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A Study of Clothing Purchasing Behavior By Gender with Respect to Fashion and Brand Awareness

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  • Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli Üniversity Turkey

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It has been suggested that male and female consumers demonstrate considerably different approaches in their decision-making and purchasing behavior when shopping for clothing for a variety of different reasons. For this reason, this study is centered on determining the degree to which gender affects the purchasing behavior of consumers buying fashion items and on determining what the differences between male and female consumer clothing purchasing behavior might be. The sample group for this study, which aims to identify the differences between male and female consumers from a gender perspective by examining their purchasing behavior with respect to fashion and brand awareness, was made up of 382 consumers chosen at random. The data used in this study were collected using a scaling tool made up of 29 questions devised by the researchers. The gathered data were then analyzed using the Social Sciences Statistics Packet (SPSS 17). As a result of this study it was determined that male and female consumers do have different perceptions and preferences with respect to fashion and brand awareness in their clothing purchasing behavior, that demographic characteristics were influential in purchasing clothing, and that women were more influenced by fashion while men were more influenced by brand name.
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European Scientific Journal March 2016 edition vol.12, No.7 ISSN: 1857 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
234
A Study of Clothing Purchasing Behavior By Gender
with Respect to Fashion and Brand Awareness
Associate Prof . Emine Koca, PhD
Associate Prof. Fatma Koc, PhD
Gazi University, Faculty of Art and Design,
Department of Fashion Design, Ankara, Turkey
doi: 10.19044/esj.2016.v12n7p234 URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2016.v12n7p234
Abstract
It has been suggested that male and female consumers demonstrate
considerably different approaches in their decision-making and purchasing
behavior when shopping for clothing for a variety of different reasons. For
this reason, this study is centered on determining the degree to which gender
affects the purchasing behavior of consumers buying fashion items and on
determining what the differences between male and female consumer clothing
purchasing behavior might be. The sample group for this study, which aims to
identify the differences between male and female consumers from a gender
perspective by examining their purchasing behavior with respect to fashion
and brand awareness, was made up of 382 consumers chosen at random. The
data used in this study were collected using a scaling tool made up of 29
questions devised by the researchers. The gathered data were then analyzed
using the Social Sciences Statistics Packet (SPSS 17). As a result of this study
it was determined that male and female consumers do have different
perceptions and preferences with respect to fashion and brand awareness in
their clothing purchasing behavior, that demographic characteristics were
influential in purchasing clothing, and that women were more influenced by
fashion while men were more influenced by brand name.
Keywords: Consumer, Clothing, Behaviour, Purchasing, Gender, Fashion,
Brand name
Introduction
Clothing performs a multitude of functions in an individual's life far
beyond being a basic necessity. Information and trends that are able to
spread across the entire world not only drive consumers to purchase clothing,
at the same time they encourage consumers to purchase even more clothing
by offering them many more choices. This situation has led to a change in
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classic consumer culture and created consumer masses that prefer brand
names and fashion, meaning products that possess social meaning in addition
to just being functional, that provide status, arouse interest and that are
innovative.
It has been suggested that these changes in consumer culture
stimulated a dynamic renewal in the fields of consumerism and personal
pleasure. This dynamism in consumer preferences is accepted worldwide as
a part of an international cultural system while social values and lifestyles
are driven by continual change (Hartley & Montgomery, 2009).
The consumer patterns introduced by modern life create the need for
a consumer field that can reflect the awareness of possessing a certain style
as well as individual preferences and the characteristics unique to a specific
group. While the individual consumes with the goal of being able to create a
sense of identity and state who they want to be perceived as, the individual is
able to achieve that goal only to the degree to which the clothes they use to
create this identity are understood and interpreted by other individuals
(Bocock, 2005, p. 24-27). The characteristic that fashion and brand name
products have of being able to be understood and interpreted by individuals
in society is the reason why they are so effective among all the factors that
influence consumer behavior when purchasing clothing.
Globalization and increasing competition, and short product life
cycles in fashion retailing, has affected consumer behavior. The factors that
make consumers purchase particular products in the field of clothing, a field
that nowadays has taken on multiple personal and social aspects that go
beyond simple need, are many and various, and are influenced by diverse
variables. When consumers make decisions about what clothing to buy they
are influenced to a significant degree as much by the information they have
been given by fashion, branding and marketing activities as they are by
individual, psychological and social factors. In addition, such values as
price, brand, quality, aesthetic value and usage characteristics present
themselves as influencing qualities. The importance and degree of priority
that these values hold for people constitute the differences in clothing
purchasing behavior. In order to survive in fashion industry, consumer
behavior is vital for manufacturers and retailers to develop and leverage core
marketing capabilities.
