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Abstract

Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises.

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... The practice of hatha yoga includes physical postures (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama), relaxation, and sometimes also meditation techniques (2,12). It differs from other forms of physical exercise in many ways: it possesses specific body postures including relaxation poses, breath regulation, longer maintenance of the postures, furthermore, it requires constant non-judgmental attention during practice (4,7,(13)(14)(15). Among these, breath regulation and constant awareness during practice are features of other mind-body exercises (16,17) and other Eastern movement forms (such as aikido or karate) (18,19). ...
... During the last three decades, research on yoga has gained momentum, mainly due to its positive effects on health (17,20,21). Reviews and comparison studies indicate that regular yoga practice has beneficial effects on various aspects of mental and physical health (10,13,(22)(23)(24). Yoga appears to be a valid method to improve physical and mental functioning in healthy populations, and it also offers therapeutic effects for a wide variety of pathological physical and psychological conditions (13,22,25,26). ...
... Reviews and comparison studies indicate that regular yoga practice has beneficial effects on various aspects of mental and physical health (10,13,(22)(23)(24). Yoga appears to be a valid method to improve physical and mental functioning in healthy populations, and it also offers therapeutic effects for a wide variety of pathological physical and psychological conditions (13,22,25,26). Concerning physical fitness and cardiovascular characteristics, review studies mainly report positive outcomes in terms of flexibility, balance, strength, weight loss, blood pressure, respiration, heart rate, and overall cardiovascular endurance (10,(21)(22)(23)27). ...
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Beneficial physical and physiological health outcomes of yoga practice are well-supported by empirical data. However, whether weekly frequency of training is sufficient to evoke positive changes, is still an open question. The present intervention study investigated the effects of 10 weekly sessions of beginner level hatha yoga with respect to indicators of physical fitness and physiological markers. 82 young women (mean age of 22.0 ± 3.83 years) participated in the study. The yoga group (N = 49) attended a yoga course consisting of 10 sessions (1.5 h each) on a weekly basis. The control group (N = 33) did not receive any intervention. BMI, body fat percentage, balance (one-leg-stand test with open and closed eyes, functional reach test), flexibility (side bend test, modified sit and reach test) core muscle strength (plank test) as well as resting heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed 1 week before and after the course. Both frequentist and Bayesian analysis showed an improvement in flexibility and balance in the yoga group compared to the control group. The yoga group showed also increased core muscle strength. No changes with respect to BMI, body fat percentage, resting HR and HRV were found. Ninety minute beginner level hatha yoga classes were characterized by 93.39 HR and 195 kcal energy consumption on average. The present findings suggest that weekly setting of a 10-session long hatha yoga training leads to improvements in balance, flexibility and core muscle strength among healthy young women. However, for changes in BMI, body fat percentage, resting HR and HRV longer, and/or more intense interventions are needed.
... movement techniquebased) physical activities practiced in the West. It is also claimed that they are able to largely improve physical and mental health (Brown 2013;Fuller 1988;Govindaraj et al. 2016;Lu, Tito, and Kentel 2009;Theeboom and De Knop 1999;Szabolcs, Köteles, and Szabo 2017;Woodward 2009). ...
... Asana classes also often include spiritual contents or practices, e.g. chanting, mentioning of yogic principles and the nonphysical self (Delaney and Anthis 2010;Govindaraj et al. 2016;Sarbacker 2014). Further, regular yoga training can invoke spiritual interest and result in further yogic studies (which has a vast field of spiritual teachings) leading to higher level of spirituality (Dittmann and Freedman 2009;Ivtzan and Jegatheeswaran 2015). ...
Article
Yoga, judo and aikido are popular exercises expected to promote physical and mental health. This study examined four characteristics rooted in Eastern philosophy and religious practice, i.e. spirituality, mindfulness, body awareness, and self-compassion in healthy individuals regularly practicing these movements and a control group (n = 341). The results revealed that practitioners of the exercises of Eastern origin reported greater spirituality than control participants, with practitioners of yoga reporting the highest values. Yoga practitioners also scored higher on mindfulness compared to controls but did not differ from aikidokas and judokas. Practitioners of the Eastern exercises did not differ from each other with respect to body awareness, but they all scored higher than the controls. Finally, yoga practitioners scored higher than all other groups on self-compassion. Results suggest that the regular practice of movement forms of Eastern origin has additional psychological benefits compared to pure physical activity.
... Il serait donc dommage de réduire le yoga à une seule de ses dimensions. Premièrement, la plupart des outils de mesure montrent que les effets du Yoga sur la santé seraient supérieurs à ceux d'une pratique physique (Govindaraj & al., 2016). Deuxièmement, une étude montre que ce n'est pas seulement l'activité physique du yoga qui permet d'obtenir des résultats pour le traitement des troubles dépressifs majeurs, aussi dits MDD (Krogh & al., 2017). ...
... Sa formation propose une approche globale reposant sur des exercices de psychologie positive et la structure d'une séance de yoga : mise en place, échauffement, poses debout, équilibres, poses au sol, inversion, méditation et relaxation. Cette structure peut-être réduite à trois catégories structurantes (Govindaraj & al., 2016) : • exercice de respiration, • poses, • méditation. Notre dispositif se caractérise donc par la structure minimale d'une pratique de yoga (inspirée d'un cours de yoga), l'intégration au sein de cette structure des techniques et méthodes de la psychologie, telles que l'entretien psychologique (inspiré de la psychologie clinique, notamment pour élaborer une anamnèse), l'analyse de match et les méthodes d'organisation des entraînements (inspirées de la psychologie de la performance), les techniques laïques de méditation (non prises dans un discours spirituel) et la verbalisation du ressenti pour travailler sur les compétences positives (inspirées de la psychologie positive), la détermination des exercices de respiration en fonction de la zone optimale d'activation (en nous inspirant de la psychologie de la performance), ainsi que ceux sur l'attention ayant des effets sur la physiologie de la cognition (inspirée des études neuroscientifiques), enfin les postures de yoga et une ouverture vers une association plus ou moins libre sur le ressenti et l'adaptation à la singularité de la personne (inspirée de la démarche analytique et du dispositif de psychologie clinique de Bottai). ...
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Cet article propose d’expliquer un dispositif de préparation mentale pour l’ e-sport basé sur le yoga et la psychologie clinique (dans ses différentes orientations, psychanalyse, neurosciences, cognitive, positive, positive). Il s’agit de reprendre synthétiquement l’état de l’art des recherches sur le yoga en psychologie (dans ses différentes orientations), qui nous a permis d’élaborer un dispositif de préparation mentale pour les progamers : psychanalyse, neurosciences, psychologie positive, psychologie de la performance.
... It has been observed that asana in yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. The Oxford English dictionary defines exercise as'Activity requiring physical effort, carried out to sustainor improve health and fitness' (4) .Practice of physical postures (asana) improves the muscle strength, flexibility, mindbody coordination and balance. At cellular level there occurs improvement in the blood flow, tissue perfusion and oxygenation. ...
... Itis a state whicheliminates unnecessary thought, effortless attention on the present moment. In order to experience the real essence of yoga -the full integration of body, mind and soul, the ability to calm mental turbulence is essential (4,8) . Fitness level of an individual depends on oxygen which can be transported by the body to working muscles to use that oxygen, hence maximum oxygen uptake capacity is widely considered to be reliable indicator of fitness. ...
... Many systematic reviews have reported on a wide range of health benefits including improved cardiovascular risk factors [45], psychological well-being [46], weight-related outcomes [47], stress and anxiety [48,49], and back pain [50,51]. Yoga can be utilized as a low-cost self-care strategy to promote physical and mental health [43,[52][53][54]; it can be a gentle way to start regular exercise [55]; and it can be a modality to improve athletic performance [56]. Despite these possibilities, available evidence suggests that the uptake of yoga remains relatively low, particularly among men [37,[57][58][59]. ...
... As an important first-step in drawing more men to yoga, yoga service providers (e.g., studios, teachers) could provide regular and brief yoga presentations designed specifically for men. It may be useful to highlight the additional physiological benefits offered by yoga (e.g., parasympathetic nervous system activation, mind-body integration [54,118]) in these short educational sessions. ...
Article
Yoga offers an integrated approach to health and well-being that could potentially benefit men. This qualitative descriptive study examined men's perceptions of yoga, and identified barriers and possible facilitators for participation. Twenty-one non-yoga participant men, 18–60 years old, and living in Queensland, Australia, were interviewed. Two major barriers were identified using thematic analysis: (1) preference for other forms of physical activity, and (2) gender-related perceptions and pressures (i.e., perception of yoga as feminine, and presence of “bloke” culture and masculine ideals in society). Potential facilitators included: (1) acceptability of yoga among men, (2) providing brief information sessions, and (3) men-only classes. The non-competitive nature of yoga, in addition to being predominantly undertaken by women, makes it less appealing for men living in Australia. These barriers need to be considered if yoga is to be promoted as an option for men, particularly those not drawn to traditional sports or exercise. Please use this link to access the full text: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1cAQt6CeC2GlPD The access is free until 21 January 2021.
