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in vitro antiviral potential of Ocimum sanctum leaves extract against New Castle Disease Virus of poultry,”


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Ocimum sanctum is well known for its antimicrobial properties in Indian traditional medicinal system in Ayurveda. Different preparations of O. sanctum plants and parts of it have been reported throughout the world for its medicinal properties including antiviral effects. Thus in present study hot aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves was used to study the antiviral activity against the New Castle Disease Virus of poultry chicken embryo fibroblast monolayer culture. Before performing the study nontoxic dose of the extract was also decided for the chicken fibroblast culture and the concentrations of 10mg/ml or less of hot aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves in basal media (RPMI 1640) appeared to be non toxic. As cytopathic effects of NCD virus on chicken embryo fibroblast monolayer culture are well established so these was used to detect the antiviral activity of O. sanctum along with Haemaggulitation test to get an idea of viral concentration in culture. Absence of cytopathic effects in monolayer and lower the HA titer were considered as the indicative of antiviral activity of extract of O. sanctum leaves. The concentrations of 10mg/ml or less of hot aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves prevented the cytopathic effects and growth of NCD virus in chicken fibroblast monolayer.
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International Journal of Microbiology and Immunology Research Vol.2(7), pp. 051-055, July, 2013
Available online at
ISSN 2315-8743 ©2013 Apex Journal International
Full Length Research Paper
In vitro antiviral potential of Ocimum sanctum leaves
extract against New Castle Disease Virus of poultry
Jayati1, A.K.Bhatia2, Amit Kumar1*, A.Goel2, Sandeep Gupta3, Anu Rahal4
1Department of Veterinary Microbiology, U.P. Pt. Deen Dayal Uphadhayay Veterinary University Evam Go Anusandhan
Sansthan, Mathura, UP, India, 281001.
2Department of Microbiology, GLA University, Mathura, UP, India.
3Animal Husbandry Department, University, Mathura, UP, India.
4Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, University, Mathura, UP, India.
Accepted 14 June, 2013
Ocimum sanctum is well known for its antimicrobial properties in Indian traditional medicinal system in
Ayurveda. Different preparations of O. sanctum plants and parts of it have been reported throughout
the world for its medicinal properties including antiviral effects. Thus in present study hot aqueous
extract of O. sanctum leaves was used to study the antiviral activity against the New Castle Disease
Virus of poultry chicken embryo fibroblast monolayer culture. Before performing the study nontoxic
dose of the extract was also decided for the chicken fibroblast culture and the concentrations of
10mg/ml or less of hot aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves in basal media (RPMI 1640) appeared to be
non toxic. As cytopathic effects of NCD virus on chicken embryo fibroblast monolayer culture are well
established so these was used to detect the antiviral activity of O. sanctum along with
Haemaggulitation test to get an idea of viral concentration in culture. Absence of cytopathic effects in
monolayer and lower the HA titer were considered as the indicative of antiviral activity of extract of O.
sanctum leaves. The concentrations of 10mg/ml or less of hot aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves
prevented the cytopathic effects and growth of NCD virus in chicken fibroblast monolayer.
Key words: Ocimum sanctum, antiviral activity, New Castle Disease Virus, chicken embryo fibroblast
monolayer culture
Over centuries several important traditional medicinal
systems such as Greek, Chinese, Tibetian, Indian,
Siddha and Mediterranean have been evolved and
established all over the world with the use of naturally
present active principles of plants in the form of various
preparations for the relief of human and veterinary
diseases (Kumar et al., 2013). In Ayurveda, an Indian
system of Medicine, about 2500 plants have been prized
for their medicinal abilities and these are the true treasure
of Indian biodiversity (Uphadhayay et al., 2013). Among
*Corresponding author. Email: Tel.:
these plants O. sanctum, distributed mainly in the tropical
and subtropical region of the world, is considered to be
highly scared, medicinal application in the indigenous
system of medicine of many Asian, African and South
American countries (Kumar et al., 2011, 2013). Since
long in India the practitioner of traditional system of
medicine present in villages and towns have been using
O. sanctum for curing various ailments of microbial origin,
a rational approach to this traditional medicinal practice
with modern system of medicine is, however, not much
available. In order to establish the scientific based
therapeutic use of O. sanctum in modern medicine,
several Indian scientists and researchers (Prakash and
Gupta, 2005; Sood et al., 2006; Bhartiya et al., 2006;