According to Kotler (2001, p.25-28), the factors influencing a
consumer's clothing purchase behavior can be put into the following groups:
personal, psychological and cultural. The personal factors, which are among
the most important factors determining consumers' clothing purchase
behavior, are age, gender, profession, level of education, level of income and
marital status (Muter, 2002, p. 23). Just as individuals are able to make
different clothing choices depending on their psychological makeup and
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society's value judgments based on their gender, so it has also been
determined by research that changes in social, physical, economic and
psychological characteristics at different ages are able to influence people's
preferences.
Grouped among the psychological factors, “personality
characteristics do affect consumers' perceptions and purchasing behavior”
(Stanton, Etzel, Walker, 1994, p.171). Personality, education, perception,
impressionability and other exhibited attitudes, which all vary from one
individual to another, may be listed as the psychological factors that can
affect clothing purchasing behavior. Tek (1997) states that provided “there
is strong correlation between certain personality types and products and
brand names, personality could be an important factor in figuring out
consumer behavior” (p.105).
Among those factors that make people buy a certain type of clothing
or brand name, motivation and attitude are points that deserve special
attention. For example, it is known that emotional motivation such as
popularity and catching attention is influential in developing attitudes when
deciding to buy clothing of a specific brand or fashion instead of buying
clothing that is needed based on taking its functionality into consideration.
"The three-dimensional attitude comprising the cognitive component that
forms an individual's thoughts, knowledge and beliefs regarding a product or
brand name, the emotional component that makes positive or negative
evaluation and fuels the emotions accordingly, and the behavioral component
defined as the behavioral inclination towards a product or brand name"
(Wilkie, 1991, p.282) has close ties to purchasing behavior.
Another factor influential in consumers' purchasing behavior is the
socio-cultural factor, which includes family, group, social class, peers and
cultural makeup. It can be easily observed in everyday life that the culture
and values encompassing all the factors giving direction to individuals'
thoughts, behavior and attitudes do affect consumers' awareness of fashion
and brand names, and that similarly individuals from different social classes
possess different opinions with respect to fashion and brand name products
in their clothing purchasing behavior.
While they may be treated under separate headings, when it is taken
into consideration that the influence of personal factors is overpowering in
individuals' purchasing behavior, it can be seen that the decision-making and
purchasing behavior of male and female consumers can change depending on
a variety of reasons having different dynamics. It is particularly known that
consumers can and do exhibit different approaches with respect to fashion
and brand names, which are able to influence the masses for a short time.
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One of the fundamental tenets of marketing is that brand images are
an important determinant of buying behaviour. Brand image can be
understood as the associations external target groups have in their minds
about brands. These associations can be further divided into those
concerning the functional attributes of a brand and those concerning the
symbolic attributes of a brand. Due to the importance of brand images for the
behaviour of various target groups, considerable attention has been paid to
factors that possibly influence brand images (Burmann, Schaefer,
Maloney,2008, p.157). Consumers who found value from a brand and treated
it as an important thing to themselves, will more likely to develop good
attitudes towards the brand. For this reason, this study aims to determine the
degree to which gender difference influences behavior in purchasing fashion
or brand name products and to identify what the differences are between
male and female consumer clothing purchasing behavior.
Many researchers argue that while increasing globalization increases
partnerships between countries it also reduces the homogeneous quality of
consumer behavior within countries (Cleveland & Laroche, 2007). In recent
times, consumers have gained access to new and powerful tools. these
consumer tools refer to new communication technologies such as the
internet, mobile telephony and peer-to-peer connectivity. These are also
critical consumer tools. Brands are familiar for many customers. Because
brand values are used as tangible brand management tools to be shared with
customers by brand-based organisations and brand managers (Harris, 2007).
Cultural values, consumer preferences and the increases in the trend toward
buying fashion and brand name products are inarguably the most critical
topic faced by today's production and marketing managers. Many clothing
manufacturing firms are trying to speed up their efforts to become brand
names, to form bridges spanning differences between cultures in order to
arouse interest in fashion products, and to create cultural harmony between
various consumer groups. The differences in consumer purchasing behavior
patterns at the same time determine the diversity and nature of clothing
products.The consumer market for fashion apparel has become more diverse
through fashion brands, store brands, personalization, advertising and
ethnicity in the global marketplace. If manufacturers and retailers of fashion
apparel can identify target consumers’ preferences, they may be better able
to attract and maintain their target consumer group (Rajagopal, 2011).
