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Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing

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The volume contains the double-blind peer reviewed paper accepted for the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA) 2016, held at Melbourne School of Design, University of Melbourne, Australia. They provide a snapshot of leading research in the field by researchers from around the world.
The 21st International Conference
on Computer-Aided Architectural
Design Research in Asia
CAADRIA
2016
Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards
Continuous Designing
Edited by:
Sheng-Fen Chien
Seungyeon Choo
Marc Aurel Schnabel
Walaiporn Nakapan
Mi Jeong Kim
Stanislav Roudavski
CAADRIA 2016
The 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia
Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing
©2016 All rights reserved and published by
The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design
Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong
The volume contains the double-blind peer reviewed paper
accepted for the 21st International Conference on
Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia
(CAADRIA) 2016, held at Melbourne School of Design,
University of Melbourne, Australia. They provide a
snapshot of leading research in the eld by researchers
from around the world.
Living Systems and Micro-Utopias:
Towards Continuous Designing
March 30 - APRIL 2, 2016
Melbourne School of Design
University of Melbourne, Australia
9026727898819
ISBN 9789881902672
LIVING&SYSTEMS&AND&MICRO1UTOPIAS:&&
TOWARDS&CONTINUOUS&DESIGNING&
Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided
Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016)
Edited by
Sheng-Fen Chien
National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
Seungyeon Choo
Kyungpook National University, Korea
Marc Aurel Schnabel
Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Walaiporn Nakapan
Rangsit University, Thailand
Mi Jeong Kim
Kyung Hee University, Korea
and
Stanislav Roudavski
The University of Melbourne, Australia
Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing
21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design
Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016)
30 March2 April 2016
Melbourne School of Design
The University of Melbourne, Australia
©2016 All rights reserved and published by
The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia
(CAADRIA), Hong Kong
ISBN: 978-988-19026-7-2
Cover design by Paul Loh
Printed by Doculink, Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
i
ABOUT CAADRIA
The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia
(CAADRIA) promotes teaching and research in CAAD in the wider Austral-
asian region, and has members on six continents.
CAADRIA was founded in 1996 with the following objectives:
- To facilitate the dissemination of information about CAAD among Aus-
tralasian schools of architecture, planning, engineering, and building sci-
ences
- To encourage the exchange of staff, students, experience, courseware, and
software among schools
- To identify research and develop needs in CAAD education and to initiate
collaboration to satisfy them
- To promote research and teaching in CAAD that enhances creativity rather
than production
CAADRIA organizes among others annual conferences, the first of which
was held in 1996 in Hong Kong. Since then, 20 conferences have been held
in Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore,
Taiwan, and Thailand. The 21st conference in 2016 is held at The University
of Melbourne, Australia. The conferences provide an opportunity for teach-
ers, students, researchers, and practitioners to meet each other and learn
about the latest research in the field compiled under a unique theme reflect-
ing the state-of-the-art research and undertakings in the field. The proceed-
ings of the conferences are available both online and in research libraries
around the world.
CAADRIA is one of the four founding organizations of the International
Journal of Architectural Computing (IJAC), and co-edits one issue each
year. IJAC is published by Multi-Science in both paper and electronic ver-
sions.
Teng-Wen Chang
President, CAADRIA
ii
CAADRIA Officers
President: Teng-Wen Chang, National Yunlin University of Science and
Technology, Taiwan
Secretary: Sambit Datta, Curtin University, Australia
Treasurer: Patrick Janssen, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Membership Officer: Christiane M. Herr, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool
University, China
Outreach Officer: Mi Jeong Kim, Kyung Hee University, Korea
Communication Officer: Ruwan Fernando, Griffith University, Australia
Organization Officer: Weixin Huang, Tsinghua University, China
Publication Officer: Rudi Stouffs, National University of Singapore,
Singapore
Web Master: June-Hao Hou, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
Administrative Officer: Marc Aurel Schnabel, Victoria University of
Wellington, New Zealand
CAADRIA Committees (2015-2016)
Award/Scholarship Committee: Teng-Wen Chang
Paper Selection Committee: Sheng-Fen Chien (Chair), Seungyeon Choo,
Marc Aurel Schnabel, Walaiporn Nakapan, Mi Jeong Kim, and
Stanislav Roudavsk
PG Students Consortium: Andrew Li (Chair) and Ajibade Aibinu
Sasada Award Committee: Tom Kvan, Yu-Tung Liu, Teng-Wen Chang, and
Atsuko Kaga
IJAC Editor: Sambit Datta and Wendy Fok
Honorary Advisors
John Gero, George Mason University, USA
Ramesh Krishnamurti, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Thomas Kvan, University of Melbourne, Australia
Mitsuo Morozumi, Kumamoto University, Japan
Jin-Yeu Tsou, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
Aleppo Yu-Tung Liu, Asia University, Taiwan
Robert F. Woodbury, Simon Fraser University, Canada
iii
CONFERENCE THEME
Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards
Continuous Designing
Today, human activities constitute the primary environmental impact on the
planet. In this context, commitments to sustainability, or minimization of
damage, prove insufficient. To develop regenerative, futuring1 capabilities,
architectural design needs to extend beyond the form and function of things
in contained projects and engage with the management of complex systems.
