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An unexpected new species of the genus Pseudopoda (Araneae, Sparassidae, Heteropodinae) from the Western Ghats in India

Pseudopoda ashcharya sp. n. from India 55
An unexpected new species of the genus Pseudopoda
(Araneae, Sparassidae, Heteropodinae)
from the Western Ghats in India
Peter Jäger1, Siddharth Kulkarni2
1 Arachnology, Senckenberg Research Institute, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
2Hemi Terrace Bldg, Near Ellora Palace, Balajinagar, Pune- 411043, Maharashtra, India
Corresponding author: Peter Jäger (
Academic editor: C. Rheims|Received 22 January 2016|Accepted 23 February 2016|Published 5 April 2016
Citation: Jäger P, Kulkarni S (2016) An unexpected new species of the genus Pseudopoda (Araneae, Sparassidae,
Heteropodinae) from the Western Ghats in India. ZooKeys 577: 55–62. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.577.7848
A new species of the genus Pseudopoda is described from India: Pseudopoda ashcharya sp. n. Males are
characterised by the absence of the conductor and females are unique within the genus in having the
lateral lobes of their epigyne fused. e systematic relationship of the new species is discussed referring to
its isolated occurrence in the Western Ghats.
Taxonomy, Huntsman Spiders, morphology
Almost all members of the subfamily Heteropodinae as well as almost all species of
the genus Pseudopoda exhibit a membranous conductor (Jäger 2001, 2002). Jäger et
al. (2015) described the rst Pseudopoda species without a conductor. Pseudopoda wu
Jäger, Li & Krehenwinkel 2015 shows a small non-sclerotised patch at its tegulum,
most likely the rest of an otherwise reduced conductor homologue. Jäger (2015) de-
scribed ve species from the Nat Ma Taung in Myanmar lacking a conductor entirely.
Logunov and Jäger (2015) described another species without conductor from Vietnam:
P. ohne. Males of the present new species lack a conductor and females show unique
ZooKeys 577: 55–62 (2016)
doi: 10.3897/zookeys.577.7848
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Peter Jäger & Siddharth Kulkarni / ZooKeys 577: 55–62 (2016)
characters as well. e species was found in the Western Ghats and far away from other
Pseudopoda populations. is geographically unexpected nding is described as a new
species and its systematic background is discussed.
Material and methods
e examined spiders are preserved in 70 % denatured ethanol, samples for molecular
analyses are kept in 99.5 % pure ethanol. Examination and drawings were carried out
with a Leica MZ 16 stereomicroscope with camera lucida attachment. Female copula-
tory organs were dissected and the sclerotised internal duct system was cleared in 96%
DL-lactic acid (C3H6O3). All measurements are in millimetres [mm]. Opisthosoma
length means the length without petiolus and spinnerets. Leg formula, leg spination
pattern and size classes follow Jäger (2001). Palp and leg lengths are listed as: total
(femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus). Arising points of tegular appendages in males
are described as clock-positions of the left pedipalp in ventral view. In schematic illus-
tration of the internal duct system the blind ending (glandular) appendage is marked
with “T”, the copulatory orice with a circle, and the end of the fertilisation duct in di-
rection of the uterus externus with an arrow. As in Jäger (2005: 88), slit sensilla close to
the epigyne are generally considered as descriptive character. Colouration is described
from specimens in ethanol.
Elevation is given in metres [m]. Maps were produced with DIVA-GIS version 7.5.0.
Abbreviations used in the text: dRTA – dorsal part/branch of RTA, DS – dorsal
shield of prosoma, mya- million years ago, OS – Opisthosoma, PJ – numbers represent
subsequent numbers of Sparassidae examined by the rst author, RTA – retrolateral
tibial apophysis, SD – serial number of tissue samples for molecular analyses, vRTA –
ventral part/branch of RTA, I–IV – referring to leg numbers.
Museum collections (with curators): BNHS – Bombay Natural History Society,
Mumbai, India (Rahul Khot), SMF – Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt, Germany
(Julia Altmann, Peter Jäger).
Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000
Pseudopoda ashcharya sp. n.
Figs 1–18
Type material. Holotype male, India, Maharashtra State, Devrukh, 17.068°N,
73.626°E [180 m elevation], leaf litter, 30 August 2013, PJ 3630, SD 1221 (SMF).
Pseudopoda ashcharya sp. n. from India 57
Figures 1–9. Pseudopoda ashcharya sp. n. from India, copulatory organs of male (1–4 holotype) and
female (5–9 paratype). 1–3 Left male palp (1 prolateral 2 ventral 3 retrolateral) 4 Embolus, retrolatero-
proximal 5 Epigyne, ventral 6 Vulva, dorsal 7 Schematic course of internal duct system, dorsal 8 Epigyne,
posterior 9 Epigyne, lateral. B brush of setae close to embolus tip E embolus FB fusion bubbles FD fertili-
sation duct FW rst winding of internal duct system GA glandular appendage H hump at base of embolus
LL lateral lobe O embolic outgrowth Po sublobal pockets Sp spermophor SO spermophor opening.
Peter Jäger & Siddharth Kulkarni / ZooKeys 577: 55–62 (2016)
Paratypes: 1 female, India, Maharashtra State, Guravwadi, 16.876°N, 73.645°E [100
m elevation], leaf litter, 2 September 2013, PJ 3631, SD 1222 (SMF). 1 male, India,
Maharashtra State, Guravwadi, 16.876°N, 73.645°E [100 m elevation], leaf litter, S.