According to Solomon (2002), knowledge of consumer behaviour directly
affects marketing strategy. Firms can satisfy those needs only to the extent
that they understand their customers. For this reason, marketing strategies
must incorporate knowledge of consumer behaviour into every facet of a
strategic marketing plan. Therefore, this study of clothing purchasing
behavior is important for the sector.
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Method and Sampling
In order to reach the goal in this study, which was to identify the
differences between male and female customers' clothing purchasing
behavior with respect to fashion and brand name awareness, the following
questions were asked:
1.Do the reasons given by the sample group for purchasing clothing
differ according to gender?
2.Are the factors that influence the sample group's clothing
purchasing behavior differ according to gender?
3.Is there any relationship between the way the sample group regards
fashion and brand names and its behavior when purchasing clothing?
The data used in this study, the sample group for which was made up
of 382 consumers - 86 women and 196 men - living in Ankara and chosen at
random, were collected using a scaling tool comprised of 29 questions
devised by the researchers. The collected data were analyzed using Social
Sciences Statistics Packet (SPSS 17), a Chi-Square test was applied to
determine the statistical relationship between gender and the reasons for
buying clothes, the factors influencing purchasing behavior, plus regard and
behavior concerning fashion and brand names. The results were interpreted
as having a level of significance measuring p<0.05.
The genders, ages and levels of education of the consumers in the
study are given in Table 1.
Table 1 Distribution of Gender, Age and Level of Education Within Sample Group
Gender
Age
Total
21-25
26-30
31-35
36-40
41 ve üzeri
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
Women
73,1
14
7,5
21
11,3
9
4,8
6
3,2
186
100
Men
54,6
22
11,2
14
7,1
17
8,7
36
18,4
196
100
Total
63,6
36
9,4
35
9,2
26
6,8
42
11
382
100
Education
Primary
school
Middle
school
High
school
Graduate
(2years)
Graduate
Women
4,3
1
,5
22
11,8
4
2,2
151
81,2
186
100
Men
3,1
26
13,3
18
9,2
16
8,2
130
66,3
196
100
Total
3,7
27
7,1
40
10,5
20
5,2
281
73,6
382
100
When Table 1 is examined it can be seen that the age distribution
within the sample group was 48.7 percent women to 51.3 percent men, that
the highest concentration for age was in the 21-25 age bracket with 63.6
percent and that 73.6 percent possessed a bachelor's level degree.
Findings and Interpretation
Although people's behavior and attitudes are influenced to a
significant degree by social factors, differences can also be due to the
influence of personality traits, perception and prior experience. Therefore,
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people's demographic qualities play an important role in the variables for
behavior and attitude, and these differences can be seen clearly in clothing
purchasing behavior. Many studies showing that men and women differ in
their purchasing behavior also tell us that gender creates differences in the
reasons why people buy clothing. Table 2 shows the reasons by gender why
the consumers in the study purchase clothes.
Table 2 Reasons by Gender for Purchasing Clothing
Gender
p
Total
Feel a need
Being different from those around
them
Never
Sometimes
Every
time
p
Never
Sometimes
Every
time
f
%
f
%
f
%
df: 2
f
%
f
%
f
%
df: 2
f
%
Women
8
4,3
22
11,8
156
83,9
,000*
70
37,6
74
39,8
42
22,6
,163
186
100
Men
22 11,2 48 24,5 126 64,3
68
34,7
67
34,2
61
31,1
196
Total
30
7,9
70
18,3
156
83,9
138
36,1
141
36,9
103
27
382
As a requirement of the working
environment
Conforming with friends
Women
62
33,3
62
33,3
62
33,3
,021*
100
53,8
54
29
32
17,2
,000*
186
100
Men
42
21,4
86
43,9
68
34,7
67
34,2
66
33,7
63
32,1
196
Total
104
27,2
148
38,7
130
34
167
43,7
120
31,4
95
24,9
382
In order to lift their spirits
Family/spouse's desire for difference
Women
33
17,7
108
58,1
45
24,2
,000*
128
68,8
37
19,9
21
11,3
,000*
186
100
Men
67
34,2
77
39,3
52
26,5
74
37,8
68
34,7
54
27,6
196
Total
100
26,2
185
48,4
97
25,4
202
27,5
105
27,5
75
19,6
382
In order to conform to fashion
Purchasing clothing desirable
Women
68
36,6
71
38,2
47
25,3
,226
29
15,6
74
39,8
83
44,6
,013*
186
100
Men
56
28,6
88
44,9
52
26,5
23
11,7
56
28,6
117
59,7
196
Total
124
32,5
159
41,6
99
25,9
52
13,6
130
34
200
52,4
382
According to Table 2, 83.9 percent of the sample group, being 83.9
percent of women and 64.3 percent of men, are seen to buy clothing "every
time" they feel a need. 33.3 percent of the women stated they "always"
bought clothing as a requirement of the working environment, while 34.7
percent of men answered "always" and a statistically significant 43.9 percent
replied, "sometimes." This can be interpreted as men believing that the
manner of dress is important when adapting to the working environment.