Goel et al., 2008; Kumar et al., 2011, 2013) have studied
052 Int. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Res.
the pharmacological effects of various part of this plant.
However, there is little information available about its
application as antiviral in poultry health and thus it
appears to be the need of today as in Indian scenario
poultry industry is most rapidly growing veterinary sector
(Mahima et al., 2012b) and viral diseases are causing
most serious losses to this industry. Among these viral
diseases new castle disease that is also known as
ranikhet disease is very much prevalent in Indian
subcontinent and causing losses in millions every year.
Henceforth, in this study in vitro antiviral activity was
assessed on chicken embryo fibroblast culture with the
objective to establish the antiviral properties of leaves of
O. sanctum against New Castle Disease Virus (NCDV).
Collection of leaves of Ocimum sanctum: Leaves of
O. sanctum were collected from the campus of UP Pt.
Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan
Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan,
Mathura and dried under shade. The leaves were verified
by Department of Botany, BSA College Mathura and
preserved in Department of Microbiology. Dried leaves
were used for preparation hot aqueous extract.
Viral isolate: For antiviral effect of extract of O. sanctum
leaves, New Castle Disease virus (NDV) was used as a
challenge to the chicken embryo fibroblast culture. The
virus was procured from the Department of Avian
Diseases, Indian Veterinary Research Institute,
Izatnagar, UP, India.
Extraction: Hot aqueous extract (HAE) of O. sanctum
leaves was prepared by the method of Goel et al. (2008).
In this method the 50 gram of dried powder of O.
sanctum leaves was placed in a porous cellulose thimble.
The thimble was then placed in an extraction chamber,
above a collection flask containing the 750 ml solvent
(triple glass distilled water). The flask was heated and the
solvent was allowed to evaporate. Temperature was
adjusted according to boiling temperature of the solvent
(100°C). The extraction process lasted 6-8 hours and
then flask containing the solvent and extract were
removed. The solvent in the flask was allowed to
evaporate and finally the remaining material was
collected and weighed.
Cultivation of New castle Disease virus: The New
Castle Disease virus was cultivated in embryonated
chicken eggs by allantoic cavity route method as
described by Cunningham (1973). The NDV was taken
from deep freezer and thawed at room temperature. The
eggs were inoculated by allantoic cavity route using 0.1
ml of virus inoculum per egg. Eggs were incubated at
37°C in egg incubator under moisture and examined daily
by candling. Eggs dying after 2nd day were removed from
incubator and allantoic fluid was collected and preserved
in deep freeze (- 20°C) for further use.
Titration of New castle Disease virus: The virus was
titrated by haemagglutination test (HA test) as per the
procedure advocated by Cunningham (1973). Two-fold
serial dilutions of the virus was made in normal saline
beginning with 1:2 dilution in 1st well through 1:1024
dilution in 10th well. 0.5 ml RBCs suspension (1%) was
added in all the wells. The plate was shaken to mix the
contents and incubated at room temperature for
haemagglutination. Plate was examined every 15
minutes upto 1 h. for uniform haemagglutination covering
the bottom of plate. Button formation was taken as
Preparation of chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF)
monolayer: The chicken embryo fibroblast monolayer
was prepared as per the method described by
Cunningham (1973). The embryo was taken out in
petridish containing PBS. The embryo was washed with
PBS and the head, appendages and viscera were
removed. The embryonic tissues were cut into small
pieces and washed thoroughly and transferred into a
flask containing 0.25% trypsin solution (pH 7.6-7.8) in
PBS for trypsinization for 1 hrs on magnetic stirrer. The
contents of flasks were filtered using muslin cloth.