Kulkarni leg., by hand, 15 August 2015, Sp. 316 (BNHS).
Etymology. e species name is taken from the Hindi, “ashcharya” meaning “sur-
prise”, referring to the unexpected occurrence of the genus Pseudopoda in the Western
Ghats, more than 1400 km away from the closest congener; term in apposition.
Diagnosis. Small Heteropodinae, body length male 8.4, female 8.3. Males similar
to those of Pseudopoda species described in Jäger (2015), P. ohne Logunov & Jäger
2015 and P. wu in having the conductor entirely reduced, most similar to P. pingu
Jäger 2015, P. wamwo Jäger 2015 and P. martinschuberti Jäger 2015 in having the
embolus roughly sickle-shaped in ventral view, but can be distinguished from these
species by the mesal embolic outgrowth (Figs 1–4). Females may be recognised by
the medially fused lateral lobes, the unique pointed glandular appendages and by the
sublobal pockets (Figs 5–9).
Description. Male (holotype). DS length 4.3, width 3.8, anterior width 1.9, OS
length 4.1, width 2.1. Eyes: diameters AME 0.22, ALE 0.35, PME 0.27, PLE 0.33;
interdistances AME–AME 0.14, AME–ALE 0.05, PME–PME 0.17, PME–PLE 0.37,
AME–PME 0.37, ALE–PLE 0.33, clypeus height at AME 0.49, at ALE 0.40. Spina-
tion: palp: 131, 11(small, distal)1, 2101; legs: femur I–II 323, III 322, IV 331; pa-
tella I–IV 101; tibia I–IV 2026; metatarsus I–II 1014, III 2025, IV 3036. Metatarsus
IV ventrally with double row of bristles along entire length and with patch of bristles
instead distal spine, I–III with scopula, without bristles. Leg formula: 2(14)3. Measure-
ments of palp and legs: palp 6.0 (2.0, 0.8, 1.1., -, 2.1), leg I 19.7 (5.2, 2.1, 5.8, 4.9,
1.7), leg II 20.4 (5.5., 2.1, 6.0, 5.1, 1.7), leg III 15.8 (4.4, 1.7, 4.5, 3.9, 1.3), leg IV 19.7
(5.5, 1.6, 5.2, 5.7, 1.7). Promargin of chelicerae with 3 teeth, retromargin with 4 teeth;
cheliceral furrow with ca. 15 denticles in patch close to anterior teeth; chelicerae with 1
bristle close to retromargin of fang base.
Palp as in diagnosis (Figs 1–4). Cymbium slender, with dorsal scopula in distal
half, retrolateral bulge with small, proximad hump. RTA arising proximally to mesally,
vRTA with 2 small pointed apices, dRTA with blunt end. Spermophor running sub-
marginally retrolaterally, narrowing prolaterally when entering the embolus. Embolus
arising from 9- to 10-o’clock-position from tegulum, with small hump at its base
centrally, its widened tip situated close to a dense brush of setae at the proximal part
of cymbium’s tip.
Colouration (Figs 10–13): Light yellowish brown with brown markings. DS dot-
ted, with narrow dark longitudinal band running from PME to posterior end of fovea
and slightly darker lateral margins as well as indistinct submarginal band. Sternum, la-
bium, gnathocoxae and coxae ventrally pale yellowish without pattern. Chelicerae yel-
lowish brown with two distinct longitudinal bands frontally and one indistinct band
laterally, in distal half with dots. Legs spotted, femora with additional spine patches.
OS dorsally with alternating dark and light bands in anterior half and paired patches
in posterior half; laterally spotted; ventrally with dark triangle in front of spinnerets.
Pseudopoda ashcharya sp. n. from India 59
Figures 10–17. Pseudopoda ashcharya sp. n. from India, habitus of male (10–13 holotype) and female
(14–17 paratype) (10, 14 dorsal 11, 15 ventral 12, 16 frontal 13, 17 lateral).
Female. DS length 4.0, width 3.4, anterior width 1.9, OS length 4.3, width 2.0. Eyes:
diameters AME 0.19, ALE 0.32, PME 0.26, PLE 0.30; interdistances AME–AME 0.13,
AME–ALE 0.05, PME–PME 0.15, PME–PLE 0.35, AME–PME 0.33, ALE–PLE 0.32,
clypeus height at AME 0.49, at ALE 0.39. Spination: palp: 131, 101, 2121, 1014; legs:
femur I–III 323, IV 321; patella I 001, III–IV 101; tibia I–IV 2026; metatarsus I–II 1014,
III 2025, IV 3036. Metatarsus IV ventrally with double row of bristles along entire length
and with patch of bristles instead distal spine, I–III with scopula, without bristles. Leg for-
mula: 2413. Measurements of palp and legs: palp 5.4 (1.6, 0.8, 1.2, -, 1.8), leg I 15.4 (4.3,
1.8, 4.2, 3.7, 1.4), leg II 16.5 (4.7, 1.9, 4.5, 4.0, 1.4), leg III 12.7 (3.8, 1.5, 3.2, 3.0, 1.2),
leg IV 15.8 (4.6, 1.5, 4.0, 4.2, 1.5). Promargin of chelicerae with 3 teeth, retromargin with
4 teeth; cheliceral furrow with 20–21 denticles in slightly elongated patch close to anterior
teeth; chelicerae with 1 bristle close to retromargin of fang base. Palpal claw with 6 teeth.