Teber's (2004) definition: "The quantity and quality of our actions are
conditioned by the quantity and quality of the socio-economic formations of
the society we live in" ( p.30) supports this interpretation.
When the total for the replies of "sometimes" (58.1 percent) and
"always" (24.2 percent) given by women consumers are taking into account,
it can be seen that more women than men buy clothing "in order to lift their
spirits." Conversely, when the total for the replies of "sometimes" (44.9
percent) and "always" (26.5 percent) given by male consumers are taken into
account it can be seen that men buy clothing "in order to conform to fashion"
far more than women do. Given the widespread notion that it is in women's
nature to want to follow fashion, the results in Table 2 are remarkable.
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That more male consumers than female answered "always" to the
choices of "being different from those around them" (31.1 percent),
conforming with friends (32.1 percent) and "family/spouse's desire for
difference (27.6 percent) not only makes one think that socio-cultural factors
are more active among men's reasons for purchasing clothing, they also
match Kotler's (1984) opinion that “a person's needs and actions are largely
determined by the group they belong to or wish to belong to” (p.117).
Even though women were seen to purchase clothing they liked more
often than men when the figures for "always" 44.6 percent and "sometimes"
39.8 percent were combined, the fact that 59.7 percent of men replied
"always" for purchasing clothing they liked may be interpreted as their being
more decisive in this area. In the Chi-Square test results in Table to a
statistically significant (p<0.05) relationship is found among the reasons for
buying clothes, other than the options of "following fashion" and "standing
out," given by the sample group by gender.
According to Kotler (2001) “the factors that influence a consumer's
purchasing behavior can grouped as follows: personal, psychological and
social-cultural” (p.25-28). In the sources of reference listed below age,
gender, profession, education, marital status and level of income are seen as
personal factors, learning, impressionability, perception and attitudes are
seen as psychological factors while culture, social class, family and group
are seen as socio-cultural factors. This being so, in accordance with the goal
of this study, the factors influencing consumers' purchasing behavior by
gender are presented in Table 3.
Table 3 Factors Influencing Purchasing Behavior by Gender
Gender
Fashion trends
Family and close circle
p
Total
Never
Sometimes
Every
time
p
Never
Sometimes
Every
time
f % f % f %
df:
2
f % f % f %
df: 2
f %
Women
32
17,2
84
45,2
70
37,6
,652
16
8,6
76
40,9
94
50,5
,000*
186
100
Men
41 20,9 85 43,4 70 35,7
49
25
66
33,7
81
41,3
196
Total
73
19,1
169
44,2
140
36,6
65
17
142
37,2
175
45,8
382
Favorite brands
Cultural values
Women
38
20,4
83
44,6
65
34,9
,555
9
4,8
54
29
123
66,1
,000*
186
100
Men
32
16,3
89
45,4
75
38,3
38
19,4
69
35,2
89
45,4
196
Total
70
18,3
172
45
140
36,6
47
12,3
123
32,2
212
55,5
382
Economic situation
Social status
Women
4
2,2
28
15,1
154
82,8
,000
21
11,3
48
25,8
117
62,9
,080
186
100
Men
26
13,3
74
37,8
96
49
30
15,3
65
33,2
101
51,5
196
Total
30
7,9
102
26,7
250
65,4
51
13,4
113
29,6
218
57,1
382
Quality
Psychological situation
Women
7
3,8
36
19,4
143
76,9
,000
21
11,3
72
38,7
93
50
,000*
186
100
Men
23
11,7
78
39,8
95
48,5
58
29,6
80
40,8
58
29,6
196
Total
30
7,9
114
29,8
238
62,3
79
20,7
152
39,8
151
39,5
382
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When Table 3 is examined, it can be seen that 65.4 percent of the
sample group is influenced by the personal factor "economic situation" and
that 82.8 percent of women are concentrated on the "always" choice. The
"quality" factor ranks second with 62.3 percent with women (76.9 percent)
seen as being influenced by this more than men (48.5 percent). Social status
ranks third among the factors influencing sample group's purchasing
behavior with 75.1 percent. Here, too, the proportion of women (62.9
percent) is higher than for men (51.5 percent). These are followed in order
by cultural values, family and close circle then psychological situation.