Such systems involve multiple types of dynamic phenomena biotic and
abiotic, technical and cultural and can be understood as living. Engage-
ment with such living systems implies manipulation of pervasive and un-
ceasing change, irrespective of whether it is accepted by design stakeholders
or actively managed towards homeostatic or homeorhetic conditions. Ma-
nipulation of continuity requires holistic and persistent design involvements.
In other words, “designers should become the facilitators of flow, rather than
the originators of maintainable ‘things’ such as discrete products or imag-
es”2.
Responding to this challenge, CAADRIA 2016 seeks to interrogate the
notion of continuity and the applicable architectural toolsets in order to map
and discover opportunities for innovation. Can architecture utilize computing
to dynamically specify services and allocate resources to control flows of
matter, energy, money or people3? Can architecture overcome the impossi-
bility of perfect design by focusing on the co-emergence of technical sys-
tems and their user communities? Can it extend and radicalize the idea of
lifecycle management, for example towards the inclusion of non-human
stakeholders?
Engagement with complex dynamic systems poses difficult conceptual,
technical and ethical challenges. To mention but a few: How can the lon-
gevity of living systems be affected through technologies for the capturing
1 Fry, T.: 2008, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, Berg, Oxford.
2 Wood, J.: 2007, Design for Micro-Utopias: Making the Unthinkable Possible, Gower,
Aldershot.
3 Thackara, J.: 2005, In the Bubble: Designing in a Complex World, MIT Press, Cambridge,
MA.
iv
and sharing of knowledge, including BIM, APIs or technical standards? How
do living systems equip and curtail design action, for example through inter-
actions in creative programming, open hardware and parametric modelling
communities? How does stabilization of technical knowledge in data types,
algorithms, computational objects, languages or user interfaces affect the ca-
pability of designers to imagine alternative futures? Can modelling and sim-
ulation tools of architectural design cope with the inherent unpredictability
of complex systems by integrating such approaches as big data analysis or
pervasive computing? Can advances in fabrication and mechatronics support
design that functions analogously with the mechanism that evolutionary bi-
ologists call adaptive niche construction? What educational approaches are
appropriate and future-ready in a world of global and accelerating change?
This list of questions could be readily extended.
Crucially, research into more holistic, ecological approaches to architec-
tural design must overcome a methodological mismatch of spatial, temporal
and organizational scales. The ecologies of real-world living systems are in-
calculably more extensive than the bounded experimental prototypes that are
possible in research and education. What strategies and technologies can be
employed to overcome this dilemma?
CAADRIA 2016 proposes to interrogate whether and how designers’ ca-
pacity to create micro-utopias2 can illuminate or redirect complex, longer-
term processes and probe into alternative futures. Examples of relevant
methods include, but are not limited to, critical making4 and critical technical
practice5, interrogative6, critical and speculative design7 and wild or feral
computing8.
CAADRIA 2016’s theme of Continuous Designing offers a viewpoint for
interrogation of all research in design and computation, including, for exam-
ple: theory, philosophy and methodology of design research; education; col-
laborative and interdisciplinary design strategies; stakeholder participation;
design innovation and creativity; generative, parametric and evolutionary de-
sign; visualisation, virtualisation modelling, simulation and prediction; city,
4 Ratto, M.: 2011, ‘Critical Making: Conceptual and Material Studies in Technology and
Social Life’, The Information Society, 27(4), 252260.
5 Agre, P. E.: 1997, Toward a Critical Technical Practice: Lessons Learned in Trying to
Reform AI, in G. Bowker, L. Gasser, L. Star & B. Turner (eds.), Bridging the Great Divide:
Social Science, Technical Systems, and Cooperative Work, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 131158.
6 Wodiczko, K.: 1999, Interrogative Design, in K. Wodiczko (ed.), Critical Vehicles: Writings,
Projects, Interviews, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA; London, 1617.
