagues (2015) estimate negative associations between suspensions and postsecondary enrollment and completion. Beyond these associations with educational attainment, suspension is associated with an increased likelihood of other negative life outcomes including adult criminal victimization, criminal involvement, and incarceration (Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). ...
Article
Discipline reformers claim that suspensions negatively affect suspended students, while others suggest reforms have unintended consequences for peers. Using student panel data from the School District of Philadelphia, we implement student fixed effects and instrumental variable (IV) strategies to examine the consequences of suspensions for offending students and their peers. A suspension decreases math and reading achievement for suspended students. The effects are robust to IV estimates leveraging a district-wide policy change in suspension use. Suspensions are more salient for students who personally experience suspension than for their peers. Exposure to suspensions for more serious misconduct has very small, negative spillovers onto peer achievement, but does not change peer absences.
... This form of discipline has also been associated with school-related collateral consequences, including grade retention, poor school performance (Perry & Morris, 2014), racial achievement gaps (Pearman et al., 2019), and school dropout (Fabelo et al., 2011). Other recent studies have linked exclusionary discipline to negative outcomes in adulthood, such as lowered civic participation (Kupchik & Catlaw, 2015) and criminal victimization (Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Not surprisingly, some of these consequences (i.e., school failure, school disengagement) are also predictive of behavioral issues and criminal justice system contact (Blomberg & Pesta, 2017). ...
Article
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Excluding students from school remains a common form of punishment despite growing critique of the practice. A disparate research base has impeded the ability to make broader assessments on the association between exclusionary discipline (i.e., suspensions and expulsions) and subsequent behavior. This article synthesizes existing empirical evidence (274 effect sizes from 40 primary studies) examining the relationship between exclusionary discipline and delinquent outcomes, including school misconduct/infractions, antisocial behavior, involvement with the justice system, and risky behaviors. This meta-analysis identifies exclusionary discipline as an important and meaningful predictor of increased delinquency. Additional examinations of potential moderators, including race/ethnicity and type of exclusion, revealed no significant differences, suggesting the harm associated with exclusions is consistent across subgroups. These findings indicate exclusionary discipline may inadvertently exacerbate rather than mollify delinquent behaviors.
... School suspension and expulsion is associated with numerous negative outcomes for children, such as lower educational achievement (Noltemeyer et al., 2015;Hwang, 2018), school avoidance, dropping out, involvement in the juvenile justice system (U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2019; American Academy of Pediatrics, 2003), and later criminal involvement (Wolf and Kupchik, 2017, Hemez et al., 2020, see Welsh and Little, 2018 for a review). Yet, the use of these exclusionary practices in American schools has been widespread (Owens and McLanahan, 2020). ...
Article
The use of school suspension and expulsion is a widespread phenomenon in American schools (Wallace et al., 2009; Owens and McLanahan, 2020). Yet, much of what we know about these exclusionary practices provide little insight into the personal biographies of the students themselves—specifically their histories of childhood trauma. Using measures of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), we examine the link between early ACEs (up to age 5) and school suspension/expulsion using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (1998–2010) (FFCWS). We find that a child with a cumulative ACE score are almost four times more likely to have been suspended or expelled. Importantly, this negative link persists even when accounting for factors known to be associated with ACEs and school discipline. This work offers new theoretical insight into how we understand discipline in school contexts and suggests the importance of trauma-informed interventions in the American education system.
... Given prior research connecting criminal justice punishment history to food insecurity among parents and adults (Jackson and Vaughn, 2017b;Jackson, 2019, 2020), it is perhaps not unexpected that the connection between formal punishment and food insecurity might emerge among young children in the school setting as soon as schooling begins. The findings of the current study confirm this expectation among male children, while also laying the groundwork for future longitudinal research to explore the role of household food insecurity not only in early school punishment experiences, but in catapulting a subset of vulnerable boys into the school-to-prison pipeline (Mowen and Brent, 2016;Novak, 2019;Wolf and Kupchik, 2017). Taken together, these findings point to a need for scholars to build a body of research that illuminates the ways in which promoting health equity -particularly food equity -among young children and their families might support their mental and emotional well-being, and in so doing, potentially curtail early disruptive and coercive punishment experiences and prevent the cascade of deleterious consequences pertaining to misconduct -and even criminal justice involvement -years into the future (Jackson and Vaughn, 2018). ...
Article
Food insecurity is a serious public health concern, affecting approximately 15 million children in the U.S. alone. Exposure to household food insecurity has been linked to a host of deleterious outcomes among infants and children, including mental and behavioral health outcomes. Even so, scholars have yet to examine the connection between household food insecurity and early experiences of school punishment among preschool-aged children. The current study employs a nationally representative sample of 6100 preschool-aged children from the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health. Difference-of-means t-tests and multivariate logistic regression models examining the link between mild and moderate-to-severe household food insecurity and suspension/expulsion among preschool-aged children were conducted in 2020. All estimates were calculated using sample weights that adjust for nonresponse, probability of selection, and the demographic distribution of the target population (i.e., U.S. children attending preschool in 2016). The findings indicate a robust association between moderate-to-severe household food insecurity and suspension/expulsion among preschool-aged children. This association emerged only among male children, as their risk of suspension/expulsion increased more than 11-fold in the presence of moderate-to-severe food insecurity. Additional analyses revealed that a large portion of this association was attenuated upon accounting for parenting stress and child mental health. Trauma-informed nutrition assistance programming as well as early mental health assessment and consultation may yield collateral benefits in the form of reductions in preschool suspension/expulsion. Given the findings, moreover, future research should consider the role of household food insecurity in contributing to health inequities that perpetuate the school-to-prison pipeline.
... OSS have also been inextricably linked to juvenile delinquency (e.g., Fabelo et al., 2011;Krezmien et al., 2006;Nicholson-Crotty et al., 2009;Sedlak & McPherson, 2010; and adult incarceration later in life (e.g., Bacher-Hicks et al., 2019;Cuellar & Markowitz, 2015;Skiba et al., 2006;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Time away from school (and possibly away from adult supervision) could promote idleness and thus create a vacuum in which delinquent behavior can thrive (Farrington, 1980;Gavin, 1996Gavin, , 1997McCluskey et al., 2004). ...
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In Rhode Island, out-of-school suspensions were excessively and disproportionately used to penalize low-level infractions. To address this problem, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed legislation, effective May 2012, prohibiting out-of-school suspensions for attendance-specific infractions. Four years later, the Assembly passed additional legislation to curb out-of-school suspensions for disruption-specific infractions. This study examines the impact of these suspension reforms on out-of-school suspension outcomes for treatment infractions and corresponding racial-ethnic disparities. To execute the analyses, the study uses student-level administrative data (AY 2009–2010 to AY 2017–2018) from the Rhode Island Department of Education, along with quasi-experimental estimation. The study finds that only the first reform lowers out-of-school suspension outcomes for attendance-specific infractions and corresponding racial-ethnic disparities.
... Conversely, use of reactive practices such as delivery of a reprimand or sanction are ineffective, may contribute to increased student disengagement from learning (Caldarella et al. 2020), and may ultimately result in use of exclusionary disciplinary practices such as removal from the classroom or suspension from school (Graham 2018;Ombudsman 2017aOmbudsman , 2017b. Further, use of exclusionary disciplinary practices in schools increases the risk of longer term detrimental social outcomes including future engagement with the criminal justice system (Delale-O'Connor et al. 2017;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). ...