These factors too influence women to a higher degree than men.
Products and brand names are all status symbols for the individual
and people prefer products and services that reflect their role and status in
society (Kotler, 1984, 167). When Table 3 is studies in this regard, it can be
seen that both factors "always" influence the purchasing behavior of 36.6
percent of the sample group and that this proportion is important when the
ratios for "sometimes" are taken into account. Keller and Richey (2006)
argue that “a product brand personality that typically relates to consumers
and user imagery for a specific product brand” ( p.74).
Brand personality has been defined as the human characteristics or
traits that can be attributed to a brand. The fact that there is a higher
concentration of women in the fashion factor and a higher concentration of
men in the brand name factor is thought of as the gender factor's distinct
difference.
The Chi-Square test results in Table 3 show a statistically significant
(p<0.05) relationship between all the factors influencing the sample group's
clothing purchasing behavior by gender apart from the fashion, brand name
and social status factors.
In conclusion just as the factors influencing the sample group's
clothing purchasing behavior can be listed in order as personal, social and
psychological factors, it can be said that women are more influenced by
these factors than men are.
Consumers' beliefs and attitudes have a marked effect on their
purchasing behavior when it comes to choosing types of clothing and brand
names. Attitude is a person's evaluation of, or feelings or inclination towards
objects and ideas, and can be positive or negative. Belief covers knowledge,
points of view and opinions (Durukan, 2006, p.38). Therefore, consumers'
opinions about fashion and brand names, which appear to be an important
factor when choosing clothing, are able to affect their attitudes and have an
impact on their purchasing behavior. The findings concerning the sample
group's opinions on fashion and brand names by gender are presented in
Table 4.
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Table 4 Opinions by Gender About Fashion and Brand Name Clothing
Gender
p
Total
FASHİON
BRAND
Closely following fashion makes a
person feel good
Brand name products are better
quality
Disagree
Partly
Agree
Agree
p
Disagree
Partly
Agree
Agree
f
%
f
%
f
%
df: 2
f
%
f
%
f
%
df: 2
f
%
Women
81 43,5 58 31,2 47 25,3
,270
65
34,9
60
32,3
61
32,8
,000
*
186 100
Men
70 35,7 73 37,2 53 27
39
19,9
110
56,1
47
24
196
Total
151
39,5
131
34,3
100
26,2
104
27,2
170
44,5
108
28,3
382
Fashion clothing is different and
unique
Brand names create a specific image
Women
39
21
65
34,9
82
44,1
,731
81
43,5
64
34,4
41
22
,007*
186
100
Men
36
18,4
75
38,3
85
43,4
55
28,1
84
42,9
57
29,1
196
Total
75
19,6
140
36,6
167
43,7
136
35,6
148
38,7
98
25,7
382
Fashion clothing makes a person
stand out
It is easier to find the desired model
in brand name clothing
Women
82
44,1
64
34,4
40
21,5
,000*
70
37,6
52
28
64
34,4
,001*
186
100
Men
41
20,9
80
40,8
75
38,3
46
23,5
86
43,9
64
32,7
196
Total
123
32,2
144
37,7
115
30,1
116
30,4
138
36,1
1128
33,5
382
Closely following fashion is
expensive
The best clothing is made by well-
known brands
Women
59
31,7
53
28,5
74
39,8
,006
65
34,9
64
34,4
57
30,6
,012*
186
100
Men
35
17,9
74
37,8
87
44,4
63
32,1
94
48
39
19,9
196
Total
94
24,6
127
33,2
161
42,1
128
33,5
158
41,4
96
25,1
382
When the opinions about fashion in Table 4 are examined it can be
seen that 43.5 percent of women and 35.7 percent of men do not agree with
the opinion that "closely following fashion makes a person feel good" yet it
can be said that the proportion of people who said "sometimes" is worthy of
note. It can also be seen that 39.8 percent of women and 44.4 percent of men
believe that "closely following fashion is expensive."
While 44.1 percent of women and 43.4 percent of men agreed with
the opinion that "Fashion clothing is different and unique," 44.1 percent of
women did not agree with the opinion that "fashion clothing makes a person
stand out" but 38.3 percent of men did agree with it. Given these results it
may be said that a significant proportion of the sample group was
concentrated on the opinion that following fashion was expensive and that
fashion clothing was different and unique, and that men more than women
espoused the opinion that fashion clothing made a person stand out. The
Chi-Square test results showed a statistically significant relationship between
gender and the opinions "Closely following fashion is expensive" (p=.006)
and "Fashion clothing makes a person stand out" (p=.000).