Filtered cell suspension was centrifuged at 1500 RPM for
15 min. and supernatant was discarded. Cells pellets
were resuspended with culture medium and centrifuged
at 1500 RPM for 10 min. Supernatant were discarded
and repeated washing was done at same RPM and time.
Cells were resuspended in medium and adjusted to1x107
cells/ml. 1ml of cells suspension was taken in all the wells
of a six wells tissue culture plate and incubated at 37°C in
an atmosphere of 80-85% humidity and 5% CO2.
Determination of nontoxic concentration for CEF
monolayer culture: Before conducting the antiviral
properties, maximum nontoxic concentration of extract
was determined in 24 hr grown monolayer CEF culture.
The extract was diluted so as to contain 100, 50, 20, 10,
5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/ml of extract in maintenance medium.
1 ml of each dilution was inoculated to CEF culture in a
six wells culture plate and incubated at 37°C in the
presence of 5% CO2. The toxic effect of each
concentration was observed under microscope at 12 hr
intervals up to 48 hrs. Highest dilution showing any
degenerative changes/CPE in cell culture was considered
as cytotoxic concentration of the extract.
Antiviral activity of O. sanctum extract: Three different
concentrations less than the non toxic concentration i.e.
2.5 mg/ml, 5.0 mg/ml and 10.0 mg/ml were used to
determine the antiviral effect of extract of O. sanctum
leaves. The monolayer cultures were challenged with
Jayati et al 053
(a) (b)
Figure 1. Effect of Ocimum sanctum extract on New castle Disease Virus replication in chicken embryo fibroblast culture. (a) Normal growth
Pattern -Control (b) Cytopathic effects produced by NCD Virus (c) Protective effect of extract on NCD virus infected cells.
NCD virus having 0.512 HA units mixed with
maintenance medium. The HA titer of virus in the culture
supernatant was estimated. Growth of fibroblasts was
monitored and supernatant was collected at different
intervals viz: 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72hrs.
In viral pathogens related problems various preparations
have been attempted as ethanolic extracts
(Direkbusarakom et al., 1996; Parida et al., 1997, Chiang
et al., 2005; Balasubramanian, et al., 2007;
Bhanuprakash et al., 2008a,b), acetone extracts (Deepthi
et al., 2007), aqueous extracts (Parida et al., 1997;
Chiang et al., 2005; Balasubramanian et al., 2007;
Bhanuprakash et al., 2007, 2008) and petroleum ether,
benzene, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate,
methanol and ethanol extracts (Balasubramanian et al.,
2007). Depending upon the type of extracts, the antiviral
activity of O. sanctum has been assessed against many
important viral agents as fish pathogenic viruses viz.
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV);
Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV); Infectious pancreatic
necrosis virus (IPNV) (Direkbusarakom et al., 1996), polio
virus type-3 (Parida et al., 1997), herpes viruses (HSV),
adenoviruses (ADV), hepatitis B virus and RNA viruses
viz. coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1), enterovirus 71 (EV71)
(Chiang et al., 2005), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)
in shrimp (Balasubramanian, et al., 2007),) Buffalo pox
virus (GTPV) (Bhanuprakash et al., 2007) and infectious
bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR) (Sharma et al., 2011).
On the basis of the effects observed in all these findings
hot aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves were selected
as absence of any other substance as ether, methanol,
ethanol also interfere in virus growth. NCD virus is an
important poultry pathogen with substantial economic
losses to poultry industry. Initially the nontoxic dose of
extract was assessed and lowest dose showing the
cytopathic changes in chicken embryo fibroblast cell
culture was 20.00 mg/ml in the RPMI medium. Thus all
the three concentrations of 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/ml which
were less than 20mg/ml were considered non toxic
concentrations and were used for anti viral activity. These
doses are almost in the concurrence of the non toxic
range of 22.5 to 0.175 mg/ml concentration of ethanolic
extract of basil observed in VERO cells (Parida et al.,
1997). The antiviral effects were assessed on the basis of
occurrence of changes in the CEF monolayer culture
(Figure 1c) and the HA titers of NCD virus in the
054 Int. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Res.
Table1. HA titer in fibroblast cell culture supernatant.