Article
Evidence-based practices for classroom management are well established and predominantly preventative in nature. However, use of reactive practices by teachers has been widely reported internationally, particularly in middle and high school settings. Teachers (N = 587) throughout government high schools in Queensland, Australia responded to a survey about their experiences and confidence with classroom management and their use of 14 evidence-based classroom management practices. Participating teachers reported being confident classroom managers and frequently using the majority of the presented practices. Practices related to teaching and reinforcing expected behaviours were reported to be more intermittently used. Contextual factors which help account for these findings are discussed.
... Racial and gender disparities in school punishment are germane to racial and gender disparities in youth criminal justice involvement. For example, labeling theory suggests that exclusionary discipline increases delinquent behavior because it can alter students' identities and disrupt their everyday social routines (Mowen et al., 2020;Paternoster & Iovanni, 1989;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). School officials may also be more punitive toward students seen as "troublemakers," whom they see as more deserving of criminal justice sanctions (Mittleman, 2018). ...
Article
This study used violent victimization data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1994–2018) to examine whether criminal justice interventions (i.e. reporting to the police and arrest) for youth-perpetrated violence were more likely to occur in school than outside school. On average, violence at school was 8.4 percentage points less likely than violence outside school to be reported to the police, but if there was a police report, violence in school was 8.0 percentage points more likely to involve an arrest. These statistical differences remained stable throughout the study period. Further analyses of the pooled sample by the offender’s gender and race found that school violence was associated with an increased likelihood of arrest only for Black youth, not White youth, and only for boys, not girls. Implications of these results for the school-to-prison pipeline argument are discussed.
... Suspended students are subsequently at greater risk of high school noncompletion (Gregory et al., 2010;Mizel et al., 2016;Noltemeyer et al., 2015), with Black students in particular citing having been expelled or suspended too often as a reason that they left high school without graduating (Jordan et al., 1996). The notion of the ''school-to-prison pipeline'' has been fueled by the strong relationship between school discipline problems and subsequent criminal activity and incarceration during adolescence and adulthood (Fabelo et al., 2011;Shollenberger, 2014;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Yet teachers, parents, and the public generally favor the use of strict and exclusionary policies like suspensions to correct misbehavior and increase safety in schools (Bushaw & Lopez, 2010;Robbins, 2008). ...
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Nationally, educators suspend Black students at greater rates than any other group. This disproportionality is fueled by stereotypes casting Black students as “troublemakers”—a label students too often internalize as part of their identities. Across two independent double-blind randomized field trials involving over 2,000 seventh graders in 11 middle schools, we tested the efficacy of a brief intervention to buffer students from stereotypes and mitigate the racial suspension gap. The self-affirmation intervention helps students access positive aspects of their identities less associated with troublemaking in school. Confirmed in both trials, treatment effects cut Black-White suspension and office disciplinary referral gaps during seventh and eighth grade by approximately two thirds, with even greater impacts for Black students with prior infractions.
... Exclusionary school disciplinary practices -primarily suspensions and expulsions -have been associated with negative outcomes for the disciplined student, including lower educational achievement and attainment, weaker attendance, higher dropout rates, and higher rates of criminal activity and unemployment, among others (Chu and Ready, 2018;Lacoe and Steinberg, 2018;Noltemeyer et al., 2015;Novak, 2021;Pyne, 2019;Sorensen et al., 2021;Wolf and Kupchik, 2017;Anderson et al., 2019). Further, racial disproportionality in school discipline is long-and well-documented, with Black students more likely to be reported for minor infractions as well as exposed to harsh discipline consequences compared to White students, even controlling for student behavior (Amemiya et al., 2020;Barrett et al., 2021;Gregory, 1995;Kinsler, 2011;Skiba et al., 2002Skiba et al., , 2011Shi and Zhu, 2021). ...
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While a growing body of literature has documented the negative impacts of exclusionary punishments, such as suspensions, on academic outcomes, less is known about how teachers vary in disciplinary behaviors and the attendant impacts on students. We use administrative data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine the extent to which teachers vary in their use of referrals and investigate the impact of more punitive teachers on student attendance and achievement. We also estimate the effect of teachers' racial bias in the use of referrals on student outcomes. We find more punitive teachers increase student absenteeism and reduce student achievement. Moreover, more punitive teachers negatively affect the achievement of students who do not receive disciplinary sanctions from the teacher. Similarly, while teachers with a racial bias in the use of referrals do not negatively affect academic outcomes for White students, they significantly increase absenteeism and reduce achievement for Black students. The results suggest punitive disciplinary measures do not aid teachers in productively managing classrooms; rather, teachers taking more punitive stances may undermine student engagement and learning. Moreover, bias in teachers' referral usage contributes to inequities in student outcomes. Abstract While a growing body of literature has documented the negative impacts of exclu-sionary punishments, such as suspensions, on academic outcomes, less is known about how teachers vary in disciplinary behaviors and the attendant impacts on students. We use administrative data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine the extent to which teachers vary in their use of referrals and investigate the impact of more punitive teachers on student attendance and achievement. We also estimate the effect of teachers' racial bias in the use of referrals on student outcomes. We find more punitive teachers increase student absenteeism and reduce student achievement. Moreover, more punitive teachers negatively affect the achievement of students who do not receive disciplinary sanctions from the teacher. Similarly, while teachers with a racial bias in the use of referrals do not negatively affect academic outcomes for White students, they significantly increase absenteeism and reduce achievement for Black students. The results suggest punitive disciplinary measures do not aid teachers in productively managing classrooms; rather, teachers taking more punitive stances may undermine student engagement and learning. Moreover, bias in teachers' referral usage contributes to inequities in student outcomes.
... This finding supports previous research that consistently shows the negative consequences of exclusionary school punishment. For example, Wolf and Kupchik (2017) provided empirical evidence that being suspended or expelled by grades 7-12 increased the likelihood that a student would experience criminal involvement, and incarceration in adulthood; these negative effects remained even after controlling for academic performance. Similarly, Novak (2019) concluded that suspension by age 12 significantly increased the risk of justice system involvement at age 18. Scholars and youth advocates have voiced concern over the consequences many students experience as a result of exclusionary discipline practices and zero tolerance policies (Wolf & Kupchik, 2016). ...
... Scholars could utilize the data to build upon prior research on the effectiveness of many common school interventions that increase security (Devlin & Fisher, 2021;Fisher et al., 2021;Kupchik, 2016;Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). Since TASSS includes information from a 27-year period, the data can be used to assess the efficacy of and make recommendations about situational interventions that have been implemented to reduce school shootings, such as school resource officers, metal detectors, closed circuit television systems, and picture ID requirements to name a few. ...