7 Dunne, A. & Raby, F.: 2013, Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming,
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
8 Fuller, M. & Matos, S.: 2011, 'Feral Computing: From Ubiquitous Calculation to Wild
Interactions', Fibreculture Journal, 135, 144163.
v
site and building information modelling; human-computer interaction; ubiq-
uitous and pervasive computing; sensing; artificial autonomy and intelli-
gence; mechatronics; fabrication, construction, optimization, mass customi-
sation, and others.
Conference Organizing Committee
Jane Burry, RMIT University, Australia
Dominik Holzer, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Paul Loh, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Stanislav Roudavski, The University of Melbourne, Australia
vi
KEYNOTE I
SOME CRITERIA FOR MAPPING CONSCIOUSNESS IN
LIVING BUILDINGS
JOHN WOOD
Goldsmiths, University of London, London, United Kingdom
In discussing ways to re-direct the current Building Information Modelling
(BIM) agenda, John draws upon theories of living systems furnished by
Maturana & Varela and Jakob von Uexküll. He asks whether BIM could be
developed to make future buildings come to life? By regarding buildings as
inanimate, we accept them as fundamentally dissipative. This is because the
passive idea of ‘conserving’ building reflects the pessimistic logic of classi-
cal thermodynamics. By contrast, the life sciences depict living creatures as
systems that maintain their collective survival by resisting entropy. The rea-
son why thermostats and clocks are the dumbest gadgets on the planet is be-
cause they are expressly designed to ignore their own role and context. If
BIM files were to be interactively updated by the metabolic states of a given
building, this might help it to acquire a level of consciousness that includes
its own presence and interdependency with the habitat. Ultimately, perhaps
living buildings will learn to share tasks with their inhabitants on a symbiotic
basis.
vii
KEYNOTE II
BEYOND BIM DIGITAL PLANNING AND
CONSTRUCTION AS CONTINUOUS DESIGNING
FABIAN SCHEURER
designtoproduction, Zürich, Switzerland
Discussions around Digital Practice and Building Information Modelling
(BIM) are currently omnipresent across the building industry.
Drawing from application in practice, the Zürich-based studio designto-
production has successfully been investigating the consequent shift towards
digital approaches in construction over the past 10 years. Working predomi-
nantly on the back-end of project execution, the interdisciplinary team
around architect Arnold Walz and computer scientist Fabian Scheurer helps
architects, designers, engineers, and manufacturers bridge the gap between
idea and realization when it comes to so-called “Non-Standard-
Architecture”. At CAADRIA 2016 designtoproduction’s founding member
Fabian Scheurer will (based on a select number of reference projects) reflect
on the fact that the future trend of ‘digital construction’ has in effect - long
been a reality in contemporary practice.
In his keynote address, Fabian will explain the paths designtoproduction
takes in the efficient and high-quality planning and realization of designs
whose complex shapes could be neither described with conventional meth-
ods nor built from standard components. The services of designtoproduction
range from consulting for parametric planning, detailing, optimization and
digital manufacturing, to the development of parametric CAD-models and
the implementation of complete digital production chains, from design
through fabrication, logistics and assembly.
The CAADRIA keynote will highlight how, during the past years,
designtoproduction has successfully worked on projects by renowned archi-
tects like Zaha Hadid, Renzo Piano, Daniel Libeskind, SANAA, Shigeru
Ban, and UN Studio, including the Mercedes Benz Museum in Stuttgart, the
Rolex Learning Center at the EPF Lausanne, and the Centre Pompidou in
Metz.
viii
KEYNOTE III
FALLS THE SHADOW
DREW WILLIAMSON
McBride Charles Ryan, Melbourne, Australia
There have always been barriers between conception and realisation across
all spheres of creative endeavour. In architecture, historically, visions of the
future from Piranesi and Josph Gandy to Boullée, from Sant’Elia and Bru-
no Taut to Lebbeus Woods were captured in the representational media of
their time, but often not translated into the actuality they depict. Indeed, such
‘visions’ were inherently perspectival and resisted realisation, either through
limitations of translation (communication, orthographic representation, geo-
metric description), industry (material engineering, construction techniques),
opportunity (demand, brief, budget) or any combination of these factors. Be-
tween the idea and the reality fell the shadow. Over time technologies have
developed to overcome these barriers and facilitate each ‘project’s’ delivery.
Applying Robin Evans’s definition of design as ‘action at a distance’, in-
creasingly that distance is being reduced.
Advances in this regard have been evident over the last twenty years as
practicing architects have become increasingly conversant in the digital gen-
eration of three-dimensional form. Limitations to architectural expression
have been less one of geometric description as one of communication be-
tween the professions and contractors involved in delivering the projects
through to completion. The shift was one from ‘computation-enabling-
expression’ to ‘computation-enabling-collaboration’.