... [1] The focus on breath control, mindfulness, and maintenance of posture differentiates it from other physical exercises. [2] Various yoga practices have been explored in a wide range of diseases for their efficacy in mitigating symptoms. ...
... [3] In rheumatoid arthritis patients, the practice of yoga decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines and improved the clinical symptoms. [2] Yoga has also been shown to bring about a modest reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. [4] The evidence from different randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrates yoga to have beneficial effects on diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. ...
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Background: Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool that helps in maintaining health, peace of mind, and positive thoughts. In the context of asana, yoga is similar to physical exercise. This study aims to construct a molecular network to find hub genes that play important roles in physical exercise and yoga. Methodology: We combined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in yoga and exercise using computational bioinformatics from publicly available gene expression omnibus (GEO) datasets and identified the co-differentially expressed mRNAs with GEO2R. The co‑DEGs were divided into four different groups and each group was subjected to protein–protein interaction (PPI) network, pathways analysis, and gene ontology. Results: Our study identified immunological modulation as a dominant target of differential expression in yoga and exercise. Yoga predominantly modulated genes affecting the Th1 and NK cells, whereas Cytokines, Macrophage activation, and oxidative stress were affected by exercise. We also observed that while yoga regulated genes for two main physiological functions of the body, namely Circadian Rhythm (BHLHE40) and immunity (LBP, T‑box transcription factor 21, CEACAM1), exercise‑regulated genes involved in apoptosis (BAG3, protein kinase C alpha), angiogenesis, and cellular adhesion (EPH receptor A1). Conclusion: The dissimilarity in the genetic expression patterns in Yoga and exercise highlights the discrete effect of each in biological systems. The integration and convergences of multi‑omics signals can provide deeper and comprehensive insights into the various biological mechanisms through which yoga and exercise exert their beneficial effects and opens up potential newer research areas.
... Although yoga comprises a coordinated blend of practices and beliefs, many researchers attribute the benefits of this technique merely to the increase in cardiovascular activity and the expenditure of energy [19]. As an exercise, yoga is a low-intensity physical activity that increases metabolism at rates that are slightly higher than resting levels [20]. Research has explored the biochemical changes that such physical activity elicits-especially changes that might ameliorate metabolic syndrome [21]. ...
... However, some of these physiological changes in response to yoga interventions could partly be attributed to distinct features of yoga asanas. Practitioners assume the asanas comprise postures that specifically facilitate the endocrine and nervous systems [20]. Indeed, previous researchers have suggested that yoga could be utilized to manage diabetesinduced disorders more effectively than other physical activities [17,18,[23][24][25]. ...
Article
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Background: Although research has demonstrated the benefits of yoga to people who have been diagnosed with diabetes or at risk of diabetes, studies have not confirmed these effects can be ascribed to the specific features of the traditional postures, called asanas. Instead, the effects of asanas could be ascribed to the increase in cardiovascular activity and expenditure of energy or to the expectation of health benefits. Therefore, to establish whether asanas are beneficial, researchers need to design a control condition in which participants complete activities, called sham poses, that are equivalent to traditional asanas in physical activity and expectation of benefits. Objectives: The aim of this research was to design an appropriate suite of sham poses and to demonstrate these poses and traditional asanas are equivalent in energy expenditure, cardiovascular response, and expectations of health benefits. Methods: Twenty healthy men at medium to high risk of developing diabetes volunteered to partake in the current study. These men completed two sessions that comprised traditional asanas and two sessions that comprised sham poses-poses that utilize the same muscle groups as the asanas and were assigned fictitious Sanskrit labels. Before and after each session, heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, triglycerides levels, and oxygen saturation were measured to gauge the intensity of exercise. After each session, using a standard measure, participants also indicated the degree to which they expected the poses to improve health. Results: The degree to which the sessions affected the physiological measures (for example, pre-exercise, the heart rate for yoga and sham was 71.06 ± 4.79 and 73.88 ± 6.05, respectively, and post-exercise, the heart rate was 70.19 ± 6.16 and 73 ± 7.55, respectively) and the expectations of health improvements did not differ between the traditional asanas and the sham poses. Likewise, the degree to which each session influenced these physiological measures was negligible in both conditions. Conclusions: This study developed a series of poses that elicit similar physiological and psychological effect as traditional yoga asanas. These poses can be used in an active control group in future randomized trial studies that are designed to assess the benefits of asanas.
... Many physical and mental health benefits can be elicited through the regular practice of yoga. [5], [6], [7] Yoga is practiced as asanas, and they help not only aligning the mind with the body but also an alternative to physical activity. The National Health Interview Survey reported Yoga as the most common complementary health approach among US adults in 2012 (9.5%) and 2017 (14.3%). ...
... Google is one of the most common search engines and "Google Trends" was first introduced in 2006 used to understand and predict disease outbreaks and study policy impacts. [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16] Policymaking and implementation during the COVID-19 pandemic has been dynamic. [17] In our study, we aim to assess the implications of global policy dynamics and COVID-19 pandemic on trends in mental health problems and Yoga across the world using GT analysis. ...
Article
Background: With coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic, society is gripped with uncertainty and fear, inclining them toward Yoga to prevent mental health issues. Google Trends (GT) depicts the public interest of the community which may vary due to evolving policy dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. Aim: The aim was to study global public interest in Yoga for mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: Global time trends were obtained for Yoga, Anxiety, and Depression from November 1, 2019 to May 31, 2020 using GT. The time series analysis was done in three different time periods - pre-COVID-19 phase, transition period, and COVID-19 pandemic phase. Cross-correlation, Spearman rho, Friedman ANOVA test, and forecasting were used for analysis. Results: GT found a global change in the search queries for Yoga, anxiety, and depression during the three time periods. High burden COVID-19 countries - Italy, Spain, Russia, and Brazil had an increasing search trend for Yoga. During the COVID-19 phase, there was a significant positive correlation between the search trends of Yoga with depression (r = 0.232; P < 0.05) and anxiety (r = 0.351; P < 0.05), but higher anxiety and depression searches lead to lower Yoga searches at lag +6. Forecast projected a continuous increase in Yoga searches and anxiety queries. Conclusion: Google Trends captured a significant rise in interest of Yoga among the global community but diminished with time. Hence, the need for interventions to promote Yoga to be part of routine life and for making sure that people adhere to the Yoga practices on a continuous basis.
... Twelve questions (questions [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] were included in CHAS to assess the mental health during the lockdown. The questions were designed to evaluate fear and anxiety during the lockdown and evaluate the individual's general personality or character. ...
... Regardless, several studies have reported over time better physical health, mental health, and quality of life both among healthy individuals and those with disease or disorder (17-20, 24, 25). Yoga has been known to improve physical and mental health compared with a physically active group or a physically inactive group, yet the reliance on its anticipated benefits has never been assessed in any nationwide study during a health crisis (28,29). ...
Article
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Uncertainty about Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and resulting lockdown caused widespread panic, stress, and anxiety. Yoga is a known practice that reduces stress and anxiety and may enhance immunity. This study aimed to (1) investigate that including Yoga in daily routine is beneficial for physical and mental health, and (2) to evaluate lifestyle of Yoga practitioners that may be instrumental in coping with stress associated with lockdown. This is a pan-India cross-sectional survey study, which was conducted during the lockdown. A self-rated scale, COVID Health Assessment Scale (CHAS), was designed by 11 experts in 3 Delphi rounds (Content valid ratio = 0.85) to evaluate the physical health, mental health, lifestyle, and coping skills of the individuals. The survey was made available digitally using Google forms and collected 23,760 CHAS responses. There were 23,290 valid responses (98%). After the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria of yogic practices, the respondents were categorized into the Yoga ( n = 9,840) and Non-Yoga ( n = 3,377) groups, who actively practiced Yoga during the lockdown in India. The statistical analyses were performed running logistic and multinomial regression and calculating odds ratio estimation using R software version 4.0.0. The non-Yoga group was more likely to use substances and unhealthy food and less likely to have good quality sleep. Yoga practitioners reported good physical ability and endurance. Yoga group also showed less anxiety, stress, fear, and having better coping strategies than the non-Yoga group. The Yoga group displayed striking and superior ability to cope with stress and anxiety associated with lockdown and COVID-19. In the Yoga group, participants performing meditation reportedly had relatively better mental health. Yoga may lead to risk reduction of COVID-19 by decreasing stress and improving immunity if specific yoga protocols are implemented through a global public health initiative.