Article
This study uses open source information to examine school shootings in the United States for the 1990–2016 period. We innovatively created a national-level database to address the gaps in existing research and identified 652 school shootings. These shootings included 473 intentional shootings (encompassing 354 with known offenders and 119 with unknown perpetrators), 102 suicide only shootings, 73 accidental discharges and 4 legally justified shootings. Most school shootings were committed outside of the school building (e.g., school yard), by non-students, during non-school hours and were sometimes motivated by non-school issues such as gang disputes. Almost 56% of the intentional shootings resulted in no deaths and mass homicide shootings were outliers. No clear time trend emerged. Importantly, proportionally more of the non-juvenile offenders committed fatal shootings. While the vast majority of attacks targeted high schools, those against elementary schools were more deadly. We outline how these findings could aid policymakers, and highlight issues that future research could address with these data. We also describe our open source collection procedures, the amount and type of information uncovered, and how we assessed their quality. We aim to set a standard for more transparent open source data collection processes and enhance the data’s rigor to provide important context to the larger policy discussions about school shootings.
... Schools' interest in restorative practices has grown in the last two decades (Fronius et al., 2019;Gregory & Evans, 2020;Guckenburg et al., 2016;Thorsborne & Blood, 2013). Many schools and districts across the country look towards restorative practices to improve relationships between teachers and students (Gregory et al., 2016) and among peers (Schumacher, 2014), and thereby reduce disciplinary incidents which tend to disproportionately affect students from racial and gender minority groups as well as students identified with a disability (Kosciw et al., 2018;Musu-Gillette et al., 2017; see also Wolf & Kupchik, 2017). ...
Article
We report findings from a recent field test assessing the feasibility of training teachers in implementing restorative practices within a multi-tiered approach to supporting student behavior. First, we provide an overview of our training content, training delivery, and follow-up coaching. Second, we present overall outcomes from our field test with three non-traditional high schools. Results indicated improvements in overall school-wide implementation of restorative consequences, and gains in teacher use of existing discipline approaches as well as restorative practices. Results also indicated increases in early adopters’ confidence level with motivating students and engaging them in appropriate behavior across the duration of the study. Challenges associated with implementation included aligning administrative commitments to restorative practices with individual teachers' willingness to change classroom practices, allocating sufficient time to change policies and practices and overcoming logistical challenges to maximize coaching benefits. Finally, we discuss our field test findings within the current recommendations for advancing the evidence-based supporting restorative practices in schools.
... Further, these trends have been attended by a broader effort to enhance supervision and surveillance in schools, and the use of security measures such as metal detectors, security cameras, patrols by law enforcement, and locker searches has become commonplace (Kupchik 2010;Mowen 2014). Widespread adherence to this disciplinary approach has produced a wide range of negative consequences for youth, including weakened attachment to school, a decline in academic performance, and an increased risk of becoming involved with the justice system (see, e.g., Kupchik 2016;Mittleman 2018;Monahan et al. 2014;Perry and Morris 2014;Pesta 2018;Wolf and Kupchik 2017). ...
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Objectives: This study explores the effects of racial/ethnic identity on youths’ likelihood of receiving a suspension from school as well as whether these disparities further vary by gender. In light of recent demographic shifts within the U.S., alternative theoretical rationales emphasizing such issues as “exotic threat,” “stereotype lift,” and “reflected race” present conflicting expectations regarding whether and how the disadvantages in school discipline experienced generally by minority students might extend to youth in certain Hispanic and Caribbean subgroups. Methods: We analyze data from the 2018 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey, which provides a large statewide representative sample of youth enrolled in Florida public middle and high schools (N = 54,611). Results: Youth who are Black/non-Hispanic, Haitian, West Indian/Caribbean, and Dominican are most likely to receive a suspension from school, and these effects are particularly pronounced among female students. Mixed evidence of Hispanic-White differences in suspension is found, except for a heightened risk among Puerto Rican youth. Conclusions: Some of the findings imply the importance of skin tone and appearance over subgroup-specific perceptions of cultural or criminal threat. However, the disadvantages experienced by Puerto Rican students may represent an institutional response to their unique status as recent migrants to Florida.
Article
In the modern era, concerns over school-related gun violence are as high as ever. In their clinical work, psychologists who work with youth may encounter reports of real threats of gun violence at school. In this article, the author presents a case vignette in which a middle-school client reports having documented knowledge that a peer brought a gun to school. The author explores the ethical decision-making and other practical considerations in choosing to intervene and report the gun possession to school personnel. The author outlines not only measures to protect the client but also considerations in protecting and advocating for the student who actually brought the gun to school.
Chapter
Diversity is related to many aspects of development that are important to consider when providing care to individuals, although it is necessary to recognize that individual development is nuanced and may not manifest in individuals in ways that completely adhere to their culture. The concept of cultural humility recognizes these challenges and focuses on self-reflection and empathy to be open to new ideas while being intentional about developing partnerships with those who identify with other cultures. Within the context of school behavioral health (SBH), it is important to note that minority students continue to face inequities in the care they receive and receipt of exclusionary discipline. When providing services to these students, it is crucial that stereotypes and stigma be taken into account. Normalizing diversity can help reduce the effects of these problems. Further, addressing stigma related and providing training on mental health literacy can improve help-seeking for diverse groups of students and their families. Emphasizing cultural humility in SBH will help ensure the effectiveness and relevance of these programs for diverse students.
Article
School suspension is associated with increases in delinquency and arrest and is disproportionality experienced by youth of color. Limited research has examined the outcomes of suspension experienced at different developmental stages. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between suspension, delinquency, and arrest, as well as if and how these relationships differed among youth first suspended in childhood and youth first suspended in adolescence and whether suspension experiences differed by race/ethnicity. Results indicated that suspension was more likely to be experienced by Black and Hispanic youth. Results also indicated suspension in adolescence was associated with increases in delinquency, and suspension in childhood and suspension in adolescence were associated with increases in arrest. Suspension in adolescence was associated with increases in delinquency, while suspension in childhood was associated with greater increases in arrest. Results suggest policy makers and practitioners should consider alternatives to suspension to prevent delinquency and arrest.
Article
School suspension and expulsion are important forms of punishment that disproportionately affect Black students, with long-term consequences for educational attainment and other indicators of wellbeing. Prior research identifies three mechanisms that help account for racial disparities in suspension and expulsion: between-school sorting, differences in student behaviors, and differences in the treatment and support of students with similar behaviors. We extend this literature by (1) comparing the contributions of these three mechanisms in a single study, (2) assessing behavior and school composition when children enter kindergarten and before most are exposed to school discipline, and (3) using both teacher and parent reports of student behaviors. Decomposition analyses reveal that differential treatment and support account for 46 percent of the Black/White gap in suspension/expulsion, while between-school sorting and differences in behavior account for 21 percent and 9 percent of the gap respectively. Results are similar for boys and girls and robust to the use of school fixed effects and measures of school composition and student behavior at ages 5 and 9. Theoretically, our findings highlight differential treatment/support after children enter school as an important but understudied mechanism in the early criminalization of Black students.
Article
The School Breakfast Program (SBP) is one of the largest nutrition assistance programs serving school‐aged children in the US. It provides reimbursement to states for the operation of breakfast programs in schools. Student participation in the SBP is, however, much lower than the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Because missing breakfast could result in hunger that could then influence children's interpersonal relations and classroom behavior (i.e., disciplinary infractions), some schools have implemented breakfast after the bell (BAB), which encompasses alternative breakfast delivery methods that make breakfast available to children after the school day commences. We use a difference‐in‐differences design with variation in BAB exposure across grades to study the effect on children's behavior. We find that infractions drop after schools adopted BAB. Moreover, the impact of BAB on behavior is more pronounced among minority children and those eligible for free and reduced‐price meals.
