Background and Objectives: Coal mine injuries commonly occur, affecting both the safety and health of miners, and the normal operation of the coal mine. Accordingly, this study aimed to explore the regularity of injury and injury-related risk factors in coal mines in China so as to establish a scientific basis for reducing the incidence and promoting the prevention and control of injuries. Methods: A meta-analysis of casualty cases and injury-related risk factors from 1956 to 2017 in China was conducted utilizing data from six databases, including CNKI, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Wanfang data. Summary estimates were obtained using random effects models. Results: There were statistically significant variations in coal mine accident types, types of work, injury sites, age, experience, months, and shifts (p < 0.001). Eight types of accidents were susceptible to the risk of injury, and the greatest risk was presented by roof-related accidents (odds ratio (OR) = 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.32–0.6). Coal miners and drillers were at a greater risk of injury (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.35–0.44; OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.17–0.26, respectively). The extremities and the soft tissues of the skin were at the greatest risk of injury (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.3–0.58; OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.1–0.48, respectively). Compared with other ages, miners aged 21–30 were at a greater risk of injury (21–30 years, OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.42–0.47; 31–40 years, OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.25–0.32; <20 years, OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.03–0.23; >40 years, OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.09–0.25). Compared with other miners, those with 6–10 years of experience were at a greater risk of injury (6–10 years, OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.25–0.32; 2–5 years, OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.25–0.41; <1 year, OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.08–0.33; >11 years, OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.17–0.27). During the months of July to September, the risk of injury was elevated (7–9th months, OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.25–0.39; 10–12th months, OR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.16–0.31; 1st–3rd months, OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.16–0.28; 4–6th months, OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.16–0.27). In the three-shift work system, the risk of injury was higher during night shifts (22:00–06:00, OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.3–0.56; 14:00–22:00, OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.23–0.27; 06:00–14:00, OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.18–0.35). Conclusions: The results of this research study reveal that coal mine injuries are prevalent among coal miners. These injuries are often related to the age, experience, months of work, and the three-shift work system of miners.