... It emphasizes physical postures (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama), and relaxation and meditation techniques (Devereux, 1994). Hatha yoga differs from other forms of physical activity in several ways: (1) its specific body postures including relaxation poses, (2) breath regulation, (3) sustained maintenance of the postures, and (4) the requirement of constant non-judgmental attention during practice (Veda Bharati, 1985;Yesudian and Haich, 1992;Impett et al., 2006;Govindaraj et al., 2016). The latter three characteristics are shared by other socalled mind-body exercises (Mehling et al., 2011;Patwardhan, 2017). ...
... Yoga practice has special physical and mental characteristics; it integrates sustained muscular activity with inward focus, breath awareness, and synchronization of breath and movement (Impett et al., 2006;Mehling et al., 2011;Govindaraj et al., 2016). These components are expected to result in a mental stillness, self-contemplative state, and reduction of stress and anxiety (Rama et al., 1976;Iyengar, 1991;Collins, 1998;Sengupta, 2012). ...
Article
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Verbal instructions provided during yoga classes can differ substantially. Yoga instructors might choose to focus on the physical aspects of yoga (e.g., by emphasizing the characteristics of the poses), or they might take a more spiritual approach (e.g., by mentioning energy flow and chakras). The present study investigated the effects of verbal cues during yoga practice on various psychological measures. Eighty-four female students (22.0 ± 3.80 years) participated in the study. Two groups attended a beginner level hatha yoga course in which physically identical exercise was accompanied by different verbal cues. The so-called "Sport group" (N = 27) received instructions referring primarily to the physical aspects of yoga practice, while the "Spiritual group" (N = 23) was additionally provided with philosophical and spiritual information. A control group (N = 34) did not receive any intervention. Mindfulness, body awareness, spirituality, and affect were assessed 1 week before and after the training. 2 × 3 mixed (time × intervention) ANOVAs did not show an interaction effect for any of the variables. However, when the two yoga groups were merged and compared to the control group, we found that spirituality increased, and negative affect decreased among yoga participants. In conclusion, yoga practice might influence psychological functioning through its physical components, independent of the style of verbal instructions provided.
... This effect is coexisting with the earlier studies, which mentions that dance and yoga can modulate the concentration of serotonin and dopamine neurohormones by stabilizing the sympathetic nervous system towards regulating mood and social behaviour. 32,33 Further, the balanced energy of dance (with -22%) and yoga (-15%) level of the musculoskeletal system is concurrent to the fact that dance and yoga improves the volume of the postcentral gyrus and, somatosensory fibers end in this area which conveys information from proprioceptive organs such as neuromuscular spindles, joint, and sinew receptors felicitating musculoskeletal system. 34,35 Similarly, the digestive system of both the intervention groups of the study showed a regulated C score in dance (26%) and yoga (-24%). ...
... Like other body systems, the C level of the immune system of intervention groups is concurrent to the earlier studies that dance and yoga can strengthen the immune system by way of muscular action and physiological processes. 33,39 Even a change of 0.5 Joules in the result is considered as significant effect to make the intervention eligible for regular practice. 40 In this study, the dance group showed 18% and yoga group 19% of enhanced C to immune systems compared to the control group at 5%. ...
Article
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Background: Electro photonic image (EPI) technique based on the bio-energy field, is growing as a novel technique in the fields of alternative medicine, conventional practices, psycho-physiology, psychology, and consciousness. In this study, the EPI instrument is used to assess emotional pressure which is termed as activation coefficient (AC), communication energy (C) level of various organ systems, and entropy (E) in the human energy field is assessed in the caregivers (CGs) of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs).Methods: Immediate effect of Indian aesthetic dance (n=31) and yoga (n=30) practices for 75 minutes were assessed in two randomized experimental groups that are later compared with the control group (n=30). The statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS Version 21.0.Results: The activation coefficient of intervention groups showed a significant reduction in stress levels (p<0.001). Indian aesthetic dance intervention group showed significant improvement in the energy level of the organ systems namely respiratory, endocrine, musculoskeletal and digestive system (p<0.001); cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems (p<0.01) and yoga group in respiratory, musculoskeletal, nervous system (p<0.001); and cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune system (p<0.01). Both the intervention groups showed a significant reduction in entropy (p<0.001) post-intervention compared to the control group.Conclusions: The EPI parameters used for CGs of children with NDDs explore the possibility of using this instrument for measuring the bioenergy field that infers the health status of CGs before and after dance and yoga interventions.
... Yoga is a mind-body exercise developed in India, which has gained popularity worldwide [1,2]. This exercise can be characterised by slow movements, with large body movement range when participants are standing, seated, and lying supine or prone [3]. Practising yoga has been verified to increase muscle strength, joint flexibility [4], and joint range of motion (ROM) [5]; improve balance, coordination [6], and perceived stress and depression [2]; and reduce pain amongst patients with osteoarthritis (OA) [7]. ...
... On average, yoga expressed greater total hip ROM and hip flexor moments compared with activities of daily life (ADL) [3,32], suggesting that yoga should be studied further as a potential training modality to improve daily gait [28,33,34]. In addition, the knee abduction angle and abductor moments were greater in yoga than in ADL [30]. ...
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This study was aimed at exploring the biomechanical characteristics of the lower extremity amongst three typical yoga manoeuvres. A total of thirteen experienced female yoga practitioners were recruited in the current study; they were all certified with the Yoga Alliance. A three-dimensional motion capture system with 10 cameras combined with four synchronised force plates was used to collect kinematics of the lower extremity and ground reactive force whilst the participants performed the crescent lunge pose, warrior II pose, and triangle pose. One-way repeated ANOVA was used in exploring the differences amongst the three yoga movements, and the significance was set to alpha
... Practice of yoga postures is very methodical and involves the following three phases: (1) attaining the pose; (2) holding and (3) releasing the pose. 48 The holding of the pose constitutes for an Asana which literally translates to being at ease or to be stable. 48 Holding of the pose causes isometric, isotonic contractions and static stretching of the muscles resultantly improving strength and flexibility. ...
... 48 The holding of the pose constitutes for an Asana which literally translates to being at ease or to be stable. 48 Holding of the pose causes isometric, isotonic contractions and static stretching of the muscles resultantly improving strength and flexibility. 49 Resistance training in PR incorporates open kinetic chain movements with properties like hand-held weights. ...
Article
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There is a rising burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in India. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), is a universally recommended multidisciplinary therapeutic strategy for the management of COPD; however, its needs are unmet. The diversity in the healthcare systems, availability of PR specialists and sociocultural multiformity requires contextualised and innovative PR models. Culturally sensitive elements, such as yoga, have some evidence of a positive impact in the management of COPD. Yoga and PR are based on similar principles with a holistic approach of involving physical activities, behaviour change techniques and psychological support to improve disease outcomes. Arguably the principles of PR and yoga are complementary but there are some important differences in the intensities of activities, exercise types and inclusion of mindfulness in components that must be considered. Components of PR enable aerobic capacity building, strengthening of muscles of the upper and lower extremities and building awareness towards disease management. Yoga, on the other hand, primarily can focus on core strengthening, breathing control, mindfulness and self-awareness. We discuss the potential of integrating the sociocultural appeal of yoga with PR delivered at international standards, and how an integrated approach may lead to optimal referral, uptake and completion.
... Yoga exercise is composed of physical (asana), breathing (pranayama), and mental (pratyahara) practices, resulting in health, relaxation, and positive awareness. [6] Yoga is now recommended as a noninvasive method and easily accessed intervention for pain relief that is safe and cost-effective with minimal or no side effects. Moreover, regular practice of yoga has positive effects onthe menstrual cycle and psychobiological well-being probably by balancing the neuroendocrinal axis. ...
... A review and comparison between yoga and physical exercise were conducted by Govindaraj et al., which concluded that yoga interventions are equal and/or superior to physical exercises in most outcomes. [6] Conclusion ...
Article
Background: Eighty percent of women during their reproductive age experience some symptoms attributed to premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms that occur during late luteal phase of menstrual cycle and are relieved after the onset of menstruation. Aerobic exercise and yoga are one of the ways to reduce these symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise and yoga on PMS. Materials and methods: A total of 72 participants of PMS, referred for physiotherapy treatment (mean age 28 years), were enrolled and allocated into two groups (Group A and B) by simple computerized randomization. Patients in Group A received aerobic exercise and in Group B received yoga movements for 40 min, 3 times a week for 1 month. The pain intensity (Visual Analog Scale) and PMS Scale were measured before, at the end of 15 days, and 1 month of treatment program. Results: Data were analyzed by paired t-test, unpaired t-test, and one-way ANOVA; and the results showed that both aerobic exercise and yoga movements significantly reduced pain intensity and PMS symptoms. Significant reduction in PMS symptoms was found in patients treated with yoga compared to aerobic exercise; however, no significant difference was found in pain intensity between these two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that both aerobic exercise and yoga movements are effective in treating PMS; however, yoga is more effective in relieving the symptoms of PMS than aerobic exercise.