Article
School exclusionary practices are routinely used in response to undesired behaviors in the school environment and have been shown to have resulted in unintentional or collateral consequences for youth, including increased risk of arrest, offending behavior, and incarceration. Little research has been done on how school exclusion impacts interaction with prosocial peers and involvement in prosocial opportunities. This study applies the labeling perspective’s knifing off concept to examine whether prosocial exposures and deviant peer associations mediate the relationship between school suspension, arrest, and offending behavior. Using data from the LONGSCAN study, we examined whether suspension led to changes in prosocial peer association and activity involvement, increases in deviant peer association, and ultimately arrest and offending behavior. Results provided support for the labeling perspective’s hypotheses, finding school suspension was indirectly associated with both arrest and offending behavior via decreases in prosocial exposures and increases in deviant peer associations. Findings suggest policy makers should consider alternatives to school suspension where possible to avoid collateral consequences like reductions in prosocial exposures and deviant peer associations and should consider applying restorative approaches following a suspension experience to reintegrate youth into prosocial communities.
Article
This study draws on labeling and routine activity theory to examine whether being suspended from school is associated with subsequent gang membership onset. With data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we estimated discrete time models that predict gang membership onset from ages 12 to 19. The results revealed that being suspended from school at one wave was associated with an increased hazard on gang membership onset at the next wave. The results also revealed that although being suspended from school during one wave increased the hazard of gang membership onset, youth who are suspended during multiple waves tended to have an even higher hazard of gang membership onset.
Article
There is much research on race and schooling focused on punitive discipline, but little attention is paid to how teachers and administrators use minor policies to coerce students to “willingly” adopt hegemonic ideologies, particularly the ones that correspond to Whiteness. In this work, Whiteness is conceptualized as a social concept in which forms of knowledge, skills, and behavioral traits are cultivated for the sake of maintaining White supremacy as the dominant ideology in the social organization of structures and people. My work explores how teachers and administrators use school dress code policies, specifically the policies regarding hairstyles, to indoctrinate Black students into Whiteness. I argue that schools are sites intended to racialize Black students into White society. I argue that dress codes that regulate hairstyles are a form of White hegemony. I ground my work in Antonio Gramsci and John Gaventa’s theoretical views of hegemony to conceptualize how administrators and teachers invoke forms of domination and coercion to force Black students to transform their appearance for the sake of upholding White ideals of professionalism. I offer a critical race conceptual model that articulates how power is enacted upon Black students to further a White aesthetic. The conceptual model highlights how teachers and administrators assign racialized social meanings to different hairstyles and unconsciously or consciously reinforce the idea that Black hairstyles hinder Black students’ performance in the classroom and reduce their future employment opportunities. Contemporary examples of Black students’ experiences in school are cases that validate this model. I argue that dress code policies about hair that incur minor infractions are destructive to Black students’ sense of identity and reinforce Whiteness as the normative frame of civil society.
Article
Limited research has examined the associations between different forms of school exclusion and offending, and variation in these associations according to age of first exclusionary event, among justice-involved youth. Using data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, the current study examined the associations between suspension, expulsion, and recidivism and the association between age at first suspension/expulsion and recidivism. According to Cox proportional hazard models, both expulsion and frequency of suspension increased risk of recidivism; age at first suspension was not associated with recidivism, and youth who were first expelled in childhood were significantly less likely to recidivate than youth first expelled in adolescence. Results suggest juvenile justice and educational systems should provide collaborative services to better support justice-involved youth.
Article
Nationwide, school principals are given wide discretion to use disciplinary tools like suspension and expulsion to create a safe learning environment. There is legitimate concern that this power can have negative consequences, particularly for the students who are excluded. This study uses linked disciplinary, education, and criminal justice records from 2008 to 2016 in North Carolina to examine the impact of principal-driven disciplinary decisions on middle school student outcomes. We find that principals who are more likely to remove students lead to reductions in reported rates of minor student misconduct. However, this deterrence comes at a high cost – these harsher principals generate more juvenile justice complaints and reduce high school graduation rates for all students in their schools. Students who committed minor disciplinary infractions in a school with a harsh principal suffer additional declines in attendance and test scores. Finally, principals exhibiting racial bias in their disciplinary decisions also widen educational gaps between White and Black students.
Article
Using a nationally representative sample of U.S. public school districts, we explored the current landscape of social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) approaches and their impact on behavioral outcomes. Data suggest SEB screening is the exception rather than the rule, with most districts reporting that students are referred to an internal support team when SEB concerns arise. Districts more likely to report SEB problems were identified and supported internally when they had elementary SEB programs, were located in urban areas, and had higher socioeconomic status levels. District administrators who reported that SEB problems were identified and addressed internally, including use of universal screening procedures, reported the highest levels of knowledge about their SEB approach as well as willingness to change their practices.
Article
School discipline has been a site of contention and reform. In this study, we draw from 17 interviews with traditional and charter school principals in one mid-sized urban school district to examine how principals use discipline as a tool to both maintain control and demonstrate care. Our study calls attention to different strategies principals use to establish this balance, including reducing suspensions, moderating “no-excuses” systems, and building positive student–teacher relationships. We also make a theoretical contribution by showing how schools and school leaders respond to competing institutional logics in developing practices and policies.
Article
Although prior research has linked school-based punishment to a series of negative consequences, little is known about how being punished in school predicts future school-based punishment. To address this, the current study examines the extent to which being suspended in 9th grade predicts subsequent suspensions within the same school. Using stereotype congruence theory as a framework, we examine differences by race (black versus white) and household income. The data are drawn from three cohorts of four-wave annual administrative data from a large urban school district in the Midwestern USA (N = 11,006). Findings indicate that being suspended in 9th grade is associated with higher odds of subsequent suspension and a greater number of subsequent suspensions, but not a greater number of days per suspension. Black students suspended in 9th grade were particularly likely to experience more subsequent suspensions. Further, these racial differences are not driven by household income measures. These findings indicate that racially disparate school punishment practices have cascading effects for black students.
Article
Building on a growing literature showing that early college high schools substantially improve educational outcomes, we investigate possible spillover impacts of this intervention on civic outcomes in North Carolina, which has early colleges in most of its 100 counties. We present both lottery and observational impacts on voting and criminal convictions. Our results suggest a modest increase in voting during early adulthood of about 4–5 percent, though lottery estimates do not rule out a null effect. For criminal convictions, lottery estimates are imprecise due to very low conviction rates, but observational evidence suggests a moderate decrease in convictions. We additionally identify stronger impacts on voting and conviction outcomes for key student subgroups, particularly black males and economically-disadvantaged white students. These results suggest that scaling up the early college program can improve youth civic outcomes and help to close key civic and political participation gaps.