Groups (Conc. of
HA titer at different intervals (unit/ml)
12 h 24 h 36 h 48 h 60 h 72 h
Control 32 32 128 512 1024 1024
2.5mg/ml 0 8 64 512 512 512
5.0mg/ml 0 8 8 128 128 128
10mg/ml 0 0 0 16 16 16
64 80
512 512
12hrs 24hrs 36hrs 48hrs 60hrs 72hrs
HA titre at different intervals (Unit/ml)
HA titres at different intervals in fibroblast cell
culture supernatant
Control O. sanctum 2.5mg/ml
O. sanctum5.0mg/ml O. sanctum10mg/ml
Figure 2. HA titers at different intervals in chicken embryo fibroblast culture.
supernatant of culture. The HA titer was found significant
at 16 with 10.0 mg/ml of HAE of O. sanctum leaves
(Figure 1c) as compared to 1024 with virus control.
Simultaneously it also prevented the CPE of the NCD
virus (Table 1 and Figure 1b, c). The virus infection
produces cytopathic effects on chicken embryo fibroblast
mono-layer culture (Figure 1a,b). Any reduction in the
changes or absence of CPE is supposed to be protective
effects of extract. At the same time the reduced HA titer
is also indicative of inhibition of viral growth. The
investigation revealed that antiviral effect as evidenced
on the basis of HA titer was also concentration
dependent and higher concentration of extract inhibited
the NCD Virus replication in corresponding higher extent
(Figure 2). Sikader et al. (1998) and Kumar et al. (1997)
reported the antiviral effect of different extracts on
infectious bursal disease and new castle disease viruses.
In present time use of herbs in poultry industry has a
significant market and herbs are being added as a
compulsory feed ingredient in poultry feed. The results of
the study ar very promising and support the use of these
as feed additive to protect birds from viruses like NCD.
Moreover, in the present study all the three
concentrations of extract prevented the CPE with the
lowest HA titer in the 10 mg/ml con-centration (Figure 2).
Thus the dose of 10.0 mg/ml conc. of extract of O.
sanctum leaves prevented the virus to multiply and can
be used to get protection against NCD virus. As the role
of Ocimum sanctum as immunomodulator has been
thoroughly studied and well established (Godhwani et al.,
1988; Bhartiya et al., 2006, Mahima et al., 2012b) along
with antibacterial activity against common bacterial
pathogens of animals (Kumar et al., 2011, 2013) thus it
can be a sole source with multiple activity in poultry feed.
Authors are highly thankful to Dean, College of Veterinary
Sciences and Hon’ble Vice Chancellor of DUVASU,
Mathura for providing all kind of support and facilities to
conduct the study.
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... To assess the antiviral effect the cellular toxicity of plant extract on MDBK cell line was carried by MTT {3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide} dye method [36] in 96-well cell culture plates. The concentration at which there was no reduction of viable cells was considered as maximum nontoxic dose (MNTD) of the extract [37]. The concentrations of aqueous extract lower than MNTD were screened for antiviral property against TCID 50 virus challenge dose of IBR virus in MDBK cell lines. ...
... The concentrations of aqueous extract lower than MNTD were screened for antiviral property against TCID 50 virus challenge dose of IBR virus in MDBK cell lines. The antiviral effect was determined by cytopathic inhibition effect in MDBK cell lines and reduction in virus induced cytotoxicity was measured by using MTT dye uptake method [36] in the form of optical densities (O.D) [37]. The virus suspension and dilution medium without plant extract were also used as the virus control and cell control, respectively. ...
