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Membership role and subjective group dynamics: Impact on evaluative intragroup differentiation and commitment to prescriptive norms

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Abstract

Two studies examined participants’ evaluations of ingroup or outgroup normative and deviant members and changes in agreement with a prescriptive norm. In Experiment 1 (N = 51), the normative target was either a full or marginal ingroup or outgroup member, and the deviant was a full member. In Experiment 2 (N = 113), both targets were full or marginal members, or one was a full member and the other was marginal. As predicted, maximal upgrading of normative members and downgrading of deviant members, as well as endorsement of the norm, occurred when both targets were full ingroup members. In contrast, the deviant was derogated least and the deviant’s position was endorsed most when the deviant target was a full ingroup member and the normative target was a marginal ingroup member. Evaluations of normative and deviant ingroup members mediated the effects of their role on participants’ agreement with the norm.

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... The severity of responses elicited by deviant ingroup members depends on their centrality in the group. For example, Pinto et al. (2010, Experiment 3) found that negative evaluations of deviants who are new ingroup members (those with probationary status in the group; see Levine & Moreland, 1994) were associated with socialization strategies, whereas negative evaluations of deviants who are full ingroup members (who have maximum rights and responsibilities in the group) were associated with punishment strategies (see also Pinto, Marques, Levine, & Abrams, 2016). In the context of leadership, however, two theoretical perspectivesidiosyncrasy credit and social identity theory-suggest that groups may allow leaders (who typically are ingroup full members) enhanced rather than reduced license to deviate compared to the license given to nonleaders (Coser, 1962). ...
... However, because group prototypes are malleable depending on the circumstances (Haslam, Reicher, & Platow, 2011) and because leaders are regarded as exemplifying the group prototype sine pare, group members' only option may be to give their leader opportunities to flex their normative muscles and behave in non-normative ways (cf. Pinto et al., 2016). Abrams et al. (2008) conducted seven experiments demonstrating the award of "innovation credit" to leaders. ...
Article
Leaders often deviate from group norms or social conventions, sometimes innovating and sometimes engaging in serious transgressions or illegality. We propose that group members are prone to be more permissive toward both forms of deviance in the case of ingroup leaders compared to other ingroup members or outgroup members and leaders. This granting of “deviance credit” is hypothesized to be underpinned by perceptions of an ingroup leader's prototypicality of the group (“accrual”) and belief that occupancy of the role confers a right to be supported (“conferral”). Analyses of data from four studies demonstrate that both accrual and conferral (1) mediate evaluations, inclusion and punishment of deviant leaders, and (2) they make independent contributions to deviance credit. Implications for leadership, marginalization, corruption, innovation, and transformation are discussed. © 2018 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
... Blockchain communities seem to belong to the second category. However, in small group dynamic, coordination can be achieved if the community is able to construct collective social representations (Pinto et al., 2016). These representations nurture the formulation of specific norms and possibly the elaboration of a mission. ...
... In order to identify in their stakeholders' eyes the major beliefs that guide the members of the blockchain community in their ability to construct their decision and their action, we have applied a discourse analysis on the discourse of their direct and even daily observers (Radu & Redien-Collot, 2013;Pinto, Marques, Levine & Abrams, 2016). The discourse analysis approach was used to understand how respondents attempted to objectify the blockchain members' behaviors and choices even though they were aware that the community was in permanent evolution. ...
Chapter
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This chapter applies stakeholder theory in order to evaluate whether a blockchain community is demonstrating a communicational maturity in order to achieve its technical, social, and political agenda. The consistence of the mission of an organization or a community is clearly reflected in the eyes of its stakeholders. Therefore, the study adopts a qualitative lens in conducting 11 semi-structured interviews with experts that are prominent international stakeholders of the blockchain in order to gain a deeper understanding of their internalized perception about this technology and its social network. According to the results, the blockchain community members are ready to address the feasibility of their technology and its implications. They also address some aspects of the social suitability of their network. However, they do not fix clear conditions of communication and coordination to discuss the sustainability of the whole organization.
... Variables were univariate normal and centered before creating interaction terms. Significant interactions were unpacked using simple slope analyses (Aiken & West, 1991;Dawson, 2014) using PROCESS v2.16 (Hayes, 2012 Model 3. Indirect effect analyses for behavioral recommendations followed steps previously used in similar research (e.g., Pinto, 2016) using PROCESS v2.16 model 12 with a 5,000-iteration bootstrap procedure. ...
... Significant interactions were unpacked using simple slope analyses (Aiken & West, 1991;Dawson, 2014) using the "jtools" package (Long, 2018). Indirect effect analyses for behavioral recommendations followed steps previously used in similar research (e.g., Pinto et al., 2016) using the "lavaan" package (Rosseel, 2012). ...