Peter Jäger & Siddharth Kulkarni / ZooKeys 577: 55–62 (2016)
Copulatory organ as in diagnosis (Figs 5–9). Epigyne wider than long, epigynal
eld without distinct anterior bands. Lateral lobes rounded at their posterio-lateral
margin, protruding distinctly over epigastric furrow at about half of their length,
with pockets between lateral parts and epigastric furrow; fused along the median line
with indistinct external ledges and internal “fusion bubbles” (Jäger and Krehenwinkel
2015). Internal duct system with rst winding bulging laterally, spermathecae situated
postero-laterally. Fertilisation duct arising posteriorly from spermathecae, apical end
Colouration (Figs 14–17): As in male but inner frontal band on chelicerae devel-
oped as row of dots, lateral band lacking.
Distribution. Known from two localities in the Western Ghats in India (Fig. 18).
Pseudopoda species have been recorded from South, East and the north-western part
of Southeast Asia (Fig. 18). Until now seven out of 120 species are known to have the
conductor reduced (Jäger et al. 2015, Jäger 2015, Logunov and Jäger 2015). ey are
distributed in Yunnan, China and Chin State, Myanmar, as well as in Central Viet-
nam (Fig. 18). e present species is known from two localities in Maharashtra State,
India. ese are about 1,400 km away from the nearest occurrence of congeners in
the Himalaya and more than 2,000 km from the closest locality with conductor-less
congeners in Myanmar. e question is how this isolated occurence can be explained.
e geological history of the Indian West coast indicates that the Western Ghats have
Figure 18. Distributional records of Pseudopoda species. Red triangles – species without conductor; blue
circles – species with conductor.
Pseudopoda ashcharya sp. n. from India 61
been formed 150 mya during the break-up of Gondwana and came into being around
100 to 80 mya. is period was suggested as the time when the basal split within the
Sparassidae occurred (Moradmand et al. 2014) rather than a time of diversifying within
single genera like Pseudopoda (< 50 mya: Moradmand et al. 2014). During the same
period (circa), the Indian raft was introduced to Asia allowing a passage for exchange
of species (Conti et al. 2002). Most of India (except part of northwest) was covered by
humid forest continuous with forests of South-east Asia, receiving high rainfall during
18–11 mya. e arrival of drier climate 5 mya onwards wiped out this wet zone isolat-
ing Western Ghats and parts of Eastern Ghats from the south and south-east Asian
wet zones (Karanth 2003: g. 3). When looking for other today’s special criteria of
the Western Ghats the annual precipitation of over 1000 mm might be one factor that
could explain the isolated occurrence of P. ashcharya sp. n. Regions east of the Western
Ghats have less than 200 mm annual rainfall which might represent a barrier for spe-
cies adapted to moist and humid conditions. For this scenario it seems likely that the
new species is a relict of a previously wider distribution range of the genus. However,
the dis-junction in the distribution of Pseudopoda ashcharya sp. n. and its congeners
from India and neighbouring countries might also be an artefact arising from lack of
extensive survey in central and west Indian states.
From the morphology, males of the new species are apparently close to Pseudopoda
species recently described from the southern Chin State in Myanmar. e conductor
of species from both localities is reduced. Jäger (2015) considered a dense brush of se-
tae as potential functional surrogate structure. is brush occurs in P. ashcharya sp. n.
as well (Figs 1–2: B). Females, however, show a unique character within the entire ge-
nus: the lateral lobes are medially fused with “fusion bubbles” as indication for such an
evolutionary event (Figs 5, 8: FB). Similarly, fused lateral lobes are known only from
Sinopoda Jäger 1999 and to a lesser extent from Bhutaniella Jäger 2000. But the lack of
other structures diagnostic for these latter two genera, such as for instance the epigynal
pockets as well as the typical bid and complex embolus in Sinopoda and Bhutaniella
respectively make clear that the present species does not belong to either of these gen-
era. e similarity of the male copulatory organ with those of other Pseudopoda species
and the congruence of diagnostic characters according to the most recent diagnosis
of the genus (Jäger et al. 2015) as well as similarities of other characters in the female
copulatory organs and their congruence with diagnostic characters (Jäger 2001; here
especially the course of the internal duct system as shown in g. 82) let suggest placing
the species in Pseudopoda.
Authors are grateful to Hemant Ghate and Sameer Padhye for discussions on biogeog-
raphy. anks to Hirotsugu Ono and two anonymous referees for their helpful com-
ments to improve the manuscript.
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Supplementary resource (1)

... The need for a certain humidity may also explain the large gap in the distribution range of Bowie gen. nov. in India between the northern and southern parts, in which species seem not to occur, where tropical savannahs and steppes prevail (similar to the isolated occurrence of Pseudopoda ashcharya Jäger & Kulkarni, 2016 in the Western Ghats). The only species so far known from Australia, Bowie spec. ...