Article
The practice of temporarily removing students from school as a form of punishment (i.e., suspensions) remains quite common. This study uses longitudinal data from a large, urban school district in California to assess whether the use of suspensions improves school safety in the following school year. Additional analyses by student race and ethnicity are included to examine whether disproportionately punishing minority students can be partially justified by a reduction in the school crime rate. The number of student offenders, rather than the number of criminal incidents, is also investigated in relation to school suspensions. In general, the findings demonstrate that changes in suspension rates do not impact school crime rates or the number of student offenders in the following school year. However, increasing suspension rates for violent incidents significantly reduces the minor crime rate. Implications for policy are provided in light of these results.
Article
Children with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have difficulty adapting to the school context and may therefore be more likely to be suspended. We examined the association between ACEs and suspensions using linked administrative data on children born in Western Australia from July 2003–June 2004 who attended a government school during 2009–2012 (N = 15,109). During pre-primary to grade 3, 378 children (2.5%) were suspended; 60% of these children had ACEs. Multilevel multinomial logistic regressions revealed that children with early childhood ACEs had around 2-times greater odds of being suspended once or multiple times, compared to children without ACE exposure. Children with school-age ACEs also had greater odds of single or multiple suspensions (1.87-times and 2.92-times greater, respectively). The odds of suspension increased 4–7% with each additional ACE exposure. Results highlight the need for early and intensive wraparound services for children with ACEs, to address the maintaining factors for behavioural issues.
Article
Across American societal institutions, a punitive culture of control and surveillance has manifested in a variety of ways, including exponential growth in incarceration rates and school suspension rates over the last four decades. To date, much of the scholarship exploring the relationship between criminal justice outcomes and school-based outcomes has focused primarily on how school punishment is consequential for future involvement in the justice system. What remains unclear, however, is whether an alternative relationship exists. That is, does a culture of control foster an environment where punitiveness in the criminal justice system is mirrored by punitiveness within schools? Drawing on carceral perspectives and place-based stratification theories and analyzing a random sample of Florida middle and high schools combined with school district data, several key findings emerge. Specifically, Black and Hispanic students are more likely to be suspended in places with higher incarceration rates; all students are more likely to be suspended in places with greater concentrated disadvantage; and Black and Hispanic students are significantly more likely to be suspended when attending schools in places with high incarceration rates and greater concentrated disadvantage. These findings highlight the interconnectedness of place and social control in the school setting.
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Introduction The study examines age-crime prevalence and age-crime frequency curves based on longitudinal data from boys in the Pittsburgh Youth Study and girls in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results Results show that the prevalence of the age-crime curve for theft and violence (based on self-reports or police charges) followed the typical age-crime curve for males and slightly less distinctly for females, with the peak of offending occurring earlier for self-reports than for police charges. The decrease in police charges for violence and theft took place at an earlier age for females than males, but this was not distinct when self-reported delinquency was the criterion. The mean frequency of self-reported theft and violence followed the age-crime curve for males but not for females, who showed a mean frequency of offending which was more constant. In contrast, the mean frequency of police charges increased with age for males and females. Comparing African-American and Caucasian males and females shows a higher prevalence but not a higher mean frequency of self-reported offending. Conclusions The results are reviewed in the light of other studies, and the policy implications of the findings are discussed.
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This study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health data set to evaluate the long-term influence of school discipline and security on political and civic participation. We find that young adults with a history of school suspension are less likely than others to vote and volunteer in civic activities years later, suggesting that suspension negatively impacts the likelihood that youth engage in future political and civic activities. These findings are consistent with prior theory and research highlighting the long-term negative implications of punitive disciplinary policies and the role schools play in preparing youth to participate in a democratic polity. We conclude that suspension undermines the development of the individual skills and capacities necessary for a democratic society by substituting collaborative problem solving for the exclusion and physical removal of students. The research lends empirical grounds for recommending the reform of school governance and the implementation of more constructive models of discipline.
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An influential literature in criminology has identified indirect “collateral consequences” of mass imprisonment. We extend this criminological perspective to the context of the U.S. education system, conceptualizing exclusionary discipline practices (i.e., out-of-school suspension) as a manifestation of intensified social control in schools. Similar to patterns of family and community decline associated with mass incarceration, we theorize that exclusionary discipline policies have indirect adverse effects on non-suspended students in punitive schools. Using a large hierarchical and longitudinal dataset consisting of student and school records, we examine the effect of suspension on reading and math achievement. Our findings suggest that higher levels of exclusionary discipline within schools over time generate collateral damage, negatively affecting the academic achievement of non-suspended students in punitive contexts. This effect is strongest in schools with high levels of exclusionary discipline and schools with low levels of violence, although the adverse effect of exclusionary discipline is evident in even the most disorganized and hostile school environments. Our results level a strong argument against excessively punitive school policies and suggest the need for alternative means of establishing a disciplined environment through social integration.
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Discipline practices in schools affect the social quality of each educational environment, and the ability of children to achieve the academic and social gains essential for success in a 21st century society. We review the documented patterns of office discipline referrals in 364 elementary and middle schools during the 2005-2006 academic year. Data were reported by school personnel through daily or weekly uploading of office discipline referrals using the Web-based School-wide Information System. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses indicate that students from African American families are 2.19 (elementary) to 3.78 (middle) times as likely to be referred to the office for problem behavior as their White peers. In addition, the results indicate that students from African American and Latino families are more likely than their White peers to receive expulsion or out of school suspension as consequences for the same or similar problem behavior. These results extend and are consistent with a long history of similar findings, and argue for direct efforts in policy, practice, and research to address ubiquitous racial and ethnic disparities in school discipline.
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One of the strongest findings in the juvenile delinquency literature is the relationship between a lack of school success, school disengagement, and involvement in the criminal justice system. This link has been deemed the "school-to-jail pipeline." To date, research has not clarified the antecedents or origins of this school failure and disengagement, although it is known that it occurs at relatively young ages. This study examines one possible source: racial bias in school discipline experienced during the elementary school years. Using a multi-level analysis, we examine whether African-American elementary school students are more likely to receive disciplinary infractions while controlling for individual-level, classroom-level, and school-level factors. Our findings, robust across several models, show that African-American children receive more disciplinary infractions than children from other racial categories. Classroom factors, school factors, and student behavior are not sufficient to account for this finding. We also find that school-level characteristics (e.g., percentage of black students) are related to overall discipline levels, consistent with a racial threat hypothesis. These findings have important implications for the school-to-jail literature and may point to one explanation for why minority students fare less well and are more likely to disengage from schools at a younger age than whites.
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Despite the general agreement that US schools have become increasingly punitive since the 1980s, researchers are uncertain about what types of schools use tough-on-crime measures. Some assert that punitive control is concentrated in poor, predominantly ethnic minority schools. Governing-through-crime scholars argue that US schools with mostly middle-class and white students are also punitive, but in less harsh ways using soft surveillance techniques. Relying on data from large, stratified samples of middle and secondary US public schools, we found that high rates of ethnic minority enrollment predicted heavy reliance on law enforcement and security personnel. As rates of student poverty increased, use of soft surveillance techniques as well as reporting students to the police significantly increased. Implications for governing-through-crime, racial control, and reproduction of inequalities theories are discussed.