Article
Having a group cheat within a group can violate group trust and reduce the benefits gained from group membership. However, group members will sometimes cheat to get an advantage over other in‐group members. In two experiments, the present research investigated how group members evaluate and respond to fellow group members who cheat, and whether group prototypicality or evaluators’ group identification moderate evaluations and behavioral recommendations toward group cheats. In Study 1 (N = 146 undergraduate students), group members evaluated group cheats more negatively than a comparable group deviant. However, highly identified group members would spare a cheat who had high group prototypicality. In Study 2 (N = 227 undergraduate students), highly identified group members rated a one‐time cheat with high prototypicality more favorably than a one‐time cheat with low prototypicality. However, prototypicality did not moderate evaluations toward a multiple time group cheat. In both studies, target evaluations were associated with changes in behavioral recommendations. Overall, results indicate a pattern similar to research on transgression or deviance credit: having group prototypicality can save a group cheat from an initial negative evaluation from highly identified group members, but prototypicality does not buffer against negative evaluations toward multiple time group cheaters.
... Blockchain communities seem to belong to the second category. However, in small group dynamic, coordination can be achieved if the community is able to construct collective social representations (Pinto et al., 2016). These representations nurture the formulation of specific norms and possibly the elaboration of a mission. ...
... In order to identify in their stakeholders' eyes the major beliefs that guide the members of the blockchain community in their ability to construct their decision and their action, we have applied a discourse analysis on the discourse of their direct and even daily observers (Radu & Redien-Collot, 2013;Pinto, Marques, Levine & Abrams, 2016). The discourse analysis approach was used to understand how respondents attempted to objectify the blockchain members' behaviors and choices even though they were aware that the community was in permanent evolution. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter applies stakeholder theory in order to evaluate whether blockchain community is demonstrating a communicational maturity in order to achieve its technical, social, and political agenda. The consistence of the mission of an organization or a community is clearly reflected in the eyes of its stakeholders. Therefore, the study adopts a qualitative lens in conducting 11 semi-structured interviews with experts that are prominent international stakeholders of the blockchain in order to gain a deeper understanding of their internalized perception about this technology and its social network. According to the results, the blockchain community members are ready to address the feasibility of their technology and its implications. They also address some aspects of the social suitability of their network. However, they do not fix clear conditions of communication and coordination to discuss the sustainability of the whole organization.
... However, the group dynamics perspective has greatly influenced both the theory and the modern practice of change management. Today, most organizations perceive their structural "physiology" as a set consisting of teams and groups, rather than a simple aggregation of individuals (Davis, 2016;Pinto, Marques, Levine, & Abrams, 2016;Waller, Okhuysen, & Saghafian, 2016). ...
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This paper is part of the broader theme of change management studies with the view to present, in particular, the approach of managing change and innovation in terms of Stra.Tech.Man (Strategy-Technology-Management synthesis). After a brief review of the principal theoretical approaches and the main study directions in the analysis of the problem of change management, this paper examines the critical dimensions in the study of contemporary organizational change perceived in the theoretical perspective of a “living organism” as against the “mechanistic” approach to organizations. It concludes by examining change management in terms of Stra.Tech.Man, expounding and analyzing the five steps of Stra.Tech.Man as a new conceptual approach to managing change.
... As a control measure, in order to measure participants' identification with the University of Porto, we used a 4-item scale (based on Pinto et al. (2016); 1 = I fully disagree; 7 = I fully agree): (1) "In general, I'm proud to belong to the University of Porto."; (2) "I feel good for being part of the University of Porto."; ...
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We propose that low-status group members' support for group-based hierarchy and inequality (i.e., social dominance orientation; SDO) may represent an ideological strategy to guarantee the legitimacy of future ingroup status-enhancement. Specifically, we argue that, under unstable social structure conditions, SDO serves as an ideological justification for collective action tendencies aimed at competing for a higher status. In such context, SDO should be positively related with actions aimed to favor the ingroup (i.e., collective actions) by increasing group members' motivation to engage in direct competition with a relevant higher-status outgroup. We conducted two studies under highly competitive and unstable social structure contexts using real life groups. In Study 1 (N = 77), we induced Low vs. High Ingroup (University) Status and in Study 2 (N = 220) we used competing sports groups. Overall, results showed that, among members of low-status groups, SDO consistently increased individuals' motivation to get involved in actions favoring the ingroup, by boosting their motivation to compete with the opposing high-status outgroup. We discuss the results in light of the social dominance and collective action framework.