Bill Mitchell articulated his observations on this period as a relationship
between ‘design complexity’ on the one hand and ‘construction complexity’
on the other, and foresaw how the development and application of digital de-
sign technologies were enabling the realisation of design complexity in built
projects. Yet the experience in practice at delivering innovative architecture
with an increasing richness of expression has shown that conceiving of non-
conventional geometries and material assemblies and describing the builda-
bility of these to clients, consultants and contractors, only addresses part of
the problem. Fundamental barriers still remain, specifically in regard to pro-
ject viability due to construction cost. ‘Complexity’ in design intent is still
synonymous with ‘difficult’ and therefore ‘expensive’. In practice, such bar-
riers appear to have been amplified by the same processes that have, con-
ix
versely, elsewhere enabled complexity and diversity: management, simplifi-
cation, efficiencies… If these cannot be solved through computation alone,
where should the focus of our research now be?
x
FOREWORD
The theme of Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous
Designing the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided
Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016) seeks to
challenge the use of computation in architecture by interrogating how
designers’ capacity to redirect complex processes and probe into alternative
futures. Hosted by Melbourne School of Design at The University of
Melbourne, CAADRIA 2016 conference provides an international forum
where academics and practitioners share their novel, multidisciplinary
research.
These Proceedings include 86 full-length papers that were rigorously
reviewed by at least three anonymous peers from the International Review
Committee. The contribution of the 104 expert members of this committee
and the overall selection process uphold CAADRIA’s highly respected
international standing as one of the leading conferences in computer aided
design. The call for extended abstracts that was issued in July 2015 attracted
256 submissions. The Paper Selection Committee reviewed all initial
submissions and accepted 195 abstract for further development. These
abstracts resulted in 136 full-length papers. Each of these papers was then
assessed by the International Review Committee that provided anonymous
feedback and recommendations for improvement. Following the reviewers’
recommendations, 93 papers were accepted by the conference, of which 86
are finally included in this volume and presented at CAADRIA 2016.
Collectively, these 86 papers interrogate Continuous Designing from the
following research viewpoints: Big Data and Precinct/City/Spatial
Modelling; Practice-Based and Collaborative Computational Design and
Research; Shape Studies; Generative, Parametric and Evolutionary Design;
Computational Design Analysis; Human-Computer Interaction; Simulation
and Visualisation; New Digital Design Concepts and Strategies; Building
Information Modelling; 3D Printing and Robotic Assemblies; Theory,
Philosophy and Methodology of Computational Design Research;
xi
Virtual/Augmented Reality and Interactive Environments; Digital
Fabrication and Construction; Computational Design Research and
Education; and Design Cognition and Creativity. The following pages
present the wide range of scholarly papers organized under these rubrics.
Paper Selection Committee
Sheng-Fen Chien (Chair), National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
Seungyeon Choo, Kyungpook National University, Korea
Marc Aurel Schnabel, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Walaiporn Nakapan, Rangsit University, Thailand
Mi Jeong Kim, Kyung Hee University, Korea
Stanislav Roudavski, The University of Melbourne, Australia
March 2016
xii
International Review Committee
Michael Ambrose, University of Maryland, USA
Seyun An, Hanbat National University, Korea
André Araujo, University of Campinas, Brazil
Gideon Aschwanden, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Matthew Austin, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Serdar Aydin, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Phil Ayres, CITA, Denmark
Daniel Baerlecken, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
José Beirão, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Chris Beorkrem, UNC Charlotte, USA
Anand Bhatt, Architexturez Imprints, India
Johannes Braumann, Association for Robots in Architecture, Austria
AnnMarie Brennan, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Inês Caetano, Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal
Daniel Cardoso Llach, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Gabriela Celani, Unicamp, Brazil