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Although there can be no dispute that schools must do all that can be done to ensure the safety of learning environments, controversy has arisen about the use of zero tolerance policies and procedures to achieve those aims. In response to that controversy, and to assess the extent to which current practice benefits students and schools, the American Psychological Association convened a task force to evaluate the evidence and to make appropriate recommendations regarding zero tolerance policies and practices. An extensive review of the literature found that, despite a 20-year history of implementation, there are surprisingly few data that could directly test the assumptions of a zero tolerance approach to school discipline, and the data that are available tend to contradict those assumptions. Moreover, zero tolerance policies may negatively affect the relationship of education with juvenile justice and appear to conflict to some degree with current best knowledge concerning adolescent development. To address the needs of schools for discipline that can maintain school safety while maximizing student opportunity to learn, the report offers recommendations for both reforming zero tolerance where its implementation is necessary and for alternative practice to replace zero tolerance where a more appropriate approach is indicated.
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Tests of the racial threat hypothesis, linking the racial composition of place to various measures of social control, find that where there are greater percentages of blacks, more punitive criminal justice policies are implemented. Just as the criminal justice system continues to get tougher on crime despite stagnant crime rates, it is also clear that schools are becoming harsher toward student misbehavior and delinquency despite decreases in these school-based occurrences. However, only a very limited number of studies have been able to partially explain this trend of intensifying social control in schools. Using a national sample of 294 public schools, the present study is the first to test the racial threat hypothesis within schools to determine if the racial composition of students predicts greater use of punitive controls, regardless of levels of misbehavior and delinquency. Results of multivariate analyses support the racial threat perspective, finding that schools with a larger percentage of black students are not only more likely to use punitive disciplinary responses, but also more likely to use extremely punitive discipline and to implement zero tolerance policies. They also use fewer mild disciplinary practices and restitutive techniques. In addition, racial threat is more influential when school delinquency and disorder are lower.
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Federal legislation and concern about high-profile school shootings have placed attention on safe schools and school discipline. Anecdotal evidence and several reports indicate that in response to calls to promote safety, schools are increasingly referring students to the juvenile courts for acts of misbehavior. Using data from the National Juvenile Court Data Archive, the study reported here examined school referrals (SR) to the juvenile courts in five states from 1995 to 2004. We studied SR over time as well as the proportion of total referrals originating in schools. There was variability in the number of referrals to the juvenile courts originating in the schools and in the trends of SR across states as well as the odds that referrals originated in schools. We found evidence that in four of five states, referrals from schools represented a greater proportion of total referrals to juvenile courts in 2004 than in 1995. We also found differences in the odds of SR to out-of-school referrals (OSR) by race and by gender in some states but not in others. The findings suggest that states may differ in the way in which their schools respond to misbehavior and in the way their schools directly refer students to the juvenile courts. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the findings.
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School discipline addresses schoolwide, classroom, and individual student needs through broad prevention, targeted intervention, and development of self-discipline. Schools often respond to disruptive students with exclusionary and punitive approaches that have limited value. This article surveys three approaches to improving school discipline practices and student behavior: ecological approaches to classroom management; schoolwide positive behavioral supports; and social and emotional learning. The article examines their epistemological and empirical roots and supporting research, suggesting ways to combine approaches.
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Little research has assessed the effects of juvenile justice involvement during high school on educational outcomes. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study assesses the effect of first-time arrest and court involve-ment during high school on educational attainment. In addition, differential effects by structural location are examined. Findings suggest support for the labeling perspective. First-time court appearance during high school increases the chances of dropping out of high school independent of involvement in delin-quency. Furthermore, the effect of court appearance is particularly detrimental to less delinquent youths.
Article
A growing literature suggests that juvenile arrests perpetuate offending and increase the likelihood of future arrests. The effect on subsequent arrests is generally regarded as a product of the perpetuation of criminal offending. However, increased rearrest also may reflect differential law enforcement behavior. Using longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) together with official arrest records, the current study estimates the effects of first arrests on both reoffending and rearrest. Propensity score methods were used to control differences between arrestees and nonarrestees and to minimize selection bias. Among 1,249 PHDCN youths, 58 individuals were first arrested during the study period; 43 of these arrestees were successfully matched to 126 control cases that were equivalent on a broad set of individual, family, peer, and neighborhood factors. We find that first arrests increased the likelihood of both subsequent offending and subsequent arrest, through separate processes. The effects on rearrest are substantially greater and are largely independent of the effects on reoffending, which suggests that labels trigger “secondary sanctioning” processes distinct from secondary deviance processes. Attempts to ameliorate deleterious labeling effects should include efforts to dampen their escalating punitive effects on societal responses.
Book
During the 1940s, teachers were certain they had some grievous complaints about students' behavior in school. Among these were excessive noise, littering, and gum chewing. More recently, teachers' concerns have taken on a far more dire tone. Today, their focus is on the rape, robbery, and substance abuse incidents that occur in alarming numbers in their workplaces. In recent years, the news on violent crime in our schools has often been devastating. And although school officials have begun taking measures to decrease the level of violence on their grounds (e.g., installing metal detectors, hiring guards to patrol hallways), the violence that continues to occur is often more lethal and no less troubling. To further understand and ameliorate the causes of violence among our children-especially at school-this book takes a comprehensive approach to addressing the issues. Violence in Schools: Cross-National and Cross-Cultural Perspectives provides both a broad overview of violence in schools and offers specific descriptions of models that have been used successfully within school settings to prevent violent crime from occurring. For example, this volume: Recognizes that violence on school grounds is a global problem that requires an international perspective to counteract. Takes a broad view of what constitutes violence-that is, the focus is not only on physical assault, but the neglect and abusive behavior (e.g., racism, sexism, cultural discrimination and suppression) that contribute to its occurrence. Explores the history of the phenomenon of school violence in order to effectively ameliorate its current condition. Violence in Schools: Cross-National and Cross-Cultural Perspectives speaks with legitimate authority to scholars as well as to those on the frontlines in combating school violence, including school and counseling psychologists, school administrators, teachers and staff as well as concerned parents. © 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
This study is based upon a longitudinal analysis of data for a cohort of 181,897 Florida state students who were first time 9th graders in the 2000-01 school year and follows them trough to high school and post-secondary outcomes. Analysis of 9th grade suspension data finds that black students, students who are economically disadvantaged, and special education students are three demographics subgroups that are disproportionately suspended, both in the frequency of suspensions and the duration in number of school days lost. While poverty and ethnicity are themselves highly correlated, poverty alone does not explain the disproportionate suspension rates amongst black students. Further analyses show that out-of-school suspensions in the 9th grade year are also significantly and negatively correlated to later high school graduation as well as post-secondary enrolment and persistence. Thus demographic disparities in disciplinary incidents serve to further widen any academic achievement gaps. Closer analysis though shows though that disciplinary incidents are interrelated with other of indicators of student disengagement from school, such as course failures and absenteeism. Therefore, policies seeking to address these issues cannot focus on reducing suspensions alone, but must also address student attendance and course passing in a comprehensive and systematic manner.