When the sample group's opinions concerning brand names are
examined it can be seen that 32.8 percent of women agree with the opinion
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that brand name products are better quality and that 32,3 percent partly agree
with this opinion while 24 percent of men agree with it and 56.1 percent
partly agree with it. When the "sometimes" option is taken into account it
can be said that men with 80.1 percent agree with the opinion "brand names
are better quality" more than women with 70.1 percent.
While 29.1 percent of men agreed with the opinion that "brand names
create a specific image" 42.9 percent of women partly agreed with this. This
is supported by the idea that "Consumers treat products and brand names
according to the image they have created and they purchase the image not
the product" (Altunışık, 2004, p. 45). Given that 43.5 percent of women did
not agree with this opinion and that similar results were observed for the
opinion "the best clothing is made by well-known brands" may be
interpreted as men having a more positive approach to brand name clothing
than women. Given that a significant proportion of male consumers feel the
need to purchase clothing because of the working environment (Table 2) it
can be said that the opinion expressed by Rio and colleagues (2001) saying,
"Consumers want to possess a specific brand in order to belong to a group
and to possess a good reputation within that group" (p.412) supports this
interpretation.
Some 34.4 percent of women and 32.7 percent of men stated they
agreed with the opinion that "It is easier to find the desired model in brand
name clothing." If the proportion of those who answered "sometimes" is
taken into account it can be said that the previous interpretation concerning
men's feelings for brand name clothing may still be valid. The Chi-Square
test results in Table 4 show a statistically significant (p<0.05) relationship
between gender and all opinions about brand names.
Table 5 Sample Group's Purchasing Behavior by Opinion of Fashion Clothing
FASHİON
Closely following fashion makes a person feel good
I am one of those Who
are the first to
purchase the new
products presented by
fashion
Disagree
Partly
Agree
Agree
Total
f % f % f % f %
p
Disagree
Women
56 57,1 27 27,6 15 15,3 98
100
,640
Men
42 58,3 16 22,2 14 19,4 72
Total
98
57,6
43
25,3
29
17,1
170
Partly
Agree
Women
12
26,7
23
51,1
10
22,2
45
,866
Men
20
31,3
30
46,9
14
21,9
64
Total
32
29,4
53
48,6
24
22
109
Agree
Women
13
30,2
8
18,6
22
51,2
43
,010*
Men
8
13,3
27
45
25
41,7
60
Total
21
20,4
35
34
47
45,6
103
Fashion clothing is different and unique
European Scientific Journal March 2016 edition vol.12, No.7 ISSN: 1857 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
244
Disagree
Women
22
22,4
35
35,7
41
41,8
98
100
,112
Men
8
11,1
34
47,2
30
41,7
72
Total
30
17,6
69
40,6
71
41,8
170
Partly
Agree
Women
10
22,2
24
53,3
11
24,4
45
,355
Men
12
18,8
28
43,8
24
37,5
64
Total
22
20,2
52
47,7
35
32,1
109
Agree
Women
7
16,3
6
14
30
69,8
43
,182
Men
16
26,7
13
21,7
31
51,7
60
Total
23
22,3
19
18,4
61
59,2
103
Fashion clothing makes a person stand out
Disagree
Women
55
56,1
34
34,7
9
9,2
98
100
,000*
Men
25
34,7
23
31,9
24
33,3
72
Total
80 47,1 57 33,5 33 19,4 170
Partly
Agree
Women
21
46,7
15
33,3
9
20
45
,002*
Men
10
15,6
37
57,8
17
26,6
64
Total
31
28,4
52
47,7
26
23,9
109
Agree
Women
6
14
15
34,9
22
51,2
43
,781
Men
6
10
20
33,3
34
56,7
60
Total
12
11,7
35
34
56
54,4
103
Closely following fashion is
expensive
Disagree
Women
26
26,5
31
31,6
41
41,8
98
100
,506
Men
17
23,6
29
40,3
26
36,1
72
Total
43
25,3
60
35,3
67
34,4
170
Partly
Agree
Women
23
51,1
8
17,8
14
31,1
45
,000*
Men
10
15,6
30
46,9
24
37,5
64
Total
33
30,3
38
34,9
38
34,9
109
Agree
Women
10
23,3
14
32,6
19
44,2
43
,189
Men
8
13,3
15
25
37
61,7
60
Total
18
17,5
29
28,2
56
54,4
103
In Table 5 when the clothing purchasing behavior of the sample
group given their opinions of fashion clothing is examined a statistically
significant relationship (p=.010) can be seen between those who agree with
the opinion that "Closely following fashion makes a person feel good" and
those "who are the first to purchase the new products presented by fashion."