Erik Champion, Curtin University, Australia
Tilanka Chandrasekera, Oklahoma State University, USA
Teng-Wen Chang, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
Jia-Yih Chen, Taoyuan Innovation Institute of Technology, Taiwan
Kristof Crolla, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Sambit Datta, Curtin University, Australia
Pedro de Azambuja Varela, FAUP, Portugal
Ruwan Fernando, Griffith University, Australia
Thomas Fischer, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, China
Tomohiro Fukuda, Osaka University, Japan
Fernando García Amen, University of the Republic, Uruguay
Blair Gardiner, The University of Melbourne, Australia
David Gerber, University of Southern California, USA
John Gero, UNCC, USA
Ning Gu, The University of Newcastle, Australia
M. Hank Haeusler, University of New South Wales, Australia
Jeremy Ham, RMIT University, Australia
Jie He, Tianjin University, China
Christiane M. Herr, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, China
Pablo C. Herrera, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Peru
June-Hao Hou, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
Weixin Huang, Tsinghua University, China
Yinghsiu Huang, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan
Shuyi Huang, Tongji University, China
Jie-Eun Hwang, University of Seoul, Korea
Yasushi Ikeda, Keio University, Japan
Aswin Indraprastha, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
xiii
Patrick Janssen, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Taysheng Jeng, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
Guohua Ji, Nanjing University, China
Sam Joyce, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore
Saleh Kalantari, Washington State University, USA
Jeff Kan, City University, Hong Kong
Chin Koi Khoo, Deakin University, Australia
Joachim Kieferle, Hochschule RheinMain, Germany
Sung-Ah Kim, Sungkyunkwan University, Korea
Christoph Klemmt,
Zaha Hadid Architects & University of Applied Arts Vienna, Austria
Chris Knapp, Bond University, Australia
Ramesh Krishnamurti, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
Tom Kvan, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Dennis Lagemann, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Ji-Hyun Lee, KAIST, Korea
Surapong Lertsithichai, Mahidol University, Thailand
Andrew Li, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan
Chieh-Jen Lin, Tainan University of Technology, Taiwan
Yuezhong Liu, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Tian Tian Sky Lo, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Paul Loh, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Thorsten Lomker, Zayed University Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Russell Loveridge, NCCR Digital Fabrication - ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Elisa Lublasser, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
João Magalhães Rocha, Évora University, Portugal
Bob Martens, TU Wien, Austria
James Melsom, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Tane Moleta, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Volker Mueller, Bentley Systems, USA
Hugo Mulder, IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Rizal Muslimin, The University of Sydney, Australia
Taro Narahara, NJIT, USA
Yeonjoo Oh, Hyundai Engineering and Construction, Korea
Jane Pallett, RMIT University, Australia
Hyoung-June Park, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Albertus Prawata, Bina Nusantara University, Indonesia
Daniel Prohasky, RMIT University, Australia
Ahmad Rafi, Multimedia University, Malaysia
Mohammad Rahmani Asl, Texas A&M University, USA
Luís Romão, ULisboa, Portugal
Jaeho Ryu, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Korea
Yasushi Sakai, MIT, USA
Carlos Sandoval, MIT, USA
Gerhard Schubert, Technische Universität München, Germany
Firza Sjarifudin, Bina Nusantara University, Indonesia
Miruna Sladescu, The University of Sydney, Australia
xiv
Jose Pedro Sousa, University of Porto, Portugal
Rudi Stouffs, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Atsushi Takizawa, Osaka City University, Japan
Ziyu Tong, Nanjing University, China
Cetin Tuker, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey
Tsung-Hsien Wang, Sheffield School of Architecture, UK
Shun Watanabe, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Nicholas Williams, AR-MA Architects, Australia
Albert Wiltsche, Graz University of Technology, Austria
Andrew Wit, Temple University, USA
Robert Woodbury, Simon Fraser University, Canada
Dong Yan, Tsinghua University, China
Kane Yanagawa, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
Rongrong Yu, The University of Newcastle, Australia
Yannis Zavoleas, The University of Newcastle, Australia
xv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