Article
Police officers, armed security guards, surveillance cameras, and metal detectors are common features of the disturbing new landscape at many of today's high schools. You will also find new and harsher disciplinary practices: zero-tolerance policies, random searches with drug-sniffing dogs, and mandatory suspensions, expulsions, and arrests, despite the fact that school crime and violence have been decreasing nationally for the past two decades. While most educators, students, and parents accept these harsh policing and punishment strategies based on the assumption that they keep children safe, Aaron Kupchik argues that we need to think more carefully about how we protect and punish students. In Homeroom Security, Kupchik shows that these policies lead schools to prioritize the rules instead of students, so that students' real problems-often the very reasons for their misbehavior-get ignored. Based on years of impressive field research, Kupchik demonstrates that the policies we have zealously adopted in schools across the country are the opposite of the strategies that are known to successfully reduce student misbehavior and violence. As a result, contemporary school discipline is often unhelpful, and can be hurtful to students in ways likely to make schools more violent places. Furthermore, those students who are most at-risk of problems in schools and dropping out are the ones who are most affected by these counterproductive policies. Our schools and our students can and should be safe, and Homeroom Security offers real strategies for making them so.
Article
This article examines the nature of delinquent and related problem behavior in schools. It suggests that public perceptions that the quality of many urban schools is low has the effect of exacerbating the concentration of populations of young people at elevated risk of both delinquent behavior and poor educational outcomes in some communities. It describes delinquency and related problem behaviors in schools and suggests that delinquents and dropouts are engaged in a variety of problem behaviors, and they are low achieving, poorly motivated, and uncommitted to school. It also discusses whether individual characteristics predispose young people to problem behavior and poor school achievement. Furthermore, the chapter reveals the implications of school demography for delinquency and educational outcomes. Finally, it presents an argument concerning whether or not schools should be concerned with preventing delinquency.
Book
This book seeks to analyze the issue of race in America after the election of Barack Obama. For the author, the U.S. criminal justice system functions can act as a contemporary system of racial control, even as it adheres to the principle of color blindness.
Article
Although the association between school suspension and deleterious outcomes is widely acknowledged, policy and practice need to be informed by an evidence base derived from multiple studies revealing consistent trends. This meta-analysis aims to address this void by examining the degree to which different types of school suspensions (in-school versus out-of-school) are associated with both academic achievement and school dropout, while concurrently examining study or participant characteristics that moderate these relationships. Data sources included peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed studies from 1986 – 2012 obtained via bibliographic databases. A meta-analysis was conducted on 53 cases from 34 studies. The results revealed a significant inverse relationship between suspensions and achievement, along with a significant positive relationship between suspensions and dropout. Furthermore, study or participant characteristics and type of suspension significantly affected the relationship between suspensions and the outcome variables. Implications for policy, practice, and research are emphasized.
Article
Do the strategies that schools adopt in response to "disciplinary problems," including violence, actually perpetuate violence? In this thoughtful article, Pedro Noguera traces the history of institutional disciplinary measures, showing that the underlying philosophical orientation toward social control exacts a heavy toll on students, teachers, and the entire school community by producing prison-like schools that remain unsafe. Noguera maintains that a "get-tough" approach fails to create a safe environment because the use of coercive strategies interrupts learning and ultimately produces an environment of mistrust and resistance. He offers alternative strategies for humanizing school environments, encouraging a sense of community and collective responsibility.
Article
The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary for different sources of risk, and thus there should be a range of prevention strategies offered to accommodate for this variance.
Article
As violence and crime within and around U.S. schools has drawn increased attention to school security, police, surveillance cameras, and other measures have grown commonplace at public schools. Social scientists commonly voice concern that exclusionary security measures are most common in schools attended by poor and non-White students, yet there is little empirical basis for assessing the extent of differential exposure, as we lack research on how exclusionary measures are distributed relative to school and student characteristics. To address this gap in the research, we use nationally representative school-level data from the School Survey on Crime and Safety to consider the security measures employed in elementary, middle, and high schools. Results indicate that while security measures are ubiquitous in U.S. high schools, those considered more exclusionary are concentrated in elementary, middle, and high schools attended by non-White and/or poorer students.
Article
This paper examines procedural justice in the context of citizen experiences with the police and courts. It is based on interviews of 652 citizens with recent personal experiences involving those authorities. I will consider two issues: first, whether the justice of the procedures involved influences citizen satisfaction with outcomes and evaluations of legal authorities; and second, how citizens define "fair process" in such settings. The results replicate those of past studies, which found that procedural justice has a major influence on both satisfaction and evaluation. They further suggest that such procedural justice judgments are complex and multifaceted. Seven issues make independent contributions to citizen judgments about whether the legal authorities acted fairly: (1) the degree to which those authorities were motivated to be fair; (2) judgments of their honesty; (3) the degree to which the authorities followed ethical principles of conduct; (4) the extent to which opportunities for representation were provided; (5) the quality of the decisions made; (6) the opportunities for error correction; and (7) whether the authorities behaved in a biased fashion. I found that the meaning of procedural justice varied according to the nature of the situation, not the characteristics of the people involved.
Article
The term and construct “school-to-prison” pipeline has been widely used by advocates, researchers, and policymakers to describe the relationship between school disciplinary practices and increased risk of juvenile justice contact. It has been unclear whether the construct is a useful heuristic or a descriptor of empirically validated relationships that establish school disciplinary practices as a risk factor for negative developmental outcomes, including juvenile justice involvement. In this article, we examine the literature surrounding one facet of the pipeline, school exclusion as a disciplinary option, and propose a model for tracing possible pathways of effect from school suspension and expulsion to the ultimate contact point of juvenile justice involvement. Available multivariate analyses suggest that regardless of demographic, achievement, or system status, out-of-school suspension and expulsion are in and of themselves risk factors for a range of negative developmental outcomes. Recommendations are offered to assist schools in replacing disciplinary exclusion with a range of alternatives whose goal is to preserve both school order and provide all students with educational opportunities.
Article
Research has found that, in 2006, over 28 per cent of Black male middle school students had been suspended at least once, nearly three times the rate for White males. Other research has revealed racial disparities in discipline, including disproportionately high numbers of Black students being removed from class on discretionary discipline grounds, while Whites had higher rates of punishment for nondiscretionary offenses. Several studies have shown that being suspended significantly increased the risk of dropping out and future contact with the juvenile justice system. This article examines what we know about racial disparities in out‐of‐school suspensions in light of research on school discipline policy. The article explores the implications of this knowledge for civil rights enforcement and making improvements. KeypointsArgument that sound educational practice can replace excessive suspensions with alternatives that address misbehavior but keeps students in school.Unpacks common misconceptions in defense of frequent use of suspensions with research on the harm of this common practice.Analyzes the national data that should raise serious concerns about the use of out‐of‐school suspensions.Makes clear recommendations for federal and state policymakers, educators and civil rights enforcement.
Article
Zero tolerance policies in secondary schools now embrace an array of misbehaviors varying widely in seriousness. Their utility has therefore come into question, especially because they do not address causal factors and generally maintain an emphasis on suspension and expulsion. In contrast, responses based on a restorative justice philosophy embrace stakeholders in an interactive process to repair harm by addressing the nature of the misbehavior and resulting damages. In an effort to examine the applicability of restorative justice principles to disciplinary policies in educational settings, the explorative results of a pilot project are presented. Quantitative outcomes indicate reduced behavioral referrals and suspensions. Qualitative descriptions likewise point toward positive directions. Overall, findings are supportive of employing restorative justice principles in response to school-related misbehavior, which could be combined with traditional practices (for more serious offenders) in a synergistic approach to restoring order in our schools, responsibility in our students, and, ultimately, hope in our communities.