... Breath control and mindfulness techniques are often part of the yoga exercise itself and included in the yoga instructions (independently from separate meditation exercises). The attempt of these instructions is to facilitate body awareness during exercise by directing attention inwardly and away from the environment and keep an internal body focus during exercising rather than an external body focus on outward appearance (Ross and Thomas, 2010;Govindaraj et al., 2016). Western yoga interventions most frequently investigated in scientific studies so far focus on these four basic aspects, i.e., the practice of physical yoga postures in combination with controlled breathing, mindfulness instructions and sometimes, simple mediation exercise on top. ...
... This increase in HRV is mainly associated with an increase in vagal (parasympathetic) cardiac activity (Tyagi and Cohen, 2016). Changes in HRV after regular yoga exercise have also been confirmed in randomized controlled trial studies (RCTs), comparing yoga exercise or yoga breathing exercise to other mind-body exercises (Tai Chi) (Zou et al., 2018) or to physical exercises (Govindaraj et al., 2016) or control groups (e.g., Kuppusamy et al., 2020). Moreover, there is some evidence from meta-and review studies that yoga can alleviate acute and chronic stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms in certain patient groups compared to placebo controls or treatment as usual Vollbehr et al., 2018). ...
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Exercise is indispensable for a healthy lifestyle. Yoga exercise can have positive effects on well-being and on cardiac autonomic activity making it an ideal intervention for improving mind-body interactions and resilience to physical and mental stressors. Emotions trigger especially strong bodily and affective-cognitive responses because of their social relevance for the self and their biological relevance of mobilizing the organism for action. This study investigates whether changes in emotion processing related to self-other referential processing and changes in cardiac autonomic activity, reflected by heart rate variability (HRV), occur immediately after already a single session of yoga exercise when yoga postures are practiced with or without breathing- and mindful body awareness instructions. Women, all university students ( N = 34, final sample: n = 30, n = 25 naïve to yoga practice) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups who performed the same yoga exercises with or without controlled breathing and mindfulness instructions. Emotional, self-other referential processing, awareness of bodily signals and HRV indicators were investigated before and after the exercise using standardized experimental tasks, standardized questionnaires, and mobile recording devices. Exercising for 30 minutes changed cardiac activity significantly. HRV measures showed adaptability of cardiac activity during the exercise as well as during the affective task post- to pre-exercise. Exercising with breathing instructions and mindful body awareness had no superior effects on cardiac, particularly parasympathetic activity, compared to practicing the same movements without such explicit instructions. Self-referential processing did not change; however, participants were faster and more accurate in their affective judgments of emotional stimuli [regardless of their reference (self/other)], and showed better awareness of bodily signals after compared to before the exercise session. The results support immediate, adaptive effects of yoga exercise on cardiac and affective-cognitive processing in an all-female healthy sample. Therefore, yoga exercise could be recommended as a physical activity for boosting cardiac and emotional resilience in this target group.
... analytic review reported that yoga was equally effective in reducing CVD risk when compared to aerobic physical activities such as brisk walking or cycling [10]. Yoga may be comparable or superior to other types of physical activity in managing blood pressure [10][11][12], body weight [11,13], blood glucose [12,13], lipid profile [10,11,13], and psychosocial stress [14,15]. Mooventhan & Nivethitha [16] conducted a comprehensive review of the effects of yoga on chronic conditions in older adults, concluding that yoga improves health outcomes in multiple domains, including physical (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate variability, and insulin sensitivity), mental (e.g., depression and anxiety), emotional (e.g., mood and stress), and social (e.g., life satisfaction). ...
... analytic review reported that yoga was equally effective in reducing CVD risk when compared to aerobic physical activities such as brisk walking or cycling [10]. Yoga may be comparable or superior to other types of physical activity in managing blood pressure [10][11][12], body weight [11,13], blood glucose [12,13], lipid profile [10,11,13], and psychosocial stress [14,15]. Mooventhan & Nivethitha [16] conducted a comprehensive review of the effects of yoga on chronic conditions in older adults, concluding that yoga improves health outcomes in multiple domains, including physical (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate variability, and insulin sensitivity), mental (e.g., depression and anxiety), emotional (e.g., mood and stress), and social (e.g., life satisfaction). ...
... In fact, most Indian studies evaluating the efficacy of physical activity in psychiatric disorders involve yoga programs as a comparator (rather vice versa). 35 Reviewing and comparing these two strategies, Govindaraj et al. 42 show that yoga is equal to or superior to exercise in most outcomes, not only related to mental health but also general health, including cardiovascular, reproductive, musculoskeletal, endocrine, etc. In fact, a recent review by Mohanty et al. 43 recommends the compendium of physical activities to add a separate category for energy expenditure by yoga; they found that yoga, in terms of energy expenditure, is equivalent to moderate intensity physical activity. ...
... In fact, a recent review by Mohanty et al. 43 recommends the compendium of physical activities to add a separate category for energy expenditure by yoga; they found that yoga, in terms of energy expenditure, is equivalent to moderate intensity physical activity. The review by Govindaraj et al., 42 however, points to the common but inaccurate notion that "yoga is a form of exercise" and lists important differences between them that are mainly attributable to yoga, which includes "emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, the importance given to the maintenance of postures and differential effects on the body and the brain." We suggest studies examining preventive and therapeutic physical activity schedules to combine yoga and other customary forms of physical activity to assess whether the benefits are additive. ...
... 3 The three broad categories of yoga practice-a s a n a (physical postures), p ra n a y a m a (breath control), and dhyana (meditation)-bring discipline in the body, respiration, and mind, respectively. [4][5][6] While asana and certain forms of pranayama can lead to i n c reased energy expenditure, meditation can do the reverse. 4 Recently, the authors have reasoned that yoga meets the requirements for being included in the Indian government's physical activity guidelines. ...
... [4][5][6] While asana and certain forms of pranayama can lead to i n c reased energy expenditure, meditation can do the reverse. 4 Recently, the authors have reasoned that yoga meets the requirements for being included in the Indian government's physical activity guidelines. 7 Over the last century, yoga has grown into a global phenomenon and has recently been recognized by the United Nations. ...
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The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of yoga practice. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a larger study that included yoga as a form of physical activity. Data were collected during April and August 2019 from the adult urban population of Bhubaneswar, India. This study was conducted using a cluster random sampling method. A representative sample (n = 1,203) of adults aged 18-59 years, irrespective of gender, was interviewed using a questionnaire adapted from the 2012 U.S. National Health Interview Survey, with the Epicollect5 handheld data-collection tool. Predictors of yoga practice were explored using multivariable logistic regression. The mean age of the participants was 35.19 ± 10.67 years, with 55.3% males. The majority were Hindu (93.62%) and belonged to the unreserved category (65.60%), people generally of higher relative socioeconomic status. The lifetime prevalence of yoga was 16.9%. Prevalence of any form of yoga (yoga, pranayama, or meditation), all forms of yoga (yoga, pranayama, and meditation), pranayama, and meditation was 17.0%, 10.7%, 14.3%, and 11.4%, respectively. After adjusting for con-founders, female gender, Hindu religion, minimum of higher-secondary or graduate-level education, and having received advice from professionals for yoga practice had significantly higher odds of practicing yoga, and those of higher socioeconomic status had significantly lower odds of practicing yoga. We found a low prevalence of yoga. Sociodemographic characteristics like gender, religion, education , socioeconomic status, and other factors like learning yoga from professionals may be important predictors of continued yoga practice.
... The United Nations gives yoga a grand recognition by making every 21 st June as International Yoga Day. Yoga as practice, involves physical postures, breathing techniques and meditation [21]. Yoga has evidences of benefits. ...
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This paper tackles yoga as a form of public health support during the pandemic. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, yoga has been used in different social contexts, from small groups to community-wide engagement; During the quarantine, telehealth platform was promoted and yoga was introduced online to the community. Researches on yoga have indicated positive effects on medical and psychological complaints. In the program, the yoga instructor collaborated with a mental health professional whose expertise is on gestalt therapy. Thus, gestalt awareness continuum exercises enhanced the experiences of the participants who reported psychological complaints. The program affirms the viability of using digital technology in conducting yoga sessions. Benefits of doing yoga online outweighs the challenges that are seen in the light of socio-cultural, gender and religious milieus. The paper draws a conclusion that yoga on an online is the better platform option in a crisis situation when in-person engagement is not feasible. Recommendation highlights the need to address physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors using yoga and its inclusion to the government health promotion and health campaign strategies.