Full-text available
A new genus in the spider family Ctenidae Keyserling, 1877 is described from Asia: Bowie gen. nov. belongs to the subfamily Cteninae and all members formerly described were placed so far in the genus Ctenus Walckenaer, 1805. After morphological as well as preliminary molecular characters were checked, it was clear that a new genus had to be erected to accommodate this predominantly Asian lineage of ground-dwelling spiders. As is the case in most Ctenidae generally, it was not easy to find apomorphic characters diagnosing this new taxon. Therefore, a combination of morphological characters is used to define all congeners. An important and newly introduced character in this respect is –among others– the fused patellar crack of the male palp. Forty-nine valid species are transferred to the new genus (first country/province records of particular species underlined): Bowie martensi (Jäger, 2012) comb. nov. (Nepal), B. bomdilaensis (Tikader & Malhotra, 1981) comb. nov. (India), B. indicus (Gravely, 1931) comb. nov. (India), B. cladarus (Jäger, 2012) comb. nov., (Myanmar), B. pingu (Jäger & Minn, 2015) comb. nov. (Myanmar), B. natmataung (Jäger & Minn, 2015) comb. nov., (Myanmar), B. sikkimensis (Gravely, 1931) comb. nov. (India), B. ramosus (Thorell, 1887) comb. nov. (Myanmar), B. goaensis (Bastawade & Borkar, 2008) comb. nov. (India), B. himalayensis (Gravely, 1931) comb. nov. (India), B. meghalayaensis (Tikader, 1976) comb. nov. (India), B. narashinhai (Patel & Reddy, 1988) comb. nov. (India), B. ceylonensis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) comb. nov. (Sri Lanka), B. andamanensis (Gravely, 1931) comb. nov. (Andaman Islands), B. kapuri (Tikader, 1973) comb. nov. (Andaman Islands), B. cochinensis (Gravely, 1931) comb. nov., (India), B. thorelli (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) comb. nov. (Sri Lanka), B. lishuqiang (Jäger, 2012) comb. nov., (China: Sichuan), B. banna (Yao & Li in Chu et al. 2022) comb. nov. (China: Yunnan), B. theodorianum (Jäger, 2012), comb. nov. (Thailand, Laos, Vietnam), B. robustus (Thorell, 1897) comb. nov. (Myanmar, Thailand, Laos), B. yaeyamensis (Yoshida, 1998) comb. nov. (Taiwan), B. yulin (Yao & Li in Chu et al. 2022) comb. nov. (China: Yunnan), B. simplex (Thorell, 1897) comb. nov. (Myanmar, Thailand, Laos), B. bayeri (Jäger 2012) comb. nov. (Laos), B. holthoffi (Jäger, 2012) comb. nov. (Laos), B. saci (Ono, 2010) comb. nov. (Vietnam), B. floweri (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) comb. nov. (Malaysia Peninsula), B. argentipes (Hasselt, 1893) comb. nov. (Malaysia Peninsula, Singapore, Indonesia: Sumatra), B. palembangensis (Strand, 1906) comb. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra), B. angigitanus (Roewer, 1938) comb. nov. (Papua New Guinea), B. pulvinatus (Thorell, 1890) comb. nov. (Malaysia: Sarawak), B. hosei (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) comb. nov. (Malaysia: Sarawak, Brunei), B. monaghani (Jäger, 2013) comb. nov. (Laos), B. javanus (Pocock, 1897) comb. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra, Java, Bali), B. fungifer (Thorell, 1890) comb. nov. (Malaysia Peninsula), B. valvularis (Hasselt, 1882) comb. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra), B. bicostatus (Thorell, 1890) comb. nov. (Malaysia: Sarawak), B. bantaengi (Merian, 1911) comb. nov. (Indonesia: Sulawesi), B. bowonglangi (Merian, 1911) comb. nov. (Indonesia: Sulawesi), B. celebensis (Pocock, 1897) comb. nov. (Indonesia: Sulawesi), B. sagittatus (Giltay, 1935) comb. nov. (Indonesia: Sulawesi), B. kochi (Simon, 1897b) comb. nov. (Indonesia: West Papua), B. sarawakensis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) comb. nov. (Malaysia: Sarawak), B. philippinensis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) comb. nov. (Philippines), B. aruanus (Strand, 1911) comb. nov. (Indonesia: Maluku), B. angularis (Roewer, 1938) comb. nov. (Indonesia: Maluku), B. rufisternis (Pocock, 1898) comb. nov. (Papua New Guinea: New Britain), and B. corniger (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898) comb. nov. (South Africa). For thirty-two species, illustrations of their respective copulatory organs, as well as habitus photos, are provided. Fifty-five new species are described, these are listed, together with the already described species, according to their geographic occurrence and to their affiliation to species groups as far as the latter could be recognised (type species indicated by an asterisk): Bowie hunkydory spec. nov. (Nepal), B. ziggystardust spec. nov. (Nepal), B. ladystardust spec. nov. (Nepal), B. aladdinsane spec. nov. (India), B. majortom spec. nov. (Nepal), B. jeangenie spec. nov. (India), B. heroes spec. nov. (India), B. fascination spec. nov. (Vietnam), B. low spec. nov. (Thailand), B. dodo spec. nov. (Vietnam), B. stationtostation spec. nov. (Myanmar), B. candidate spec. nov. (Vietnam), B. diamonddogs spec. nov. (Vietnam), B. yassassin spec. nov. (Taiwan), B. bemywife spec. nov. (Thailand), B. subterraneans spec. nov. (Thailand), B. afterall spec. nov. (Thailand), B. warszawa spec. nov. (Thailand), B. artdecade spec. nov. (Cambodia), B. bigbrother spec. nov. (Vietnam), *B. rebelrebel spec. nov. (Vietnam), B. youngamericans spec. nov. (Vietnam), B. right spec. nov. (Vietnam), B. stay spec. nov. (Vietnam), B. fame spec. nov. (Vietnam), B. win spec. nov. (Vietnam), B. joethelion spec. nov. (Malaysia Peninsula), B. mossgarden spec. nov. (Malaysia Peninsula), B. neukoeln spec. nov. (Malaysia Peninsula), B. scarymonsters spec. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra), B. teenagewildlife spec. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra), B. letsdance spec. nov. (Indonesia: Java), B. crystaljapan spec. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra), B. tonight spec. nov. (Malaysia: Sarawak), B. catpeople spec. nov. (Malaysia: Sabah), B. ricochet spec. nov. (Indonesia: Kalimantan), B. fashion spec. nov. (Malaysia Peninsula), B. withinyou spec. nov. (Malaysia: Sarawak), B. abdulmajid spec. nov. (Singapore), B. blackout spec. nov. (Malaysia Peninsula), B. modernlove spec. nov. (Malaysia: Sabah), B. chinagirl spec. nov. (Malaysia: Sabah), B. withoutyou spec. nov. (Malaysia: Sabah), B. magicdance spec. nov. (Indonesia: Sulawesi), B. bluejean spec. nov. (Malaysia: Sabah), B. criminalworld spec. nov. (Malaysia: Sabah), B. shakeit spec. nov. (Malaysia: Sabah), B. ashestoashes spec. nov. (Indonesia: Kalimantan), B. underground spec. nov. (Indonesia: Kalimantan), B. lodger spec. nov. (Philippines), B. redsails spec. nov. (Philippines), B. thenextday spec. nov. (Indonesia: Papua), B. lazarus spec. nov. (Papua New Guinea), B. thiesi spec. nov. (Papua New Guinea) and B. blackstar spec. nov. (Papua New Guinea). Formerly unknown sexes are described for the first time for the following species: Bowie martensi comb. nov. (female), B. indicus comb. nov. (only male RTA tip), B. narashinhai comb. nov. (male), B. argentipes comb. nov. (female) and B. celebensis comb. nov. (male). Fourteen species groups are proposed on the basis of morphological characters: cladarus-species group (17 species), robustus-species group (14 species), bemywife-species group (2 species), rebelrebel-species group (10 species), youngamericans-species group (3 species), floweri-species group (3 species), scarymonsters-species group (2 species), teenagewildlife-species group (2 species), argentipes-species group (10 species), javanus-species group (5 species), chinagirl-species group (11 species), shakeit-species group (5 species), lodger-species group (3 species) and blackstar-species group (7 species). Thus, 93 species are grouped, leaving 11 species without a current assignment to any of these groups. Ctenus kandyensis Kim & Ye, 2014 syn. nov. is recognised as a junior synonym of Bowie thorelli comb. nov., and C. calcarifer F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902 syn. nov. as junior synonym of B. sarawakensis comb. nov. Five species previously placed in Ctenus are considered nomina dubia, four of them are transferred to Bowie gen. nov., one to Nilus: Bowie barbatus (Thorell, 1895) comb. nov., B. tumidulus (Simon, 1887b) comb. nov., B. flavidus (Hogg, 1922) comb. nov., B. pollii (Hasselt, 1893) comb. nov. and Nilus marginatus (Walckenaer, 1847) comb. nov. Beside the latter species, three species are transferred from Ctenus, all of them to Anahita: A. periculosa (Bristowe, 1931) comb. nov., A. dangsa (Reddy & Patel, 1994) comb. nov. and A. tuniensis (Patel & Reddy, 1988) comb. nov. All in all, Bowie gen. nov. is the second largest genus within the family Ctenidae, with 108 species in total including nomina dubia. It occurs from Nepal in the Himalayas and South India across large parts of South and South East Asia to Papua New Guinea. One undescribed species is known from northern Australia (Queensland). Representatives are known to live in the leaf litter of forests, with most species having small distribution ranges, usually occurring within a 100 km radius. With this revision, the family Ctenidae contains now 586 species and 48 genera, and the number of species assigned to the genus Ctenus, so far used as nomenclatural “waste bin”, is reduced to 164.
... Later, Patel & Patel,[29] Sethi & Tikader, [30] Monga et al, [31] and Kundu et al. [32] described several species of huntsman spiders from several regions of India. In the present century, Jäger, [1,[33][34][35] [38] Pseudopoda cheppe Caleb, 2018, [39] and Sinopoda assamensis Grall & Jäger, 2020. [40] At present, 94 species placed in 19 genera were described or recorded from India, out of which, 63 species (67%) were endemic. ...