... These observations suggest interesting hypotheses based on social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979) and subjective group dynamics (SGD) theory Pinto et al., 2010;Pinto, Marques, Levine, et al., 2016;Travaglino et al., 2014). The hypotheses concern the relationship between being a member of a social group and the larger intergroup context in which that group is embedded. ...
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Six experiments examined responses to groups whose attitudes deviated from wider social norms about asylum and immigration (in the United Kingdom), or about taxation levels (in the U.S.). Subjective group dynamics (SGD) theory states that people derogate in-group individuals who deviate from prescriptive in-group norms. This enables members to sustain the subjective validity of those norms and, hence, a positive social identity. Research also shows that in-group deviants who accentuate the difference between the in-group and out-group norm (e.g., extremists) are derogated less than deviants who attenuate that difference (e.g., a member who veers toward the outgroup's norm; Abrams et al., 2000). We hypothesize that these effects and the associated group dynamics should scale up when people evaluate deviant groups that are part of larger in-categories. Consistent with SGD theory, participants in Experiments 1, 2, and 3 derogated an in-category attenuating deviant group and upgraded an out-category attenuating deviant group relative to groups that consolidated or accentuated the respective norms of those categories-thereby reinforcing in-category norms relative to out-category norms. Across all experiments, this pattern of differential evaluation was associated with greater subjective validity of the in-category norm. We also hypothesized a novel Deviant Ingroup Protection (DIP) effect, wherein people should curtail derogation of an in-category deviant group when that group is their own. Consistent with this hypothesis, participants in Experiments 4, 5, and 6 evaluated an accentuating in-group, or an attenuating in-group, equally to or more positively than other in-category groups. Implications for political and organizational entrenchment are discussed.
... However, research on second-hand transgression has focused more on situations in which the outgroup is the perpetrator and the victims are from the in-group, but there may be circumstances where the ingroup members are at the same time the perpetrators and the victims. As matter of fact, a transgression toward a third part can indirectly affect other group members in many ways, such as reducing members' perceptions of their group's positive value and damaging its social reputation (Pinto et al. 2016). Although there is evidence of the notion suggesting that when the group's value is at stake, ingroup members tend to downplay the severity of their group's past violations in order to protect the ingroup's image (e.g.,Miron et al. 2010), we suggest that there are circumstances in which ingroup members are more unforgiving toward ingroup than outgroup transgressors. ...
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This paper examines how a social threat posed by a deviant behavior affects second-hand forgiveness over time toward ingroup and outgroup transgressors. In Study 1, using real news reports, we investigated intergroup rivalries between soccer fans in order to understand the role of group membership in predicting the intention to forgive transgressors. Results suggested that transgressors were less likely to be forgiven by ingroup members rather than outgroup members, thus showing evidence of the black sheep effect. In Study 2 (using a different sample), we analyzed the same intergroup rivalries one year after the transgression in order to explore changes in intention to forgive over time. Results showed that, after one year, ingroup members were more likely to forgive ingroup than outgroup transgressors, but only when the threat to the group stereotype was not salient. The implications of the results for the subjective group dynamics theory and for the black sheep effect are discussed.
... Abrams et al., 2000Abrams et al., , 2002; but see Travaglino, Abrams, Randsley de Moura, Marques, & Pinto, 2014). Moreover, such effects are stronger when the deviant is a full member of the group (Pinto, Marques, Levine, & Abrams, 2016) and when the group is less, rather than more homogeneous (Marques, Abrams, & Serodio, 2001). Differentiation between normative and deviant group members serves the function of sustaining ingroup identity by validating ingroup norms (Abrams et al., 2009;Marques, Abrams, Paez, & Martinez-Taboada, 1998). ...
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Can imagining contact with anti-normative outgroup members be an effective tool for improving intergroup relations? Extant theories predict greatest prejudice reduction following contact with typical outgroup members. In contrast, using subjective group dynamics theory, we predicted that imagining contact with anti-normative outgroup members canpromote positive intergroup attitudes because these atypical members potentially reduce intergroup threat and reinforce ingroup norms. In Study 1 (N = 79) when contact was imagined with an anti-normative rather than a normative outgroup member, that member was viewed as less typical and the contact was less threatening. Studies 2 (N = 47) and 3 (N = 180), employed differing methods, measures and target groups, and controlled for the effects of direct contact. Both studies showed that imagined contact with anti-normative outgroup members promoted positive attitudes to the outgroup, relative both to a no contact control condition and (in Study 3) to a condition involving imagined contact with an ingroup antinormative member. Overall, this research offers new practical and theoretical approaches to prejudice reduction.