... Yoga is a way of living that helps to maintain a balance among the physical, psychological, mental, sentimental and spiritual aspects of life. Yoga is different from other physical exercises because it emphasizes core elements such as focusing on breath control and mindfulness during practice, as well as a maintenance of posture [2]. In Western communities, ''yoga" is often a shorthand for the practice of ''Hatha yoga," which includes asanas (physical postures), pranayama (breath control techniques), dhyana (meditation) and relaxation. ...
Article
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with a sedentary and stressful lifestyle and affects underactive people disproportionately. Yoga is considered to be a low-impact mind-body stress-relieving exercise, and researchers are increasing their focus on the benefits of yoga for managing metabolic disorders. It is also important for physicians and health care professionals to understand the therapeutic efficacy of yoga intervention, in terms of its type, duration and frequency on various MS risk factors. The present review summarizes the current scientific understanding of the effects of yoga on MS risk factors such as glucose homeostasis markers, lipid profile, adipocytokines and cardiovascular risk factors, and discusses the possible mechanisms of action. MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception up to December 2019, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome," "diabetes," "cardiovascular diseases," "obesity" and "yoga." The literature summarized in this review have shown mixed effects of yoga on MS risk factors and do not provide robust evidence for its efficacy. More rigorous research and well-designed trials that have a higher standard of methodology and evaluate yoga's long-term impacts on MS are needed. Understanding yoga's biochemical and molecular mechanisms of action on various metabolic pathways is also needed.
... Generally, yoga is included in low-intensity exercises which seems to have the most beneficial effect on health. Yoga classes are easily accessible and offered by fitness clubs, which additionally affects its universal availability [1]. ...
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Introduction: Yoga is becoming increasinglypopular and widely available form of physical activity. It is believedthat yoga practice has a beneficial effect on the practitioner's body even with a small amount of exercise. There are also studies confirming the usefulness of yoga practice in the fight against obesity, which is a serious health problem of the 21st century. The aim of the study: Analysis of body composition of people who regularly practicingyoga, analysis of the relationship between body composition and anthropometric parameters, as well as a comparative analysis with people not related to yoga practice. Material and methods:The study ultimately included 42 women who were divided into two groups. The group of yoga practitioners (G1) consisted of 21 women aged 24-59. Out of 46 tested women who did not practice yoga, 21 women were selected due to age and height as close as possible to women from group 1. Group of non participants in yoga (G2) consisted of 21 women aged 23-62. The body composition was performed using TANITA BC 420 SMA analyzer, which uses BIA method. Anthropometric measurements were made using the SECA 201 measuring tape. Results:Statistically significant differences (p
... Physical exercise has also been shown to have benefits in patients with Depression; this has not been discussed here as it would be outside the scope of this letter. However, a previous paper by our group has made an interesting comparison of yoga and physical exercise (Govindaraj et al., 2016). Also, in this report, the patients recruited were urban, educated, working, and chose yoga therapy voluntarily as the sole therapy. ...
... Cairan ini dilepaskan ke dalam sendi untuk menjaga sendi tetap elastis, sehingga dapat mengurangi kekakuan. 10 Yoga dapat menjadi pilihan stretching karena tampak aman, mudah dipelajari, tidak membutuhkan peralatan rumit, mahal maupun tempat latihan tertentu. Selain efek peningkatan fleksibilitas yang didapat, yoga juga memberikan berbagai manfaat lain seperti peningkatan kekuatan, keseimbangan, relaksasi dan perbaikan kualitas hidup. ...
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Latar Belakang: Penurunan fleksibilitas pada wanita dapat memicu terjadi nya penyakit, terutama keluhan muskuloskeletal yaitu cedera pada lumbal. Wanita dianjurkan untuk melakukan latihan-latihan sehingga dapat mencegah penurunan fleksibilitas. Tujuan: Mengetahui hubungan frekuensi senam yoga dengan fleksibilitas lumbal pada wanita. Metode: Penelitian observational analitik dengan pendekatan potong lintang yang menyertakan 45 wanita usia 20-45 tahun di Kota Denpasar. Sampel dipilah dengan teknik purposive sampling yang dilakukan pada empat studio senam yoga dan satu lapangan di Kota Denpasar selama bulan Juli – Agustus 2019. Data diperoleh dengan lembar pengumpulan data dan pengukuran fleksibilitas lumbal dengan sit and reach test. Data dianalisis dengan uji chi-square dan somers’d untuk mengetahui hubungan frekuensi senam yoga dengan fleksibilitas lumbal pada wanita. Hasil: Berdasarkan hasil uji, didapatkan nilai p=0,0001 (p<0,05) dan r=0,643(0,6? r ?0,8) memperlihatkan hubungan kuat dan bermakna antara frekuensi senam yoga dengan fleksibilitas lumbal pada wanita usia 20-45 tahun di Kota Denpasar. Kesimpulan: Terdapat hubungan signifikan antara frekuensi senam yoga dengan fleksibilitas lumbal ditandai dengan peningkatan nilai ukur fleksibilitas lumbal pada wanita dengan frekuensi senam yoga yang sangat rutin. Kata kunci: Frekuensi senam yoga, Fleksibilitas lumbal, Senam yoga
... In practical terms, yoga is integrating the body, breath, and mind, and this practice facilitates the realization of higher consciousness in the long term and hence the union at a higher level. For therapeutic benefits, integration/union of the mind, body, and breath is emphasized, and perhaps this integration in yoga practice differentiates it from other physical exercises [34]. In this context, yoga-based intervention is a promising candidate to be tested for its therapeutic benefits in schizophrenia. ...
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Purpose of Review To review the efficacy of add-on yoga therapy in improving symptoms of schizophrenia and quality of life and examine the possible underlying biological mechanisms of yoga in schizophrenia. Recent Findings Quality of life, cognitive symptoms, and negative symptoms have been found to improve with add-on yoga therapy in schizophrenia (pooled mean effect size 0.8, 0.6, and 0.4, respectively). Yoga also seems to have a small effect on improving positive symptoms. Less explored areas include adverse effects of yoga itself as well as its effects on antipsychotic-induced complications. Preliminary findings suggest that the effects of yoga may be mediated by neurohormonal mechanisms and functional changes in brain activity. Summary Add-on yoga therapy is a potential treatment option for improving quality of life, cognitive symptoms, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Future studies should explore efficacy in multicentric trials as well as possible neurobiological changes underlying the effects.
... Breathing regulation and mindfulness during yogic practice and maintenance of postures characterize yoga practices and make it distinct from other physical exercise modalities. 11 Pranayama is considered as an add-on-therapy to 'Pharmacologically recommended treatment' of childhood Asthma. In chronic asthma cases, many studies have noted improvement in "Quality of life and change in asthma symptoms. ...
Article
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The article is a review of common breathing exercises practised by people doing pranayam and it's utility in various disease conditions.
... Yogic practice is considered superior to traditional exercise as results obtained after highintensity workouts are quantitative at the muscular level when compared with the qualitative output of yoga practice that leads to the energization of the chakras (body energy centers) [27]. ...
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Introduction Sudharshan kriya pranayama (SKP) is a form of yoga that reduces inflammation and contributes to general health. Very few prior studies have examined the role of pranayama on oral health. We evaluated the clinical status and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after SKP. Materials and methods Ninety male subjects were considered for the study and divided into three groups: subjects with a healthy periodontium (Group1), subjects with chronic gingivitis (Group2), and subjects with chronic periodontitis (Group3). The clinical parameters included plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and salivary markers human beta-defensin-2(HBD-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). These parameters and markers were evaluated before and after 90 days of SKP. The data obtained were statistically evaluated by McNemar's test, paired sample t-test, and one-way analysis of variance. Results There was a significant improvement in PI in all three groups. GI showed an improvement in Groups 2 and 3. PPD and CAL also showed an improvement in Group 3. HBD-2 and NF-κB decreased with SKP, whereas PPAR-γ expression increased after the intervention. In Groups 2 and 3 with the decrease in GI, there was a corresponding decrease in HBD-2. In Group 3 with an improvement in PPD and CAL, there was an improvement in PPAR-γ expression. Conclusions The results show that SKP can significantly decrease periodontal inflammation and improve periodontal status. It also effectively improves the expression of PPAR-γ, thereby decreasing salivary levels of HBD-2 and NF-κB, respectively. Based on our results, pranayama can be an effective adjunct in maintaining oral health.
... Physical exercise has also been shown to have benefits in patients with Depression; this has not been discussed here as it would be outside the scope of this letter. However, a previous paper by our group has made an interesting comparison of yoga and physical exercise (Govindaraj et al., 2016). Also, in this report, the patients recruited were urban, educated, working, and chose yoga therapy voluntarily as the sole therapy. ...