About CAADRIA i
Conference Theme iii
Keynotes vi
Foreword x
Big Data and Precinct/City/Spatial Modelling 1
Anthropocentric: Real-Time Data to Encourage Social Interaction
and Way Finding in Mass Transit Spaces 3
Timothy Voss and Tane Moleta
Neighbourhood Detection with Analytical Tools 13
Gideon D. P. A. Aschwanden
A Tale of Two Cities: A Cost-driven Design Optimisation in
Addis Ababa & Honolulu 23
Hyoung-June Park and Bewketu Kassa
Form-Based Code in Parametric Modelling for Continuous Urban Design 33
Yingyi Zhang and Marc Aurel Schnabel
Practice-Based and Collaborative Computational Design & Research 43
Enabling Low Cost Human Presence Tracking: Using Commodity
Hardware to Monitor Human Presence in Workplaces 45
Anniza Rizal, Ben Doherty and M. Hank Haeusler
A Study of Media Façade Service Design for Promotion of Local
Community 55
Seyun An, Yountaik Lee, Soyeon Kim and Sangho Lee
Indigenous Parametricism - Material Computation 63
Derek Kawiti, Marc Aurel Schnabel and James Durcan
Definition of a Domain-specific Language to Represent Korea Building
Act Sentences as an Explicit Computable Form 73
Seokyung Parkand Jin-Kook Lee
xvi
Shape Studies 83
Digital Generation of Chinese Ice-Ray Lattice Designs 85
Guohua Ji
Computational Analysis and Generation of Traditional Chinese Private
Gardens through Space Syntax and Parametric Design 95
Ning Gu, Rongrong Yu and Michael Ostwald
Generation of Weaving Structure on Free-Form Surface Using a
Remeshing Algorithm 105
Dong Yan, Weixin Huang and Zhida Song
The Computation of Description Grammars: Two Case Studies 115
Rudi Stouffs
Design with Bamboo Bend: Bridging Natural Material and
Computational Design 125
I-Chih Chen and June-Hao Hou
Finding Relationships between Movement and Tree Planting Patterns
in Theme Parks 135
Deedee Aram Min and Ji-Hyun Lee
Generative, Parametric and Evolutionary Design 145
Portable Generative Design for Building Information Modelling 147
Sofia Feist, Guilherme Barreto, Bruno Ferreira & António Leitão
Möbius: A Parametric Modeller for the Web 157
Patrick Janssen, Ruize Li and Akshata Mohanty
Revealing Patterns: Using Parametric Design Patterns in Building
Façade Design Workflow 167
Hsiu-Pai Su and Sheng-Fen Chien
Black-Box Optimisation Methods for Architectural Design 177
Thomas Wortmann and Giacomo Nannicini
Towards the Implementation of a Composite Cellular Automata
System for the Exploration of Design Space 187
Camilo Cruz, Justyna Karakiewicz and Michael Kirley
The Biological Model and the Bio-Type: Dynamic Simulation Tools
Defining Architectural Components 197
Yannis Zavoleas
xvii
Computational Design Analysis 207
Toward the Wind-Related Building Performative Design 209
Likai Wang, Zilong Tan and Guohua Ji
Breathing Skins for Wind Modulation through Morphology 219
M. Latifi, D. Prohasky, J. Burry, R. Moya, J. McCarthy & S. Watkins
Micro-scale Weather Data for Energy Performance Assessment in
Singapore 229
Y. Liu, R. Stouffs, A. Tablada, N. Hien Wong and J. Zhang
Design Driven Physical Experimentation: A Flexible Wind Sensing
Platform for Architects 239
D. Prohasky, R. Moya Castro, S. Watkins and J. Burry
Iterative Design Process between Physical Modelling and
Computational Simulation for Pre-Tensioned Grid Shell Structure 249
Taichi Kuma
Adaptive Building Facade Optimisation: An integrated Green-BIM
Approach 259
Jia-Yih Chen and Shao-Chu Huang
Human-Computer Interaction 269
Painterface: An Integrated Responsive Architectural Interface 271
Chin Koi Khoo and Flora Salim
Making - Gestures: Continuous Design through Real Time Human-
Machine Interaction 281
Diego Pinochet
The Implementation of Programmable Architecture: Wireless
Interaction With Dynamic Structure 291
Kensuke Hotta and Akito Hotta
Curating Architectural Collections: Interaction with Immersive
Stereoscopic Visualisation 301
Sambit Datta, Teng-Wen Chang and Joshua Hollick
A Smart Bracelet: An Alternative Interfaces between Performer
and Audience 311
Ming-Ying Wu, Kuan-Lin Chen and Yu-Chun Huang
Reflecting Self: An Interactive Mirror Study 321
Yi-Sin Wu, Teng-Wen Chang, Min-Nan Liao and Sambit Datta
xviii
Simulation and Visualisation 331
Tangible Mixed Realty: Interactive Augmented Visualisation of
Digital Simulation in Physical Working Models 333
Gerhard Schubert, Benjamin Strobel and Frank Petzold
Making Sense of Agent-Based Simulation: Developing Design
Strategy for Pedestrian-Centric Urban Space 343
Nova Asriana and Aswin Indraprastha
Physical and Numerical Simulation as a Generative Design Tool 353
Feng Yuan, Shuyi Huang and Tong Xiao
Developing a Workflow for Daylight Simulation 363
Alexander Lee, Suleiman Alhadidi and M. Hank Haeusler
For Time-Continuous Optimisation: Replacing Automation with
Interactive Visualisation in Multi-Objective Behavioural Design 373