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The present article deals with the faunal diversity and distribution of one of the spider family Sparassidae (Araneomorphae: Araneae: Arachnida), commonly known as huntsman spiders, giant crab spiders, wood spiders, rain spiders or lizard-eating spiders, in different Indian states and union territories and provides an update checklist based on the literature published up to February 18, 2021. It includes 94 species of spiders described under 19 genera in 24 states (except Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Nagaland and Telangana) and 6 union territories (except Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu), out of which 63 species are endemic. Five species were considered to be erroneous report. In India, Heteropoda Latreille, 1804 is the largest genus consisting of 26 species followed by Olios Walckenaer, 1837 (21 species) and Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 (14 species). The records demonstrated that only 8 species of these spiders are widely distributed: viz. Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus, 1767) (in 20 Indian states and union territories); Olios milleti (Pocock, 1901) (in 14 Indian states); Olios tener (Thorell, 1891) (in 12 Indian states); Heteropoda sexpunctata Simon, 1885 and Spariolenus tigris Simon, 1880 (each in 11 Indian states); and Heteropoda leprosa Simon, 1884, Heteropoda nilgirina Pocock, 1901, and Heteropoda phasma Simon, 1897 (each in 11 Indian states). Maximum 27 species of these spiders were recorded in Tamil Nadu followed by 25 species in West Bengal, 22 species in Kerala, 20 species in Uttarakhand, 17 species each in Gujarat, Karnataka and Maharashtra, 16 species in Assam, 13 species Uttar Pradesh, and less number of species are recorded in other states. Despite their role as insect predators and being crucial to the health of terrestrial ecosystems, none of the species recorded in India is listed in IUCN Red List.
... Pickard-Cambridge, 1885) as its type. It is the third largest genus of the family Sparassidae Bertkau, 1872 with 124 described species , of which, twelve species are known from India -Pseudopoda abnormis Jäger, 2001, P. akashi (Sethi & Tikader, 1988), P. ashcharya Jäger & Kulkarni, 2016, P. fabularis Jäger, 2008, P. hingstoni Jäger, 2001, P. minor Jäger, 2001, P. perplexa Jäger, 2001, P. prompta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1885, P. shillongensis (Sethi & Tikader, 1988), P. sicca Jäger, 2008 and P. straminiosa (Kundu, Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 1999) (World Spider Catalog, 2018. ...
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A new species of the genus Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000, P. cheppe sp. n. is described from the Indian Himalayas. Detailed description and illustrations are provided.
... Although extensively studied taxonomically (Jäger 2000;Tang & Yin 2000;Fu & Zhu 2008;Yang et al. 2009;Sun & Zhang 2012;Zhang et al. 2013a;Zhang et al. 2013b;Quan et al. 2014;Jäger & Logunov 2015;Jäger & Kulkarni 2016;) phylogenetic hypothesis based on morphological or molecular data have only recently been constructed (Moradmand et al. 2014;Cao et al. 2016). Jäger (2001) classified 42 species (most of them were collected from the Himalayas and the nearby mountains) into six species groups: P. diversipunctata-group, P. latembola-group, P. martensi-group, P. parvipunctata-group, P. prompta-group and P. schwendingeri-group. ...
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One new species group of the genus Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 is described from Yunnan Province, China. The Pseudopoda daliensis-group includes two known species, Pseudopoda daliensis Jäger & Vedel, 2007 (♂♀), Pseudopoda kunmingensis Sun & Zhang, 2012 (♂♀), and three new species, Pseudopoda anguilliformis sp. nov. (♂♀), Pseudopoda sicyoidea sp. nov. (♂♀), Pseudopoda peronata sp. nov. (♀).
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The present checklist of spider fauna of Maharashtra is the outcome of the compilation of all published literature up to April 10, 2022. A total of 785 species of spiders described under 247 genera belonging to 44 families are enlisted that have been described and/or recorded from 31 out of 36 districts of Maharashtra. Additionally, a total of 125 species belonging to 31 families recorded from 23 districts of Maharashtra were identified only upto generic level and 73 species of spiders described under 54 genera belonging to 19 families distributed in 12 district of Maharashtra seem to be misidentified and all these species have been excluded from the total list of spiders of the state. The maximum number of spider species were recorded from Amravati district (487 species) followed by Satara (273 species), Pune (268 species), Kolhapur (257 species), Nandurbar (149 species), Chandrapur (107 species), and Mumbai (107 species) and less than 100 species in other districts. Out of 44 families of spiders recorded, the largest family appeared in Maharashtra is Araneidae (113 species, 32 genera) followed by Lycosidae (90 species, 15 genera), Salticidae (89 species, 43 genera), Thomisidae (88 species, 29 genera), Gnaphosidae (67 species, 14 genera) and less than 50 species were represented in other 40 families. No faunal survey of spiders so far conducted in 5 districts of Maharashtra. Some of the national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, and most of the forest areas, agricultural fields, human dwellings etc. of Maharashtra still await intensive and extensive survey programmes to record a near complete spider fauna.
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ABSTRACT : Spiders belonging to order araneae are one of the biggest groups of predaceous organisms in the animal kingdom. Along with their diverse structure, they are popular for their tough silk and spider venom which is of pharmaceutical importance.Also they are playing a major role in lower food web in the ecosystem to maintain the ecological equilibrium and are one of the best bioindicators of natural ecosysytems.Now a days, due to the habitat destruction caused by natural calamities and anthropogenic activities ,the number of spiders species are found to be declined, as a result number of species of spiders are getting extinct before they are explored. One of the major hotspots of biodiversity of India is Western Ghats, known for their high species diversity. Taking into account the importance of spiders as bioindicators of environment, the present article was aimed to review on Araneae diversity from Satara Sangli and Kolhapur districts lying in the Northern Western Ghat regions of Maharashtra, India . This study shall help to record the number of species found in this regions. This review provides a checklist of total 27 families of 101 genera representing 178 species along with some new species recorded with special reference to their behaviour, habitat and variations among them. The review mainly provides a baseline information for the future study on diversity of spiders.From this review it is concluded that Northern Western Ghats being one of the biggest hotspots of diversity have a large number of spiders species, which are very less as compared to the spider diversity of India as suggested by the world catalogue of spiders, suggesting for an urgent need to explore further the areneae diversity in order to maintain the ecological equilibrium and the products obtained from them.