... [21][22][23] Furthermore, an 8-week study of yoga for obstetrics-gynecology medical residents showed significant improvement in the depersonalization measure of burnout, decreased blood pressure, and increased camaraderie in those who attended more than 50% of the group yoga sessions. 24 "Yoga" encompasses a range of physical (asana), breath (pranayama), and meditative practices, 25 and studies have shown benefits of yoga for increasing well-being in professionals in high-stress fields such as healthcare and education. 19,26,27 Importantly, yoga encompasses a range of traditions and styles, and a 2016 review identified 52 different yoga styles that have been assessed in randomized controlled trials; results from almost all of the studies were positive. ...
Article
Well-being activities may help to counteract physician burnout. Yoga is known to enhance well-being, but there are few studies of yoga as an intervention for physicians in training. This prospective methodology-development study aimed to explore how to establish a yoga-based well-being intervention for physician trainees in a large urban training hospital. We aimed to identify factors that contribute to trainee participation and explore an instrument to measure changes in self-reported well-being after yoga. Cohorts included a required-attendance group, a voluntary-attendance group, and an unassigned walk-in yoga group. Weekly 1-hour yoga sessions were led by a qualified yoga instructor for 4 weeks. The seven-question Resident Physician Well-Being Index (RPWBI) was used to measure resident well-being before yoga, after 4 weeks of yoga, and 6 months post-yoga. Trainees attending each session ranged from 17 for required yoga to 0–2 for voluntary yoga, 2–9 for lunchtime walk-in yoga, and 1–7 for evening walk-in yoga. In the required-yoga group (n = 17), overall RPWBI mean scores did not change significantly across the three query times, and participation in the survey declined over time. The mean baseline RPWBI score for the required group before yoga was in the non-distressed range and answers to the seven individual questions varied. Requiring a yoga activity for medical trainees may be a good strategy for promoting participation in yoga. The RPWBI may have limited utility for measuring changes in overall group well-being after a yoga intervention.
... 24 Some suggestions on such physical activities include high-intensity interval training (e.g., Tabata), yoga, Pilates, and Zumba which might have health benefits. [25][26][27][28] It is further important to recognize that many physical activities do not necessarily require special equipment. Rather, it is possible to stay physically active at home using simple and easily performed exercises. ...
Article
The novel coronavirus (SARS‐CoV‐2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed serious challenge to societies worldwide. To prevent person-to-person transmission of the coronavirus and avoid associated morbidity and mortality, several public health measures have been introduced by various health organizations and authorities, such as social distancing policies and quarantine. While necessary, these public health measures are likely to have implications for people’s physical activity behaviors. This viewpoint is intended for faculty members and focus on the importance of physical activity for health. Suggestions on how to stay physically active during the COVID-19 pandemic are also provided.
... And that is not the aim of yoga. Together with Indian authors (Govindaraj, Karmani, Varambally, & Gangadhar, 2016) we can say "…even exercise, if done mindfully, can also become a spiritual practice comparable to the asana component of yoga, and yogasana if done mechanically can be a mere physical activity as well." ...
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Abstrakt The article introduces the basic principles of motor learning and presents their possible application in learning of yoga postures. The first part brings the definitions of the basic terms of motor control and motor learning. The second part presents the particular types of motor learning with examples, how they can be applied in yoga practice. The third part introduces the Schema theory of motor learning and its implication in yoga; the next part provides a look at the traditional text of Yoga Sutra from the perspective of this motor learning theory. In the end several clinical studies that explore yoga in psychomotor performance are presented.
... Self-control has shown a buffering impact [8] on the risk factors among persons with substance abuse disorder, the result of the current study is in line with previous studies shown foster self-control following yoga [25], and exercise [26]. Enhancement of mindfulness following yoga but not with exercise, may be due to the emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during training, and the importance given to the holding of postures which differentiates yoga practices from physical exercises [27]. An emerging results highlight substance use disorders endured a strong association with depression and anxiety outcomes and appears more attributable to the comorbidity of SUDs [9,10]. ...
Article
Objectives Substance use disorder is a pattern of recurrent use of illicit substances that leads to severe psychosocial imbalance and recurrent relapse. The study was to evaluate the efficacy of a yoga-based intervention as an add-on in enhancing psychological wellbeing, compared with physical exercise among substance abusers. Methods In this randomized controlled study, 96 male participants with substance use disorder from a residential rehabilitation treatment center, Kathmandu, Nepal, were randomly allocated into two groups namely the yoga group (n=48, mean age ± SD=25.18 ± 6.43) and the physical exercise group (n=48, mean age ± SD=25.02 ± 5.02). The participants in the yoga group attended the 90 min yoga sessions for 12 weeks (six days per week) whereas the physical exercise group attended exercise sessions for the same duration. Above mentioned interventions were in addition to standard rehabilitation treatment. The study measured the Self-Control, Anxiety, Depression, Sleep parameters, and Mindfulness at the baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results A significant enhancement in self-control was observed in both the yoga (p<0.033, d =0.33) and the exercise group (p<0.038, d =0.32). Yoga group showed significant improvement in mindfulness score (p<0.017, d =0.37), whereas exercise group did not show any significant changes in mindfulness (p<0.169, d =0.21). The depression and anxiety scores reduced significantly in both yoga (p<0.044, d =0.31; p<0.025, d =0.35 resp.) and exercise (p<0.032, d =0.34. p<0.039, d =0.32. resp.) group. Furthermore, significant reduction was seen in sleep disturbance after yoga (p<0.001, d =0.52) and exercise (p<0.001, d =0.78) intervention. The sleep – somnolence score reduced significantly only in yoga group ( p <0.020 , d = 0.36). The magnitude of improvement was higher in the yoga group than physical exercise group on self-control, mindfulness, depression, anxiety and some sleep parameters, however the between group differences could not reach to the level of significance. Conclusions The 12 week yoga intervention did not appear to be significantly more effective than the 12 week physical exercise program on psychological wellbeing in male participants with substance use disorder. However, greater improvement in psychological wellbeing was observed within the yoga group. In future, a multi-centric study with robust design, larger sample size and longer follow-up is required to conform the present results and to find out the difference between the impacts of yoga and physical exercise on psychological wellbeing in substance abusers.
... Yoga emerged a few thousand years ago and many ancient texts have described the philosophy behind it [16]. There are many forms of yoga with different emphases on bodily poses, meditation, mantras, relaxation, and breathing [17]. Yoga is believed to correct dysfunction in the parasympathetic nervous system and nerve impulses in the GABA-system by stimulating the vagus nerve and thereby reduce stress and the symptoms of stress related diseases [5]. ...
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Introduction: Many individuals experience stress in everyday life. Chronic stress can lead to anxiety and depression and can weaken the immune system. Yoga and yoga nidra can reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. No Icelandic research has been published on the experience of yoga and yoga nidra as a therapy for depression, anxiety and stress. The purpose of this research was to study yoga and yoga nidra for depression, anxiety and stress and to increase knowledge and deepen understanding of the subject.
... Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/ or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises [24]. ...
... A few previous studies had used physical exercise in the form of walking or other aerobic exercises as a control. However, emerging evidence suggests several similarities and differences across yoga and aerobic exercise (Govindaraj et al., 2016a), which may confound the results. Considering these factors and the considerably higher number of dropouts in the exercise arm in a previous study (Varambally et al., 2012) we chose to keep waitlist-TAU as the control arm. ...
Article
The efficacy of antipsychotic medications in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia is modest at best. Preliminary studies suggest the beneficial effects of add on Yoga, a traditional Indian practice, in the treatment of schizophrenia. Hence, in this study, we examined the efficacy of yoga as an add-on treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a randomized, wait-list controlled design from two clinical institutes in south India. 89 patients (age – 34.20 ± 8.06 years; education – 14.22 ± 2.69 years; 28 females) were randomized into the add-on yoga or treatment as usual (TAU - wait-list control) group. Patients had a mean illness duration of 10.97 ± 7.24 years with an age at onset of 23.34 ± 5.81 years. Central block randomization was followed to ensure concealed allocation. Participants randomized to the yoga treatment group attended 12 supervised yoga training sessions over two weeks and practiced yoga sessions at home for the subsequent 10 weeks. 64 patients completed the trial. An intent to treat analysis was conducted with 89 participants using a linear mixed model. Improvement in negative symptoms was our primary outcome measure. The two groups were matched on demographic variables and baseline psychopathology severity. Participants in the add-on yoga group had significantly greater improvement in negative symptoms (SANS baseline: 49.13 ± 2.30; 12-weeks follow up: 31.55 ± 2.53) compared to the TAU group (SANS baseline: 51.22 ± 2.40; 12-weeks follow up: 45.30 ± 2.93; t = 3.36; p = 0.006; Cohen's d-0.65). The current study findings suggest the efficacy of yoga as an add-on treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The effectiveness of yoga practice as a regular clinical intervention for patients needs to be explored in future studies by integrating yoga services along with other clinical services.