Article
This article suggests that contact with the legal system increased school dropout in a Chicago sample of 4,844 inner-city students. According to multilevel multivariate logistic models, students who were first arrested during the 9th or 10th grade were six to eight times more likely than were nonarrested students ever to dropout of high school and are about 3.5 times more likely to drop out in Grades 9 and 10. However, selection bias is a real concern. To improve causal inference, students who were first arrested in Grade 9 (n = 228) are compared to 9th graders (n = 153) who were first arrested a year later. Given this sampling restriction, the groups hardly differ on many observables. Yet early arrest still increases early school dropout in models with many relevant covariates. The 9th-grade arrestees are also compared to matched students who avoided arrest. Similar intergroup differences in the risk of dropout were observed. Thus, being arrested weakens subsequent participation in urban schools, decreasing their capacity to educate and otherwise help vulnerable youths.
Article
The fate of school discipline and security in America is at a crucial turning point. While the “school-to-prison pipeline” has recently received an increasing amount of attention from policy makers interested in improving public education, the recent shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut led to renewed calls for the heightened security measures that contributed to the rise of the pipeline. This article provides clear evidence that heightened disciplinary and security measures in schools are faulty policy responses, as they have adverse impacts on the students they intend to protect and siphon resources away from policies that more effectively ensure student safety and success. More specifically, the article analyzes a unique statewide database that contain all school arrests that occurred during a recent school year in Delaware, including individual-level variables such as age, race, gender, offense, adjudication result, and disposition result. The analysis reveals three troubling trends that have important policy implications. First, the use of arrests in response to student misbehavior has resulted in a great number of students being arrested for minor misbehavior. Second, a highly disproportionate rate of Black students faced arrests for their behavior in school and female students seemed to experience differential treatment. Third, the juvenile justice system is forced to devote its scarce resources to processing a high volume of minor school arrests, a plurality of which lead to diversionary services that could have been offered directly through schools in a much more efficient manner.
Article
This study investigates how community characteristics, student background, school climate, and zero-tolerance policies interact to affect school crime. The study articulates and fits a school crime model to 712 high schools participating in the 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety, confirming that school location and student socioeconomic status have moderate effects on school crime. Much of the contextual effects are mediated via school climate. School climate reflected by school size, student mobility, and student misbehavior affect school safety in profound and predicted ways. Larger size and schools with higher student transience and misbehavior predict higher levels of criminal incidents. School security program is correlated with lower school crime; however, the effect is small and nonsignificant. Tough on crime policy is associated with higher level of school crime, controlling for community and school variables. Consequently, a positive school climate in combination with necessary security control is recommended to improve school safety and reduce school crimes.
Article
Data from the National Youth Survey (waves one and two) were used to assess the effects of individual students' perceptions of teacher disapproval on self-reported delinquency. The panel study included youths between the ages of 11 and 17. Consistent with the labeling perspective, the results indicated that perceptions of teacher disapproval are associated with subsequent delinquency. This relationship was significant even when controlling for prior delinquency, thus weakening the argument that labeling is merely a result, and not a cause, of delinquency. The effects did, however, appear to be indirect when measures of delinquent peer associations were included in the model.
Article
This study takes a life-course approach to examine whether family and religious characteristics influence individual-level delinquency trajectories from early adolescence through young adulthood. Based on data from the NLSY79, results suggest that residing with two parents deters youths from becoming delinquent and that supportive parenting practices reduce their likelihood of becoming involved in delinquent behavior early in adolescence. There is also evidence that family and religion interact to predict delinquency trajectories. Religion enhances the effect of parental affection in deterring delinquent behavior and mitigates the increased risk of high levels of delinquent behavior among youths in single-parent families. Moreover, the findings indicate that delinquency trajectories are not immutable; family transitions are associated with increases in delinquency, but religious participation throughout adolescence and marriage are associated with declines in delinquent behavior. Overall, results suggest that family and religious characteristics continually influence the extent to which youths commit delinquent acts.
Article
American schools increasingly define and manage the problem of student discipline through a prism of crime control. Most theoretical explanations fail to situate school criminalization in a broader structural context, to fully explain its spatio-temporal variations, and to specify the processes and subjectivities that mediate between structural and legal forces and the behavior of school actors. A multilevel structural model of school criminalization is developed which posits that a troubled domestic economy, the mass unemployment and incarceration of disadvantaged minorities, and resulting fiscal crises in urban public education have shifted school disciplinary policies and practices and staff perceptions of poor students of color in a manner that promotes greater punishment and exclusion of students perceived to be on a criminal justice `track'.
Article
Through interviews and participation with 20 preadolescent African American boys from 1 urban elementary school in school and during leisure activities, the researcher explored what "getting into trouble" meant to the boys themselves, and what it meant to the teachers, principals, truant officers, and relatives of these children. Taken together, these data construct a picture of how educators' beliefs in the natural differences of black children and the "criminal inclination" of black males shape decisions that disproportionately single out black males as being at risk. The chapters are: (1) "Don't Believe the Hype"; (2) "The Punishing Room"; (3) "School Rules"; (4) "Naughty by Nature"; (5) "The Real World"; (6) "Getting in Trouble"; (7) "Unreasonable Circumstances"; and (8)"Dreams." (Contains 105 references.) (SLD)
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received considerable attention with regard to the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. In studies of veterans, behavioral sequelae of PTSD can include hostile and violent behavior. Rates of PTSD found in impoverished, high-risk urban populations within U.S. inner cities are as high as in returning veterans. The objective of this study was to determine whether civilian PTSD is associated with increased risk of incarceration and charges related to violence in a low-income, urban population. Participants (n = 4,113) recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, completed self-report measures assessing history of trauma, PTSD symptoms, and incarceration. Both trauma exposure and civilian PTSD remained strongly associated with increased risk of involvement in the criminal justice system and charges of a violent offense, even after adjustment for sex, age, race, education, employment, income, and substance abuse in a regression model. Trauma and PTSD have important implications for public safety and recidivism.
Article
The labeling theory of deviance was extremely popular during the 1960s and 1970s. After a series of influential critiques, however, the validity of the theory had fallen into question by 1980 and was pronounced dead by 1985. In this paper we examine the application of the labeling perspective to one particular area, juvenile delinquency. We discuss the general theoretical origin of labeling theory in both conflict theory and symbolic interactionism, and use it to present two main labeling hypotheses: 1) that status attributes are influential in determining who is labeled (the “status characteristics hypothesis”) and 2) that labeling experiences are instrumental in producing problems of adjustment and in causing subsequent commitment to further deviance (the “secondary deviance hypothesis”). We note that what is often passed off as a critique of labeling theory itself is frequently a caricature of the theory. The major point of the paper is an elaboration of the full complexity of each labeling hypothesis, a suggestion for empirical research to test it, and a review of the extant literature. We suggest that labeling theory is not as invalid as its critics have claimed, and that what is needed is a restatement and revitalization of a labeling theory of delinquency.