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A total of 51 spider species collected from Vietnam is considered, of which seven are described as new: Araneidae: Argiope abramovi sp.n. (♀); Clubionidae: Nusatidia vietnamensis sp.n. (♀); Selenopidae: Selenops ab sp.n. (♂); Sparassidae: Pseudopoda ohne sp.n. (♂), Thelcticopis buu sp.n. (♂); Thomisidae: Lysiteles vietnamensis sp.n. (♂ ♀); Salticidae: Pancorius crinitus sp.n. (♂♀). The genus Lechia Żabka, 1985 is synonymized with Laufeia Simon, 1889 (Salticidae). A new species synonymy is established: Pseudopoda houaphan Jäger, 2007 with P. namkhan Jäger, Pathoumthong et Vedel, 2006 (Sparassidae). A new combination is proposed: Laufeia squamata (Żabka, 1985), comb.n., ex Lechia (Salticidae). Unknown sexes are described for two species: Laufeia squamata (Żabka, 1985) (♂), Ptocasius weyersi Simon, 1885 (♀) (Salticidae). The following 16 species are reported for the spider fauna of Vietnam for the first time: Theridiidae: Phycosoma sinica (Zhu, 1992), Steatoda cingulata (Thorell, 1890); Tetragnathidae: Leucauge tessellata (Thorell, 1887), Orsinome vethi (Hasselt, 1842), Tetragnatha geniculata Karsch, 1892; Araneidae: Argiope jinghongensis Yin, Peng et Wang, 1994, Macracantha arcuata (Fabricius, 1793); Sparassidae: Pseudopoda namkhan Jäger, Pathoumthong et Vedel, 2006; Thomisidae: Lysiteles conicus Tang, Yin, Peng, Ubick et Griswold, 2007, L. dentatus Tang, Yin, Peng, Ubick et Griswold, 2007, L. punctiger Ono, 2001, L. torsivus Zhang, Zhu et Tso, 2006, Xysticus croceus Fox, 1937; Salticidae: Portia fimbriata (Doleschall, 1859), P. labiata (Thorell, 1887), Ptocasius weyersi Simon, 1885.
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Four new cave-dwelling Heteropoda species are described: H.fischeri sp. n. from Meghalaya, N India (♂ ♀),H. schwendingeri sp. n. from Thailand (♂), H. beroni sp. n. from Sulawesi (♂ ♀) and H. belua sp. n. from Sarawak (♂ ♀). Notes on the variation and relationships of these species are provided. Additional illustrations and diagnoses are given for the following species: H. afghana Roewer, 1962, H. kuekenthali Pocock, 1897, H. nigriventer Pocock, 1897, H. robusta Fage, 1924 and H. tetrica Thorell, 1897. The latter species is recorded from Thailand for the first time. Several features found in cave-dwelling species are considered as plesiomorphic for the Heteropodinae (elongated hairs on metatarsus I-III of males) or as convergently developed due to troglobiontic life (large size, elongated appendages).
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Material of the genus Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 from Myanmar is revised. Six new species are described: Pseudopoda tji sp. nov., P. pingu sp. nov., P. bangaga sp. nov., P. wamwo sp. nov., P. martinschuberti sp. nov. (all: male, female; Chin State) and P. huberi sp. nov. (male; Mandalay Region). All species were recorded from elevations above 600 m. All five species from Nat Ma Taung are vertically niched in zones of up to 500 m elevation difference. Moreover, males of all these species lack the conductor of the male palp, four of them exhibit a special glandular appendage in the female internal duct system, as well as a unique reduction of tibial spines in both sexes. A special brush of setae on the distal cymbium is identified as a possible surrogate structure acting as a secondary conductor.
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A new genus of huntsman spiders, May gen. n. is described from southern Africa, together with four new species: M. bruno sp. n. (♂, ♀; South Africa), M. ansie sp. n. (♂; Namibia), M. rudy sp. n. (♂; Namibia) and M. norm sp. n. (♀; Namibia). Diagnostic characters proposed include not only those for the genus but also for the so-called African clade. Unique within the entire family are the reduction of the gnathocoxal serrula and the prolaterad embolus. Special claw tuft setae and metatarsi I to III with three prolateral and retrolateral spines, respectively, occur in the entire African clade. A proximal cymbial shoulder in the male palp, the fused lateral lobes of the epigyne and the prolateral proximal spine of leg I shifted to a median position is characteristic for May gen. n. A family-wide analysis of genetic distance in the nuclear 28SrDNA gene (28s), including M. bruno sp. n., supports its isolated placement and thus the genus hypothesis.