... When the asana is performed slowly, with steadiness and accompanied by regulating breathing, the asana is carried out into subconscious activities so that the physical effects of yoga are accompanied by mental modification control. 23 A previous study found that Bikram yoga performed in a high-temperature environment (40.5 o C) was just as effective as Bikram yoga performed at normal temperature (23 o C) in increasing endothelial-dependent vasodilation. Asana, accompanied by breathing control, is a factor underlying endothelial-dependent vasodilation changes. ...
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Introduction: Diabetes and its complications are the leading causes of premature death worldwide. Diabetes causes complications such as hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is the primary pathophysiology that underlies complications of diabetes mellitus. EDHF (Endothelial-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor) is a relaxing factor that targets current therapy in vascular dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes mellitus. Yoga training is a physical activity that has been shown to play a role in decrease blood pressure, but to our knowledge, there are no studies that prove the effectiveness of yoga in increasing EDHF levels. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the efficacy of yoga to decrease blood pressure and increase EDHF levels in type II diabetes mellitus patients with hypertension. Methods: This research was a randomized control trial that involved 39 hypertensive diabetic respondents and was conducted in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Yoga exercise was carried out two times a week for eight weeks, with a duration of 60 minutes per session. EDHF levels were examined using the ELISA technique. Results: There was a significant difference in systolic, diastolic and EDHF levels after the intervention between the yoga and control groups and large effect size. Conclusion: In conclusion, yoga training effectively reduced blood pressure and prevented endothelial dysfunction by increasing the blood vessel relaxing factor, namely EDHF.
... In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities (RamajayamGovindaraj et al, 2016). ...
Technical Report
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The report is on the analysis of the Knowledge, Attitude and barriers to the practice of meditation and physical exercise by people under the study
... We hypothesized that HY would increase BDNF expression as both NY and passive heat exposure have been shown to increase serum BDNF levels in humans. [25,43] Our results, however, suggest that 12 sessions of yoga, independent of temperature, may increase serum BDNF levels as significance was only observed when the groups were combined. These findings are in agreement with previous studies. ...
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Context: Chronic heat exposure promotes cardiovascular and cellular adaptations, improving an organism's ability to tolerate subsequent stressors. Heat exposure may also promote neural adaptations and alter the neural-hormonal stress response. Hot-temperature yoga (HY) combines mind-body exercise with heat exposure. The added heat component in HY may induce cardiovascular and cellular changes, along with neural benefits and modulation of stress hormones. Aims: The purpose of the present study is to compare the cardiovascular, cellular heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), neural, and hormonal adaptations of HY versus normal-temperature yoga (NY). Settings and design: Twenty-two subjects (males = 11 and females = 11, 26 ± 6 years) completed 4 weeks of NY (n = 11) or HY (n = 11, 41°C, 40% humidity). Yoga sessions were performed 3 times/week following a modified Bikram protocol. Subjects and methods: Pre- and posttesting included (1) hemodynamic measures during a heat tolerance test and maximal aerobic fitness test; (2) neural and hormonal adaptations using serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), along with a mental stress questionnaire; and (3) cellular adaptations (HSP70) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Statistical analysis: Within- and between-group Student's t-test analyses were conducted to compare pre- and post-VO2 max, perceived stress, BDNF, HSP70, and ACTH in HY and NY groups. Results: Maximal aerobic fitness increased in the HY group only. No evidence of heat acclimation or change in mental stress was observed. Serum BDNF significantly increased in yoga groups combined. Analysis of HSP70 suggested higher expression of HSP70 in the HY group only. Conclusions: Twelve sessions of HY promoted cardiovascular fitness and cellular thermotolerance adaptations. Serum BDNF increased in response to yoga (NY + HY) and appeared to not be temperature dependent.
... Obecnie coraz więcej badań naukowych potwierdza pozytywny wpływ praktyk związanych z jogą na zdrowie. Badania wykazują, iż joga oraz powiązane z nią praktyki mogą mieć pozytywny wpływ na zdrowie pacjentów leczonych nie tylko psychiatrycznie [50], lecz również w przypadku chorób neurologicznych [51,52] czy onkologicznych [53,54]. Większość badaczy nie definiuje jednoznacznie stylu jogi, który stosuje w celach terapeutycznych. ...
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The aim of this article is to analyze the use of methods related to yoga for mental health protection and treatment of psychiatric disorders. The article is dominated by a historical perspective. It covers the achievements of the precursors of the use of yoga techniques in health promotion and treatment. Contemporary biomedical analyses confirm the health-promoting function of yoga but make much less reference to aspects related to spirituality and its importance for mental health. Due to the growing awareness of the impact of lifestyle, stress reduction and the importance of moderate physical effort on health, relaxation-motor techniques can complement therapies used in many psychiatric disorders. Analyzed historical articles confirm the positive influence of exercises based on yoga techniques on mental health. Research on the influence of yoga on the human psyche needs to be deepened, none of the presented analyses showed negative side effects of supplementing standard therapies with exercises based on different forms of yoga. To investigate the aim of the research, a historical-comparative method and discourse analysis were used. A review of the content related to the history of yoga in Poland was carried out in the context of applying exercises based on yoga technique in psychiatry. In subsequent stages of the work, the obtained content was embedded in the medical, cultural and historical context and a critical analysis was made.
... Yoga is shown to decrease age associated telomere attrition and age associated decline in gray matter, and improve neuroplasticity, adiposity, and vascular health [120]. Asana and pranayama contribute to physical fitness, in addition to creating necessary foundations for meditation [197]. In-depth psychological benefits are derived from the four steps followed for meditation-pratyahara (detachment from senses), Dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi (mindfulness/self-awareness). ...
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mind-body disorder. Cellular aging has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MDD with the altered mind-body communication markers like stress response, immune response, nutrition sensing, and a range of other regulatory feedback systems. In this age of super specializations, one specific target and interventions (preferably a drug) on it are being rigorously sought by the health care community and industry, but have failed in it in the last fifty years in spite of advances in technology. Since, depression is a complex disorder associated with increased incidence of other complex disorders, it must be treated by an integrated holistic approach that can address the complexity of MDD. Interventions targeting accelerated biological aging to increase cellular health in whole body have potential to manage complex conditions like MDD and its overlapping symptoms and comorbidities. Yoga has the potential to be the nexus between, clinical management of MDD and other lifestyle diseases.
... In the past few decades, research on yoga has gained immense popularity. By now, there are numerous empirical studies confirming the beneficial effects of yoga practice with regard to a broad variety of indicators of physical and mental health (Raub, 2002;Büssing et al., 2012b;Park et al., 2014;Dwivedi and Tyagi, 2016;Govindaraj et al., 2016;Patwardhan, 2017). Yoga practice seems to be effective to improve various measures of physical fitness and to aid diverse physical health conditions, starting from injuries up to, e.g., cancer, severe cardiovascular or metabolic diseases (Raub, 2002;Ross and Thomas, 2010;Roland et al., 2011;Büssing et al., 2012b;Bhavanani, 2013;Dwivedi and Tyagi, 2016). ...
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PurposePhysical activity is important for enhancing quality of life and cancer control among prostate cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to characterize adherence to physical activity guidelines among African American and white prostate cancer survivors based on social and clinical determinants and psychosocial factors.Methods Observational study of meeting guidelines for moderate intensity physical activity in a retrospective cohort of African American and white prostate cancer survivors (n = 89).ResultsThirty-four percent of survivors met the recommended guidelines for moderate intensity physical activity. There were no racial differences in physical activity between African American and white prostate cancer survivors; however, the likelihood of meeting guidelines was associated significantly with stage of disease, self-rated health, and perceptions of stress. Survivors who had stage pT2c or higher disease had a significantly reduced likelihood of meeting recommended guidelines for physical activity (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.86, p = 0.03). The likelihood of meeting guidelines was also reduced among survivors who rated their health as being the same or worse than before they were diagnosed with prostate cancer (OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.11, 0.96, p = 0.04). As perceived stress increased, the likelihood of being physically active according to guidelines also decreased (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.26, 0.89, p = 0.02).Conclusion The results of this study underscore the need to develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to enhance physical activity among prostate cancer survivors, regardless of their racial background. Complementary and alternative strategies for physical activity may be one strategy for enhancing activity levels and managing stress among prostate cancer survivors.