Mary Katherine Heinrich and Phil Ayres
Multivariate Schematic Design Tooling 383
C. Beorkrem, J. Ellinger, P. Bernstein and A. Hauck
New Digital Design Concepts and Strategies 393
Digital Geo-Plexus: Instagram as a Tool for Re-Evaluating
Notions of Proximity 395
Juan Pablo Ugarte and Michael Leef
In(flatable) Mod(uli): Air-Buoyant, Form-Resistant, Temporary
Structures 405
Alessandro Liuti, Keryn Liew and Lian Chen Ng
Protocol of Error: The Design and Construction of a Bending-Active
Gridshell from Natural Bamboo 415
Kristof Crolla and Adam Fingrut
Adaptive Decorative Building Skin 425
Firza Utama Sjarifudin
The STG Pattern 435
Chieh-Jen Lin
Edition-Oriented 3D Model Rebuilt from Photography 445
Joaquim Silvestre, François Guéna and Yasushi Ikeda
xix
Building Information Modelling (BIM) 455
Smart BIM Objects for Design Intelligence 457
Szu-Yin Chen, Kokfu Lok and Taysheng Jeng
BIM-based File Synchronisation and Permission Management System
467
for Architectural Design Collaboration
Mikyoung Kim, Seungyeul Ji, Eonyong Kim and Hanjong Jun
Enhance Architectural Heritage Conservation Using BIM Technology 477
Yu-Pin Ma, Mei-Chun Lin and Cheng-Chieh Hsu
Development of the Integrated Management Environment of
BIM Property for BIM-based Sustainable Design 487
Jihye Shin, Inhan Kim and Jungsik Choi
A Study on Development of the IFC-based Indoor Spatial
Information for Data Visualisation 497
Jungrim Ryu, Jaehong Jun, Seunghyeon Lee & Seungyeon Choo
Development of Schematic Estimation System through Linking
QTO with Cost DB 507
Jungsik Choi, Inhan Kim and Jiyong Lee
Development of Kinetic Façade Units with BIM-Based Active Control
System for the Adaptive Building Energy Performance Service 517
Yang Ting Shen and Pei Wen Lu
3D Printing and Robotic Assemblies 527
Spatial Wire Cutting: Cooperative Robotic Cutting of Non-Ruled
Surface Geometries For Bespoke Building Components 529
R. Rust, D. Jenny, F. Gramazio and M. Kohler
Robotic Forming: Rapidly Generating 3D Forms and Structures
through Incremental Forming 539
E. Lublasser, J. Braumann, D. Goldbach and S. Brell-Cokcan
Parametric Customisation of A 3D Concrete Printed Pavilion 549
Thomas Fischer and Christiane M. Herr
Robotic Production of Individualised Wood Joints 559
B. Cokcan, J. Braumann, W. Winter and M. Trautz
Developing the Termite Plug-In: Abstracting Operations to Link
5-Axis CNC Routers with Parametric CAAD Tools 569
Nicholas Williams and Dharman Gersch
xx
Clay Robotics: Tool Making and Sculpting of Clay with
a Six-Axis Robot 579
Rachel Tan and Stylianos Dritsas
Translating Digital to Physical Gradients 589
Kostas Grigoriadis
Theory, Philosophy and Methodology of Computational Design
Research 599
Architects and Digital Designing Techniques Frontiers 601
Wajdy Qattan and Stephen Harfield
An Advanced Parametric Modelling Library for Architectural and
Engineering Design 611
Stylianos Dritsas
Cultural Difference in Colour Usages for Building Façades
Focusing on Theme Park Buildings 621
Ji Ho Lee and Ji-Hyun Lee
Complex Human Auditory Perception and Simulated Sound
Performance Prediction 631
Pantea Alambeigi, Sipei Zhao, Jane Burry and Xiaojun Qiu
Performative Agency of Materials: Matter Agency of Vernacular
African Pattern Systems 641
D. Baerlecken, K. Wright, J. Reitz, N. Mueller and B. Heiermann
Workmanship of Risk: Continuous Designing in Digital Fabrication 651
Paul Loh, Jane Burry and Malte Wagenfeld
Virtual / Augmented Reality and Interactive Environments 661
Integrating CFD and VR for Indoor Thermal Environment Design
Feedback 663
M. Hosokawa, T. Fukuda, N. Yabuki, T. Michikawa & A. Motamedi
Immersive Visualisation of Building Information Models:
Usage and Future Possibilities during Design and Construction 673
M. Roupé, M. Johansson, M. V. Tallgren, F. Jörnebrant, P. A. Tomsa
Unmediated Cultural Heritage via Hyve-3D: Collecting Individual
and Collective Narratives with 3D Sketching 683
M. A. Schnabel, S. Aydin, T. Moleta, D. Pierini and T. Dorta
xxi
Tangible User Interfaces for Teaching Building Physics: Towards
Continuous Designing in Education 693
Ruwan Fernando, Karine Dupre and Henry Skates
Automatic Measurement System of Visible Greenery Ratio Using
Augmented Reality 703
Y. Ding, T. Fukuda, N. Yabuki, T. Michikawa and A. Motamedi
A Marker-Less Augmented Reality System Using Image Processing
Techniques for Architecture and Urban Environment 713
Y. Sato, T. Fukuda, N. Yabuki, T. Michikawa and A. Motamedi
Digital Fabrication and Construction 1 723
Design and Fabrication of 3D Reciprocal Frame Structure 725
Ziyu Tong and Ronglou Zhou
The CorkCrete Arch Project 735
Jose Pedro Sousa, Pedro Martins & Pedro de Azambuja Varela
Extruded Architectures: Grading Weight-To-Strength Ratio of
Cement Based Materials through Extrusion Techniques 745
Seiichi Suzuki E.