... The severity of viral diseases and ability of virus to survive intracellularly pose a great challenge that is further aggravated by the nonavailability of specific antiviral chemical agents against veterinary pathogens [37]. Thus, the evaluation of antiviral effect of HAE of A. nilotica leaves was also attempted. ...
Full-text available
Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46%) and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.
... A number of compounds extracted from various species of plants such as tannins, flavones, alkaloids have displayed in vitro activity against numerous viruses (Vijayan et al., 2003). Studies conducted in laboratories around the world revealed that traditional medicinal plants can provide a rich source of antiviral agents (Jayati et al., 2013;Goel et al 2011;Yip et al., 1991;Taylor et al., 1996;Chiang et al., 2003). ...
... Among these plants O. sanctum occupies significant place in the indigenous system of medicine of many Asian, African and South American countries. To prove the scientific basis of therapeutic use of O. sanctum in modern medicine, several researchers (Jayati et al., 2013;Goel et al., 2011) have explored the pharmacological effects of this plant and reported that it has antiviral activity. Besides these well-established medicinal herbs, there are some weeds like A. mexicana (AM) known for their toxicity. ...
... Doses of OS below 20mg/mL in RPMI 1640 media were found to be nontoxic to CEF monolayer ( Figure 1A~Figure1D). This result is similar to findings by Jayati et al (2013). Doses of AM below 5mg/mL in RPMI 1640 media were found to be nontoxic to CEF monolayer (Figure 1E~Figure 1G). ...
The present study was undertaken to explore the in vitro antiviral potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Ocimum sanctum (OS) and Argemone mexicana (AM) leaves against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Infectious bursal disease virus(IBDV) in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. First the nontoxic dose of HAE of OS and AM was determined in CEF. Doses of OS and AM below 20 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL respectively were found to be nontoxic to CEF in RPMI 1640 media. Anti NDV activity was determined by absence/lower cytopathic effect (CPE) in CEF and lower HA titer of cell culture supernatant. Anti IBDV activity was determined by absence/lower CPE in CEF. Besides in vivo antiviral effects of HAE of OS and AM against NDV and IBDV were evaluated in chicken model. 250 mg/kg body weight oral dose of HAE of OS and AM was found ideal and nontoxic in chickens and experimental chickens were fed this dose for 21 days for determination of in vivo antiviral effect. On 22 nd day respective groups of chickens were challenged orally with ID 50 dose of NDV and IBDV. OS and AM fed chickens challenged with either of the virus were better protected as compared to unfed controls.
... The extracted components of this plant like linalool, apigenin and ursolic acid show broad spectrum antiviral activity against DNA viruses like RNA virus and adenoviruses [15,57,58]. One study also proves its efficacy against new castle disease of poultry [59]. ...
Full-text available
Tulsi is a Sanskrit word that means “matchless one”. Ocimum sanctum is a plant of family Lamiaceae, is commonly known as Holy Basil. Characteristically, the plant imparts a pungent, bitter, hot, light and dry effect. Holy Basil is extensively famous and has been used since centuries in Ayurvedic and Greek medicines owing to its beneficially diverse properties. O. sanctum (Tulsi in Hindi) has a significant place in Hindu culture, being used in an array of traditional medicaments and as a condiment. Online published articles, journals, internet sites, Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar were explored for data collection. Since Ayurveda times, various parts such as leaves, roots, seeds and whole plant has been recommended for treatment of a spectrum of diseases including bronchitis, dysentery, malaria, diarrhea, eye ailments, dermatological issues, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. Scientifically, it has been proven that O. sanctum possesses anticancer, anti-diabetic, anti-fertility, antifungal, antimicrobial, cardio protective, analgesic, antispasmodic and adaptogenic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiallergic, antipyretic, antiviral, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, CNS depressant and anti-arthritis activities. Its biologically active constituent is known as Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene) which is responsible for the mediation of therapeutic characteristics. This review is an attempt to summarize the botanical, pharmacological, phytochemical, ethno medicinal, and toxicological information. This is an effort to help researchers and clinicians to be aware of the magical properties and the effectiveness of Tulsi.