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The phylogeny of the spider family Sparassidae is comprehensively investigated for the first time using four molecular markers (mitochondrial COI and 16S; nuclear H3 and 28S). Sparassidae was recovered as monophyletic and as most basal group within the RTA-clade. The higher-level clade Dionycha was not but monophyly of RTA-clade was supported. No affiliation of Sparassidae to other members of the 'Laterigradae' (Philodromidae, Selenopidae and Thomisidae) was observed, and the crab-like posture of this group assumed a result of convergent evolution. Only Philodromidae and Selenopidae were found members of a supported clade, but together with Salticidae and Corinnidae, while Thomisidae was nested within the higher Lycosoidea. Within Sparassidae monophyly of the subfamilies Heteropodinae sensu stricto, Palystinae and Deleninae was recovered. Sparianthinae was supported as the most basal clade within Sparassidae. Sparassinae and the genus Olios were found each to be polyphyletic. Eusparassinae was not recovered monophyletic, with the two original genera Eusparassus and Pseudomicrommata in separate clades and only the latter clustered with most other assumed Eusparassinae, here termed the "African clade". Further focus was on the monophyletic genus Eusparassus and its proposed species groups, of which the dufouri-, walckenaeri- and doriae-group were confirmed as monophyletic with the two latter groups more closely related. According to molecular clock analyses, the divergence time of Sparassidae and Eusparassus was estimated with 186 and 70 million years ago respectively.
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New taxonomical and systematical results concerning the subfamily Heteropodinae are pre- sented. The following new synyonyms are recognized: Adrastis Simon 1880, Panaretus Simon 1880, Parhedrus Simon 1887 are junior synyonyms of Heteropoda Latreille 1804. Adrastis atomaria Simon 1880 = Heteropoda boiei (Doleschall 1859); Parhedrus fasciatus Reimoser 1927 = Heteropoda ocyalina (Simon 1887); Heteropoda holzi Strand 1907, Tortula gloriosa Simon 1880, Tortula simoni Karsch 1884, Holconia beccarii Thorell 1890, Isopeda beccarii malangana Strand 1907 = Heteropoda lunula (Doleschall 1857); Olios freycineti Walckenaer 1837, Olios albifrons Lucas 1852, Helicopis maderiana Thorell 1875, Palystes ledleyi Hogg 1922, Heteropoda venatoria pluridentata Hogg 1914 = Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus 1767); Spariolenus petricola Gravely 1931= Spariolenus tigris Simon 1880. The following taxa are transferred from Heteropoda (Torania) to Barylestis: B. fagei (Lessert 1929), B. montandoni (Lessert 1929), B, occidentalis
Phylogenetic analyses and molecular dating estimates based on chloroplast DNA sequences were used to establish the relationships of the southern and Southeast Asian Crypteroniaceae and elucidate their biogeographic history. Maximum parsimony and likelihood analyses of rbcL sequences suggested that Crypteroniaceae should be restricted to Crypteronia, Axinandra, and Dactylocladus and that Crypteroniaceae, so defined, are sister to a clade formed by three small African taxa (Oliniaceae, Penaeaceae, and Rhynchocalycaceae) and the monotypic Central and South American Alzateaceae. Three molecular dating approaches (maximum-likelihood under a molecular clock, Langley-Fitch, and penalized-likelihood) were used to infer the age of Crypteroniaceae using both paleobotanic and geologic calibrations. Comparisons among these three methods revealed significant lineage effects in rbcL sequences. Clock-independent dating estimates suggested that divergence of Crypteroniaceae from its African and South American relatives coincided with the breakup of Gondwana, and that India likely served as a "raft" transporting Crypteroniaceae to Asia, with later expansion to Southeast Asia. To our knowledge, Crypteroniaceae are the first plant group for which the out-of-India hypothesis is well corroborated by molecular-based estimates of divergence times.
The genus Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 is revised from material collected in Sichuan province. A molecular analysis shows the utility of DNA markers to support taxonomic hypotheses in Sparassidae. Two new species are described: Pseudopoda coenobium spec. nov. from Emeishan (male, female) and Pseudopoda wu spec. nov. from Lugu Lake at the border to Yunnan (male, female). The latter species exhibits a unique reduction of the conductor and a strongly developed embolus. The female of Pseudopoda virgata (Fox, 1936) is described for the first time, the male is redescribed, the known range of the geographical distribution is considerably extended to the East (Baoxing and Tienqiang County), the vertical distribution range is extended from 300 m to slightly more than 2000 m. The male of Pseudopoda signata Jäger, 2001 is described for the first time, the female is redescribed, the known distribution range of this species is extended from Muge Cuo Lake over Kangding town to the valleys of Paomashan, Gonggashan and Yanzi. It shows a strong morphological variation, which may be interpreted as developing subspecies status in different valleys. However, according to results from a molecular analysis it is clearly considered intraspecific variability. Three further species are recorded from Sichuan: Pseudopoda emei Zhang et al., 2013, Pseudopoda sp. cf. yunnanensis (Yang & Hu, 2001) and Pseudopoda rivicola Jäger and Vedel, 2007.
Disjunct distributions among wet-zone taxa of the Indian subcontinent have intrigued biologists for decades. Most authors have invoked variations of either the dispersal or the vicariance model to explain disjunct distribution. However, some have noted that incorrect taxonomy, due to convergence in morphological characters, can erroneously suggest disjunct distribution. An appropriate approach to test these models (vicariance, dispersal and convergence) is to use molecular phylogenetic methods. A survey of recent molecular phylogenetic studies on Indian systems with disjunct distribution suggests that convergence may be quite common. Therefore, I propose that the first step in studying disjunct distributions is to determine if the observed pattern is real (true disjunct) and not due to convergence, i.e. an artifact of incorrect taxonomy (false disjunct).