Smart Assembly in Digital Fabrication: Designing Workflow 755
Paul Loh, David Leggett and Tim Cameron
Digital Fabrication and Construction 2 765
CorkVault Aarhus: Exploring Stereotomic Design Space of Cork
and 5-Axis CNC Waterjet Cutting 767
Pedro de Azambuja Varela and Tim Merritt
Combination of Mass Customisation and Conventional Construction:
A Case Study of Geodesic Bamboo Dome 777
Rakhmat F. Aditra and Andry Widyowijatnoko
Lightweight Material Prototypes Using Dense Bundled Systems
to Emulate an Ambient Environment 787
C. Knapp, J. Nelson, A. Kudless and S. Bohnenberger
An Environmental Perspective on Digital Fabrication in Architecture
and Construction 797
Isolda Agustí-Juan and Guillaume Habert
xxii
Computational Design Research and Education 807
Using the SAMR Model to Transform Mobile Learning in a History
of Art and Architecture Classroom 809
Walaiporn Nakapan
Disruptions: Impact of Digital Design Technologies on Continuity
in Established Design Process Paradigms 819
Nicholas C. Foulcher, Hedda H. Askland and Ning Gu
‘I’m a Visual Thinker: Rethinking Algorithmic Education for
Architectural Design 829
Matthew Austin and Wajdy Qattan
The Pedagogical Meanings of an Experimental Full-Size Mock-Up of
Computational Design 839
Yasushi Ikeda, Keisuke Toyoda and Tsukasa Takenaka
Design Cognition and Creativity 849
Why Is Making Important for the Culture of Design? 851
Benay Gürsoy
How Veridical Are Different Modalities of Digital Representation?
The Effect of Presentation Modality on Physiological Response 861
John S. Gero, Jennifer Shields and Rongrong Yu
Is Conventional Knowledge Enough? Playing The Devil’s Advocate
in the Adoption of Digital Fabrication Technology 871
Paolo Tombesi, Blair Gardiner and Sofia Colabella
Artificial Imagination of Architecture with Deep Convolutional
Neural Network 881
Joaquim Silvestre, Yasushi Ikeda and François Guéna
Author Index 891
1
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BIG DATA AND PRECINCT/CITY/SPATIAL MODELLING
Anthropocentric: Real-Time Data to Encourage Social Interaction and
Way Finding in Mass Transit Spaces 3
Timothy Voss and Tane Moleta
Neighbourhood Detection with Analytical Tools 13
Gideon D. P. A. Aschwanden
A Tale of Two Cities: A Cost-driven Design Optimisation in Addis
Ababa & Honolulu 23
Hyoung-June Park and Bewketu Kassa
Form-Based Code in Parametric Modelling for Continuous Urban
Design 33
Yingyi Zhang and Marc Aurel Schnabel
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Chapter
Digitization is the backbone and major cause in the era of Industry 4.0. Manufacturing industries are in the midst of a transformation regarding the method of manufacturing processing and delivering of goods to customers. Until now the production of various goods done by the manufacturing industries uses the traditional method of old machines and human labor but looking into the plan of industry 4.0 it gives tremendous outcomes in terms of economical aspect as well as safety-wise in the long run.. In the first revolution, the manufacturing sector was mainly based on using mechanical human-operated machines which needed a lot of labors to complete the work, Second revolution is the use of mass production and assembly lines with the help of electricity. The third revolution was mainly based on advancements made in machines by introducing computers and reducing the burden on human shoulders. But now the beginning of industry 4.0 has started and many manufacturing sectors are getting benefited from this. Industry 4.0 is the automation simulation smart system based environment where Augmented reality(AR) and Virtual reality(VR) comes into play. Industry 4.0 has started to change the complete industrial experience and with the introduction of AR and VR in manufacturing sectors the profit-economy growth graph is starting to rise hence establishing a strong foundation and helping to deliver good sufficient advanced products that customer desires with the help of purely Automation and Artificial intelligence. Industry 4.0 is based on data the way it can be gathered, analyzed and deployed in the manufacturing sector with help of Augmented and Virtual reality.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.