... Additionally, group members appear to be more willing to persuade deviants 10 in one's own groups than deviants in other groups (Marques, Abrams, & Serôdio, 2001;11 Frings, Abrams, Marques & Randsley de Moura, 2010). This is especially the case when 12 deviants are perceived to be new members (Levine, Moreland, & Cini, 1993;Pinto, 13 Marques, Levine, & Abrams, 2010;2016) and when group members feel capable of 14 persuading the deviant (Frings, Hurst, Cleveland, Blascovich, & Abrams, 2012). However, 15 this form of social control response depends upon deviants both complying and agreeing 16 with the norms privately (Deutsch & Gerard, 1955;Turner, 1991). ...
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Leaders of organizations, teams, and groups are often required to change the group’s direction or forge an innovative path. Examples can be seen in political and organizational arenas on a daily basis. The USA has seen the appointment of a new President, President Obama, who won with a slogan of “Change we can believe in”. Organizations also often face the challenge of change by bringing in a new leader or CEO. For example, the UK broadcaster Channel 4 have recently appointed a new CEO, David Abraham, who has been quoted as saying he will manage a period of uncertainty in the organization through “the biggest creative transformation” (Burrell, 2010). When and why do groups allow leaders to innovate? Why are new leaders often associated with changes in direction? This chapter will explore these issues and examine what happens when leaders resist the tide of opinion within their groups.
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majority reaction to opinion deviance in small groups theoretical perspectives / Festinger's and related models / Moscovici's and related models empirical investigations majority members' motives / assessment of the deviate's impact on goal attainment / overt and covert reactions to deviance (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The effects of psychologization on the conversion phenomenon were studied for cases where influence was exerted either by a minority or by a majority. In a 2×2×3 ANOVA design (minority source versus majority source, personality versus aesthetics, phases) 48 subjects are faced with a confederate who represents either 18.2 per cent or 81.8 per cent of a population and consistently responds green when an objectively blue slide is shown. Colour perception is said to be associated with either aesthetic or personality factors. The prediction is in this last case that psychologization of the majority induces conversion of the subjects, while psychologization of the minority stands in the way of this latent influence. Influence is measured by four response levels for each trial of the three phases (pre-influence, post-influence in the presence or in the absence of the influence source). Manifest influence is measured in terms of the Subjects' Judgements and by the way in which they adjust their stimulus colour perception, as determined with the help of a spectrometer. The latent influence is reflected by the subjects' judgements about the colour of the afterimage upon presentation of the stimulus, as measured on a nine-point scale and with the help of spectral adjustments of this afterimage. The subjects having been influenced without being aware of their conversion shows up in the shifts toward green or the complementary colour of green. Results indicate a cross-over for the effect of indirect influence. Under the personality condition, psychologization has the anticipated effect. The majority is the only one to produce a conversion. The attenuating effect of minority influence again manrfests itserf (Mugny and Papastamou, 1980). Under the aesthetic condition, non-psychologization also induces latent and perceptive shifts, but they go in the opposite direction and coincide closely with other results (Moscovici and Personnaz, 1980; Personnaz, 1981). In this condition, only the minority exerts an influence on all three levels.
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Social and cognitive psychologists have conceptualized judgemental confidence (how strongly a person holds the belief that some judgement is correct) as being proportional to the amount of evidence in favour of a response. Festinger (1950) argued that there are two separate processes by which uncertainty (the inverse of confidence) can be reduced. These two processes are physical reality testing (the perceptual processing of stimulus information) and social reality testing (reliance on other people to resolve particularly ambiguous situations). However, there is surprisingly little direct evidence that uncertainty is either reduced or increased by the responses of other people. In two experimental tests (N = 74 and N = 83) it was found that disagreement increased uncertainty and agreement tended to reduce uncertainty. In a third experiment (N = 63) it was found that disagreement only increased uncertainty when stimulus information was limited, but that agreement generally reduced uncertainty. The results challenge Festinger's model of uncertainty reduction and support a self-categorization theory account.
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Five experiments are reported which attempt to replicate Moscovici and Personnaz's (1980) study that showed that a minority, but not a majority, produced a perceptual conversion in a task involving afterimage judgments. Given the theoretical importance of the study, a number of replications were conducted which were designed to test four explanations. The experiments also address a methodological issue that had not been previously examined, namely within-phase effects. Afterimage shifts were found for a majority and minority source only when there were more trials after-influence compared to pre-influence. In all the experiments there was a consistent within-phase effect showing afterimages gradually shifted toward the complementary color of green. These results suggest that afterimage shifts are due to a within-phase effect of afterimages progressively moving to the complementary color of green and to subject suspiciousness. The experiments therefore call into the question the validity of the paradigm as an appropriate test of conversion theory.