... Hence, the use of medicinal plants and their components is nowadays on a priority list [51][52][53]. Medicinal plants like Ocimum sanctum [51,54,55], Sonchus asper [56], Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica [57] have been reported for their antimicrobial activity. ...
Full-text available
Cardiovascular health is vital for maintenance of life in man as well as animals. Inflammatory changes in the cardiovascular system are a common occurrence with today's lifestyle, but they generally go unnoticed unless they appear as a severe life-threatening clinical manifestation. The major cardiovascular risk revolves around three pathophysiological events, namely, oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, and release of inflammatory mediators. The effective management of cardiovascular diseases largely aims at reducing/delaying symptoms or affecting hemodynamic response and often does not affect the cause or course of disease, namely, the atherosclerotic lesion itself. Several Indian herbs carry tremendous restorative potential and can be successfully employed to achieve the therapeutic targets. Public awareness of the health benefits of herbs has motivated the common man to incorporate many of these in their dietary schedule, but many times their interactions result in serious clinical outcomes, which are generally misunderstood as side effects of medicines being prescribed by the physicians. Therefore, it becomes mandatory that the pharmacological role of the herbs used as spices and regular dietary ingredient or supplement be earmarked and judiciously used for promoting the health of the mankind. In this review, the much recommended use of herbal components as prophylactic functional foods is discussed with respect to the health benefits likely to be offered in cardiovascular issues and the threats imposed through them.
... Several natural feed components have received great attention in the last two decades, and several biological activities showing promising antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic-modulatory potential have been identified [85][86][87]. Plants such as Ocimum sanctum have been used for ages to prevent and cure viral infection of man and animals [88]. ...
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Respiratory diseases are the major disease crisis in small ruminants. A number of pathogenic microorganisms have been implicated in the development of respiratory disease but the importance of environmental factors in the initiation and progress of disease can never be overemphasized. They irritate the respiratory tree producing stress in the microenvironment causing a decline in the immune status of the small ruminants and thereby assisting bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections to break down the tissue defense barriers. Environmental pollutants cause acute or chronic reactions as they deposit on the alveolar surface which are characterized by inflammation or fibrosis and the formation of transitory or persistent tissue manifestation. Some of the effects of exposures may be immediate, whereas others may not be evident for many decades. Although the disease development can be portrayed as three sets of two-way communications (pathogen-environment, host-environment, and host-pathogen), the interactions are highly variable. Moreover, the environmental scenario is never static; new compounds are introduced daily making a precise evaluation of the disease burden almost impossible. The present review presents a detailed overview of these interactions and the ultimate effect on the respiratory health of sheep and goat.
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Background: Modulation of non-specific immunity and other related activities of succulent parts of effective medicinal plants can prevent viral infections like COVID-19 through their dietary intake. Objective: The succulent parts of the medicinal plants with immunomodulation, anti-oxidation, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, etc . power can be used orally in the capsular form to prevent as well as to reduce the severity of symptoms of COVID-19. Methods: A proposal is displayed with a detailed description of related steps like the selection of medicinal plant parts consulting related reports, collection of biomedicines, validation of efficacy, dosing, encapsulation, storage, and transportation, etc . Results: The succulent bio-medicines against COVID-19 can be developed and marketed following only some adoptive research. Conclusion: Succulent bio-medicines can be prepared and marketed for the prevention and cure of different infectious and non-infectious diseases.
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The entire world is struggling from the COVID-19 pandemics. Scientific community all around the world have been looking for any possible measure to fight against this dreadful disease. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, has immense potential to contribute towards this pandemic both in prevention and management. But Ayurveda fraternity has the challenge to explain the available possible measures in contemporary language. The science of bioinformatics & epigenetics has provided possibility for scientific & contemporary explanation of Ayurvedic interventions.