This makes for the conclusion that a person's opinions influence their
purchasing behavior. The statistically significant relationship between those
who "sometimes" are "the first to purchase new products presented by
fashion" and those who think "fashion clothing makes a person stand out"
(p=.002) and those who think "closely following fashion is expensive"
(p=.000) may be interpreted in the same way.
European Scientific Journal March 2016 edition vol.12, No.7 ISSN: 1857 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
245
Table 6 Sample Group's Purchasing Behavior by Opinion of Brand Name Clothing
In Table 6 when the sample group's clothing purchasing behavior by
opinion of brand name clothing is examined a statistically significant
relationship (p=.001) can be seen between those who disagree with the
I am one of those who are the first
buy new products presented by
brand names
BRAND
Total
Brand name products are better
quality
Disagree
Partly
Agree
Agree
f
%
f
%
f
%
f
%
p
Disagree
Women
41
38
34
31,5
33
30,6
108
Men
15
18,8
47
58,8
18
22,5
80
100
,001*
Total
56
29,8
81
43,1
51
27,1
188
Partly Agree
Women
14
31,1
20
44,4
11
24,4
45
,081
Men
12
16,4
47
64,4
14
19,2
73
Total
26
22
67
56,8
25
21,2
118
Agree
Women
10
30,3
6
18,2
17
51,5
33
,165
Men
12
27,9
16
37,2
15
34,9
43
Total
22
28,9
22
28,9
32
42,1
76
Brand names create a specific
image
Disagree
Women
63
58,3
31
28,7
14
13
108
100
,148
Men
37
46,3
25
31,3
18
22,5
80
Total
100
53,2
56
29,8
32
17
188
Partly Agree
Women
12
26,7
20
44,4
13
28,9
45
,384
Men
15
20,5
42
57,5
16
21,9
73
Total
27
22,9
62
52,5
29
24,6
118
Agree
Women
6
18,2
13
39,4
14
42,4
33
,294
Men
3
7
17
39,5
23
53,5
43
Total
9
11,8
30
39,5
37
48,7
76
It is easier to find the desired model in brand name clothing
Disagree
Women
55
50,9
26
24,1
27
25
108
100
,083
Men
28
35
23
28,8
29
36,3
80
Total
83
44,1
49
26,1
56
29,8
188
Partly Agree
Women
9
20
17
37,8
19
42,2
45
,012*
Men
9
12,3
48
65,8
16
21,9
73
Total
18
15,3
65
55,1
35
29,7
118
Agree
Women
6
18,2
9
27,3
18
54,5
33
,662
Men
9
20,9
15
34,9
19
44,2
43
Total
15
19,7
24
31,6
37
48,7
76
The best clothing is made by well-known brands
Disagree
Women
52
48,1
36
33,3
20
18,5
108
100
,046*
Men
29
36,3
41
51,3
10
12,5
80
Total
81
43,1
77
41
30
16
188
Partly Agree
Women
9
20
17
37,8
19
42,2
45
,040*
Men
10
13,7
45
61,6
18
24,7
73
Total
19
16,1
62
52,5
37
31,4
118
Agree
Women
4
12,1
11
33,3
18
54,5
33
,000*
Men
24
55,8
8
18,6
11
25,6
43
Total
28
36,8
19
25
29
38,2
76
European Scientific Journal March 2016 edition vol.12, No.7 ISSN: 1857 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
246
option "I am one of those who first buy new products presented by brand
names" and those who believe "brand name products are better quality." A
statistically significant relationship (p=.012) was also found between those
who answered that they "sometimes" are "among the first to purchase new
products presented by brand names I like" and those who believe "The
desired model is more easily found with brand name clothing." Similarly, a
statistically significant relationship was found between the people "partly"
agreeing with the opinion that "the best clothes are brand name clothes"
(p=.040) and those who agreed with this opinion (p=.000).
The results in Table 5 and Table 6 may be treated as showing a
significant parallel between consumers' opinions about fashion and brand
name products and their clothing purchasing behavior.