Chapter
The chapter discusses two types of social behavior: compliance and conversion. Four assumptions are discussed in the chapter, in order to understand Compliance and Conversion. The four assumptions present a picture in which a consistent minority can exert an influence to the same extent as a consistent majority, and that the former will generally have a greater effect on a deeper level, while the latter often has less, or none, at that level. These assumptions allow formulating some interesting and verifiable predictions: (1) Conversion is produced by a minority's consistent behavior; (2) The conversion produced by a minority implies a real change of judgments or opinions; (3) The more intense the conflict generated by the minority, the more radical is the conversion; (4) At least where perceptions are involved, conversion is more pronounced when the influence source is absent. The chapter presents a certain number of facts that substantiate these predictions and make them more plausible. Experimental studies are also mentioned wherein preliminary results, direct and indirect influences, conflict and conversion behavior, minority influence, majority influence and compliance are discussed. Final observation indicates convergence between the elements of the proposed theory and the experimental illustrations of conversion behavior.
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This chapter examines the contexts in which people will process more deeply, and therefore be more influenced by, a position that is supported by either a numerical majority or minority. The chapter reviews the major theories of majority and minority influence with reference to which source condition is associated with most message processing (and where relevant, the contexts under which this occurs) and experimental research examining these predictions. The chapter then presents a new theoretical model (the source‐context‐elaboration model, SCEM) that aims to integrate the disparate research findings. The model specifies the processes underlying majority and minority influence, the contexts under which these processes occur and the consequences for attitudes changed by majority and minority influence. The chapter then describes a series of experiments that address each of the aspects of the theoretical model. Finally, a range of research‐related issues are discussed and future issues for the research area as a whole are considered.
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How do group members respond when their group wrongfully punishes a group member? In two experiments, participants were presented with an ingroup member who argued for group change on moral (Experiment 1, N=73) or scientific grounds (Experiment 2, N =94). Despite being right, the member was treated as deviant by the group. We manipulated whether the group retained its former opinion or adopted the deviant's position, and whether the deviant's punishment was ongoing or whether the deviant was reinstated. We tested opposing predictions about how these group actions would affect group members' negativity towards the deviant. Both studies showed that negativity towards the deviant was highest when the group opinion was unchanged and the deviant was not reinstated. Further, opinion change or reintegration defused negativity towards the deviant. Implications of groups rejecting or embracing change, and their effects on the evaluation of wrongfully accused deviants are discussed. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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We provide evidence that, compared to old-timers, newcomers' intentions to confront deviants are more sensitive to the Social context when confronted with ride-violations. Female rugby players (N = 71) were asked for their disapproval of, and willingness to sanction, ingroup and outgroup members who broke important rides in rugby. We also manipulated the status of the audience and found that newcomers were more likely to confront deviants when the audience was high status, and when there was little risk of alienating other ingroup members. In contrast, old-timers expressed relatively high intentions to confront deviants regardless of the context. Discussion focuses on the idea that newcomers resiled from confronting deviants when an ingroup rule-breaker had to be directly confronted, presumably because the perceived costs of doing so exceeded the potential benefits of ingratiating oneself to the high-status audience. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This chapter provides a critical and historical overview of the leadership research, and an overview of key components of the social identity perspective. It discusses the ways in which a focus on group membership, framed by the social identity perspective, can explain important aspects of leadership. The chapter describes the social identity analysis of leadership, including a description of the ways that prototypical leaders can protect their tenure through manipulation and control of the group's prototype. It discusses key empirical tests of the social identity analysis—these tests necessarily hinge on a demonstration that leadership processes become more prototype based with increasing group salience. Several direct and indirect tests from a number of laboratories and research groups around the world that provide support for the social identity analysis have been dealt in the chapter. It presents the results of about 25 independent samples from 16 different studies, and explores implications and extensions of the analysis in the context of the study of leadership.
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Participants evaluated other individuals who deviated in either an anti- or pro-normative direction relative to normative members. In Study 1, in-group gender-normative members were rated more positively than deviant members. The pro-norm deviant was viewed as more attractive than the anti-norm deviant. In Study 2 anti-norm in-group deviants were evaluated more negatively than anti-norm out-group deviants even though both held identical attitudes. In both studies, despite objective equivalence, pro-norm deviance was perceived as less "atypical" than anti-norm deviance. Judgments and reactions to deviance depend on group membership and the direction of deviance, not just its magnitude. Evaluations of deviants are also related to perceivers' identification with their own group. These findings are consistent with our model of subjective group dynamics.