Viruses have a high mutation rate, and, thus, there is a continual emergence of new antiviral-resistant strains. Therefore, it becomes imperative to explore and develop new antiviral compounds continually. The search for pharmacological substances of plant origin that are effective against animal viruses, which have a high mortality rate or cause large economic losses, has garnered interest in the last few decades. This systematic review compiles 130 plant species that exhibit antiviral activity on 37 different virus species causing serious diseases in animals. The kind of extract, fraction, or compound exhibiting the antiviral activity and the design of the trial were particularly considered for review. The literature revealed details regarding plant species exhibiting antiviral activities against pathogenic animal virus species of the following families–Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Parvoviridae, Poxviridae, Nimaviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae–that cause infections, among others, in poultry, cattle, pigs, horses, shrimps, and fish. Overall, 30 plant species exhibited activity against various influenza viruses, most of them causing avian influenza. Furthermore, 30 plant species were noted to be active against Newcastle disease virus. In addition, regarding the pathogens most frequently investigated, this review provides a compilation of 20 plant species active against bovine herpesvirus, 16 against fowlpox virus, 12 against white spot syndrome virus in marine shrimps, and 10 against suide herpesvirus. Nevertheless, some plant extracts, particularly their compounds, are promising candidates for the development of new antiviral remedies, which are urgently required.
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Four plants having known medicinal properties were screened for inhibition of goatpox virus (GTPV) replication in vitro. Of the 4 plants, extract of Acacia arabica (Babul) and Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) leaves had inhibition (%) 99.70 and 99.92 at their maximum non toxic concentrations, 99.93 +/- 0.38 and 1999.73 +/- 0.50 microg/ml, respectively in all cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assays. Inhibition of GTPV virus replication was further confirmed by PCR and SYBR Green based quantitative real-time QPCR assays specific for GTPV. Results indicated that the extract of Acacia arabica and Eugenia jambolana leaves inhibited GTPV replication in vitro.
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The present study was taken up to evaluate the effect of leaf extracts and acetone-precipitated protein of medicinal plants on seed-borne Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Tomato Mosaic Virus (ToMV) infection. The antiviral activity was tested on indicator plant Nicotiana glutinosa. Acetone precipitated proteins and solvent extracts of six medicinal plants were tested for their effect on tobamovirus infection. The aqueous leaf extracts of Guava, Phyllanthus and Thuja were effective in reducing the infection by TomV. The acetone-precipitated fractions of Tridax, Thuja, Guava and Tulsi were effective in reducing the infection by TMV. The solvent extract of Guava was effective in reducing the ToMV infection. Guava extract was subjected to TLC and the fractions were tested for their antiviral activity. Fraction with RF value of 0.014 proved to be effective in reducing the ToMV infection. The solvent extract of Thuja was effective in reducing TMV infection. TLC fraction of Thuja extract with the RF value of 0.12 reduced the TMV infection. Along with this, effect of aqueous leaf extracts on seed quality parameters of tomato and bell pepper was studied.
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With the advancement of science, there is a rising interest in poultry biotechnology for changing the composition of egg by nutritional as well as genetic manipulations for the human well beings. These alterations are in change in cholesterol level, fatty acids and adding therapeutic pharmaceutical compounds etc. For acceptance of this designer egg we have to address some of the legal, ethical and social aspects along with its economic production.
Immunomodulation as a therapy for revitalaizing the suppressed immune system is under extensive trials in human medicine to treat immunologically related disorders like arthritis, asthma and allergy. Large number of medicinal plants are being tested for the immunomodulatory effects, among which Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) is in the forefront (Patwardhan et al., 1990). Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) in poultry is also characterized by imunosuppression and subsequent secondary infections (Ajinkya et al., 1980). The present investigation reports the usefulness of O.sanctum dry leaves as immunomodulator in poultry, naturally infected with IBD virus.