Chapter

Politeness distinctions in personal pronouns: A case study on competing motivations

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Abstract

This book examines the issue of competing motivations in grammar and language use. The term “competing motivations” refers to the conflicting factors that shape the content and form of grammatical rules and which speakers and addressees need to contend with when expressing themselves, or when trying to comprehend messages. For example, there are on-going competitions between the speaker's interests and the addressee's needs, or between constraints imposed by grammar and those imposed by online processing. These competitions impact a wide variety of systems, including case marking, agreement, and word order, politeness forms, lexical choices, and the position of relative clauses. The twenty-one studies are mostly based on English data but evidence from many languages is also discussed. In addition to grammar and usage in adult language, many of the chapters analyze data from first- and second-language acquisition as well; others probe into the motivations that drive historical change.

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Neste novo Vol. 7 de CUMIEIRA (2022) recóllense cinco investigacións, a de Lucía Salceda García sobre a imaxe da muller como «coidadora», a partir da análise de varias obras literarias galegas; a de María Pol López sobre o uso da gheada en tres xeracións de familias do concello de Lalín; a de Andrea Gamallo Valladares sobre as actitudes lingüísticas do alumnado de 1º de Bacharelato de cinco centros educativos, públicos e privados, da cidade de Vigo; a de Uxía Esmeralda Casabianca Rodríguez sobre as formas de tratamento en tres xeracións de familias de toda Galicia; e, finalmente, a de Sol Vilas González sobre o papel dos medios de comunicación no proceso de normalización do galego.
Conference Paper
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Language use mostly takes place in conversation, regardless of it being online or face-to-face (PASCUAL, 2014). Over the past years, communication has taken place online, through social media (GERBAUDO, 2012), encompassing specific resources for communication, namely hashtags and emoticons (BARTON and LEE, 2013). Meanwhile, such interactive environment may lead to challenging of mainstream ideologies, once diversity is brought about (PIHLAJA and MUSOLFF, 2017). Despite the various interactions demanded by different social networking websites, aggressive interaction alongside conflict between dominant and emergent ideologies have called scholars’ attention in the literature (PIHLAJA and MUSOLFF, 2017). As language may convey violence in a symbolic way (CULPEPER and HARDAKER, 2017) and we may refer to virtual events even when we are concerned about “real” ones (LANGACKER, 1999), the aim of this paper was to analyse the fictive speech acts (LANGACKER, 1999) that pervade interactions which were impolite (CULPEPER, 2005) or potentially face-threatening (GOFFMAN, 1955) on Twitter. The analysis relied on the theoretical framework of impoliteness in Culpeper (2005) and of fictive speech acts in Langacker (1999) and Pascual (2014). In order to carry out the analysis, tweets from Twitter users White People and Shit White People Ruin and their respective threads were collected. The use of fictivity for irony or other impolite purposes was observed. The results showed that the replies encompassed a varied use of fictive strategies compared to their original posts. Furthermore, hashtags and emojis appeared to play an important role in the fictive speeches, sanctioning the intended ironical, impolite messages conveyed.
Article
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This study contributes to the documentation and description of the diversity of Kalahari Khoe languages in eastern Botswana. Kalahari Khoe languages have highly complex pronominal systems with extensive paradigms of portmanteau morphemes encoding person, gender, and number categories. This study focuses on Thabala Tchoe, an entirely undocumented Kalahari Khoe language. Features of the Thabala Tchoe pronominal system set it apart from descriptions of closely and more distantly related languages. In this paper, I offer a formal and functional analysis of these features, which include honorific and focus sensitive pronouns, and innovative forms which offer contemporary evidence for the historical development of the complex pronominal system. This analysis is explored against the background of historical contact patterns between different Kalahari Khoe speech communities and Tswana merafe, or ‘clans’, in region.
Article
This research is aimed at describing the use of personal pronouns of Banjarese and American English.The research uses the Convergent Parallel Design. Data are collected by using two kinds of questionnaires. The first is for 37 students belonging to Banjar Kuala Dialect (BKD), and the second is for 24 students belonging to Banjar Hulu Dialect (BHD). Research result shows that Banjarese and American English’ pronouns are based on singular and plural distinction although Banjarese does not have a gender distinction as in the American English. The personal pronouns are the first, second and third persons. English personal pronouns depend mostly on the grammatical role while Banjarese personal pronouns can indicate the social status or the relation of the speaker and other persons in the discourse. Personal pronouns can reveal the social status, and they can the politeness or impoliteness of the speakers.
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