Conclusion and Suggestions
It has been suggested that male and female consumers demonstrate
considerably different approaches in their decision-making and purchasing
behavior when shopping for clothing for a variety of different reasons. For
this reason, this study is centered on determining the degree to which gender
affects the purchasing behavior of consumers buying fashion items and on
determining what the differences between male and female consumer clothing
purchasing behavior might be. The following conclusions were reached in this
study, which aimed to determine the differences in men and women
consumers' clothing purchasing behavior with respect to the different genders'
opinions about fashion and brand names:
Even though an overwhelming majority of men and women say they
purchase clothing when they feel the need to, proportionally more women
than men say they purchase clothing "to bolster their spirits" but when the
total proportions of men answering "sometimes" and "always" are taken into
account it can be seen that men more than women purchase clothing "In
order to conform to fashion."
It can be seen that the first three factors influencing the sample
group's clothing purchasing behavior are in order economic situation, quality
and status followed in order by cultural values, family and close circle then
psychological situation, and that women are more affected by these factors
than men.
It can be seen that a significant proportion of the sample group was
concentrated around the opinion that closely following fashion is expensive
and that fashion clothing is different and unique; it can also be seen that
more men than women espouse the opinion that fashion clothing makes a
person stand out.
It can be seen that when purchasing clothing women are more
influenced by fashion while men are more influenced by brand names.
European Scientific Journal March 2016 edition vol.12, No.7 ISSN: 1857 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431
247
It was concluded that there is a significant parallel between the
sample group's opinions about fashion and brand name clothing and their
clothing purchasing behavior.
It is thought that it would be beneficial for both corporate and consumer
satisfaction if those businesses that manufacture clothing and that necessarily
have to adapt to today's competitive climate and continually produce new
products were to carry out research aimed at their own consumer masses
when creating new products taking these kinds of studies into account.
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This new edition retains ints authoritative presentation of marketing theory while still maintaining an interesting and engaging writing style. Stewart Adam, Deakin University; Sara Denize, University of Western Sydney, Australia. <br /
Article
This study examines the effectiveness of different fashion marketing strategies and analyzes of the consumer behavior in a cross-section of demographic settings in reference to fashion apparel retailing. This paper also discusses the marketing competencies of fashion apparel brands and retailers in reference to brand image, promotions, and externalmarket knowledge. The study examines the determinants of consumer behavior and their impact on purchase intentions towards fashion apparel. The results reveal that sociocultural and personality related factors induce the purchase intentions among consumers. One of the contributions that this research extends is the debate about the converging economic, cognitive and brand related factors to induce purchase intentions. Fashion loving consumers typically patronage multi-channel retail outlets, designer brands, and invest time and cost towards an advantageous product search. The results of the study show a positive effect of store and brand preferences on developing purchase intentions for fashion apparel among consumers.
Article
Marketing science has so far devoted very limited attention to the determination of corporate brand images through industry images. Our research, therefore, addresses the question whether industry images determine corporate images and if so, which variables moderate the effect. To accomplish this, a conceptual framework is developed and evaluated in a quantitative, empirical research design. The results demonstrate that corporate brand image is indeed determined by the industry image, and that this determination is moderated by involvement and knowledge about the specific corporation.Journal of Brand Management (2008) 15, 157–176. doi:10.1057/palgrave.bm.2550112; published online 7 September 2007
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This paper considers the importance of employees in the process of building customer experience. The paper states that internal investment is rewarded with consistent, quality customer exchanges. Emphasis is first placed on the positioning of brand management within an organisation, and its linkage to strategy. Secondly, the tools of identity and guiding principles are introduced. These tools are used to activate staff by inviting their engagement and by asking them to review the brand from a personal perspective. Identity encourages employees to interpret corporate identity and apply it to their unique situation and skill set. Guiding principles serve as a platform to nurture desired behaviours in the organisation. Together, these two tools better prepare staff to respond to customers. Brand values are presented as the currency to measure the worth of exchanges between organisations and their customers. The paper concludes by presenting a case study of the mobile operator, Orange, during the period 1994–2003.
Article
Brand personality has been defined as the human characteristics or traits that can be attributed to a brand. Corporate brand personality is a form of brand personality specific to a corporate brand. Unlike a product brand personality that typically relates to consumers and user imagery for a specific product brand, a corporate brand personality can be defined in terms of the human characteristics or traits of the employees of the corporation as a whole. A corporate brand personality will reflect the values, words, and actions of all employees of the corporation. A successful 21st century firm must carefully manage its corporate brand personality. The three core dimensions of corporate brand personality and two traits for each dimension that are crucial for marketplace success are outlined as Passionate and Compassionate (Heart), Creative and Disciplined (Mind) and Agile and Collaborative (Body). These traits have an interactive effect such that the effects of one trait can be enhanced by the existence of another.Journal of Brand Management (2006) 14, 74–81. doi:10.1057/palgrave.bm.2550055