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Vedānta suggests various paths for attaining Moksha. Jñānayoga, Rājayoga, Karmayoga, and Bhaktiyoga are the popular methods followed by spiritual seekers. Here, a well-established vedāntic ideology posits Jñāna to be the essential requirement for Mokṣa. A perusal of Bhakti literature would generate doubt about the vedāntic pronouncement of Jñāna, as an imperative for Mokṣa, and tends to oppose it, by suggesting Bhakti as the mandate. Bhaktiśatak is a chief work on Vedānta, composed by Kṛpālu ji Maharaj of the 20th century. Composed in a lucid style, in the Khariboli dialect of Hindi, Bhaktiśatak’s hundred verses enunciate Bhakti as the path that underpins all the other paths, and counsels one comfortably to Mokṣa. The goal of the current article is to scrutinise the paths of Jñāna and Bhakti, with reference to Bhaktiśatak and other major vedantic literatures like the Upaniṣad-s and the Bhagavadgītā. Overcoming māyā, the illusionary power of God, one attains Mokṣa. Bhaktiśatak propounds that māyā can only be overcome by the grace of God. The article therefore seeks clarity on the necessity of Bhakti for the attainment of Mokṣa. It further discusses the methods recommended by Kṛpālu ji to evoke Bhakti in a seeker.
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The chapter discusses three interventions that are often accompanied by pleasant body sensations: placebo treatment, complementary and alternative medicine, and mind–body techniques, such as yoga, tai chi chuan, and mediation. Following these interventions, subjective well-being usually improves due to the increase of positive affect and happiness and/or decrease of negative affect. Although this effect is positive and desirable, it is not without pitfalls. As we cannot directly sense the majority of (patho)physiological changes taking place in the body, higher level of well-being biases our overall appraisal of our actual health condition; in other words, feeling better often means feeling cured. This might lead to worse adherence to effective conventional treatments and even delays in the treatment, which can lead to fatal consequences in degenerative diseases with rapid progression. Overall, the perceived condition of the body should not be used as an indicator of actual health state.
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Background To achieve better academic performance, students should improve their cognitive faculties and overcome anxiety. Therefore, the present research was conducted to assess the effect of yoga on the cognitive functions of female adolescents with low academic performance. Methods The present study is a randomized control trial (RCT). Eighty-nine female students in the age range of 12–14 years were randomly assigned into two groups [yoga (N = 45); physical exercise (N = 44)] at a school setting. Both groups were assessed before and after on Raven's standard progressive matrices (RSPM), Corsi Block Tapping Test (CBTT), Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT), Digit Letter Substitution Test (DLST), Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Results Findings of the present study showed significant (p < .05) differences in scores of forward CBTT, SWCT, and SLCT in group × time interaction. Both the groups showed significant (p < .05) improvement in SLCT, backward scores of CBTT, and STAIC-T. All outcomes measured were significantly (p < .05) improved in the yoga group except STAIC-S. Conclusion Yoga improves general intelligence, visuospatial working memory, and attention, as well as reduces the anxiety of students with low academic performance. Similarly, physical exercise was also found to be improving visuospatial working memory, sustained attention, and reduce trait anxiety. However, the finding of the present study indicated yoga to be more effective compared to physical exercise in regards to students' fluid intelligence and executive function. Improvement in general intelligence, visuospatial working memory, and attention is expected to positively influence students’ academic performance.
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This study was done to examine how laughter therapy impacts serotonin levels, QOL and depression in middle-aged women and to perform a path analysis for verification of the effects. A quasi-experimental study employing a nonequivalent control group and pre-post design was conducted. Participants were 64 middle-aged women (control=14 and experimental=50 in 3 groups according to level of depression). The intervention was conducted five times a week for a period of 2 weeks and the data analysis was conducted using repeated measures ANOVA, ANCOVA and LISREL. Results showed that pre serotonin and QOL in women with severe depression were the lowest. Serotonin in the experimental groups increased after the 10th intervention (p=.006) and the rise was the highest in the group with severe depression (p=.001). Depression in all groups decreased after the 5th intervention (p=.022) and the biggest decline was observed in group with severe depression (p=.007). QOL of the moderate and severe groups increased after the 10th intervention (p=.049), and the increase rate was highest in group with severe depression (p<.006). Path analysis revealed that laughter therapy did not directly affect depression, but its effect was indirectly meditated through serotonin variation (p<.001). Results indicate that serotonin activation through laughter therapy can help middle-aged women by lessening depression and providing important grounds for depression control.
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Introduction. Impaired placentation and inadequate trophoblast invasion have been associated with the etiology of many pregnancy complications and have been correlated with the first trimester uterine artery resistance. Previous studies have shown the benefits of yoga in improving pregnancy outcomes and those of yogic visualization in revitalizing the human tissues. Methods. 59 high-risk pregnant women were randomized into yoga (n = 27) and control (n = 32) groups. The yoga group received standard care plus yoga sessions (1 hour/day, 3 times/week), from 12th to 28th week of gestation. The control group received standard care plus conventional antenatal exercises (walking). Measurements were assessed at 12th, 20th, and 28th weeks of gestation. Results. RM-ANOVA showed significantly higher values in the yoga group (28th week) for biparietal diameter (P = 0.001), head circumference (P = 0.002), femur length (P = 0.005), and estimated fetal weight (P = 0.019). The resistance index in the right uterine artery (P = 0.01), umbilical artery (P = 0.011), and fetal middle cerebral artery (P = 0.048) showed significantly lower impedance in the yoga group. Conclusion. The results of this first randomized study of yoga in high-risk pregnancy suggest that guided yogic practices and visualization can improve the intrauterine fetal growth and the utero-fetal-placental circulation.
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Introduction: Cognitive impairment is a highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly managed consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training represents a promising approach for managing cognitive impairment in this population. However, there is limited evidence supporting an optimal exercise stimulus for improving cognition in MS. The current study compared the acute effects of moderate-intensity treadmill walking, moderate-intensity cycle ergometry, and guided yoga with those of quiet rest on executive control in 24 persons with relapsing-remitting MS without impaired cognitive processing speed using a within-subjects, repeated measures design. Method: Participants completed four experimental conditions that consisted of 20 minutes of moderate-intensity treadmill walking exercise, moderate-intensity cycle ergometer exercise, guided yoga, and quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Participants underwent a modified-flanker task as a measure of executive control immediately prior to and following each condition. Results: Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) indicated general pre-to-post improvements in reaction time, but not accuracy, on the modified-flanker task for all three exercise modalities compared with quiet rest. However, there were additional, selective pre-to-post reductions in the cost of interfering stimuli on reaction time on the modified-flanker task for treadmill walking, F(1, 23) = 4.67, p = .04, η(p)2 = .17, but not cycle ergometry, F(1, 23) = 0.12, p = .73, η(p)2 < .01, or guided yoga, F(1, 23) = 0.73, p = .40, η(p)2 = .03, compared with quiet rest. Conclusions: The present results support treadmill walking as the modality of exercise that might exert the largest beneficial effects on executive control in persons with relapsing-remitting MS without impaired cognitive processing speed. This represents an exciting starting point for delineating the appropriate exercise stimulus (i.e., modality and intensity) for inclusion in a subsequent longitudinal exercise training intervention for improving cognitive performance in this population.
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Background Prenatal depression can negatively affect the physical and mental health of both mother and fetus. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of yoga as an intervention in the management of prenatal depression.MethodsA systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO from all retrieved articles describing such trials up to July 2014.ResultsSix RCTs were identified in the systematic search. The sample consisted of 375 pregnant women, most of whom were between 20 and 40 years of age. The diagnoses of depression were determined by their scores on Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. When compared with comparison groups (e.g., standard prenatal care, standard antenatal exercises, social support, etc.), the level of depression statistically significantly reduced in yoga groups (standardized mean difference [SMD], ¿0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], ¿0.94 to ¿0.25; p¿=¿0.0007). One subgroup analysis revealed that both the levels of depressive symptoms in prenatally depressed women (SMD, ¿0.46; CI, ¿0.90 to ¿0.03; p¿=¿0.04) and non-depressed women (SMD, ¿0.87; CI, ¿1.22 to ¿0.52; p¿<¿0.00001) were statistically significantly lower in yoga group than that in control group. There were two kinds of yoga: the physical-exercise-based yoga and integrated yoga, which, besides physical exercises, included pranayama, meditation or deep relaxation. Therefore, the other subgroup analysis was conducted to estimate effects of the two kinds of yoga on prenatal depression. The results showed that the level of depression was significantly decreased in the integrated yoga group (SMD, ¿0.79; CI, ¿1.07 to ¿0.51; p¿<¿0.00001) but not significantly reduced in physical-exercise-based yoga group (SMD, ¿0.41; CI, ¿1.01 to ¿0.18; p¿=¿0.17).Conclusions Prenatal yoga intervention in pregnant women may be effective in partly reducing depressive symptoms.
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Aim. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise training and yoga on the functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength, quality of life (QOL), and fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Material and methods. A total of 52 patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer were included in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: aerobic exercise (n = 28) and yoga added to aerobic exercise (n = 24). Both groups participated in submaximal exercise 30 minutes/d, 3 d/wk for 6 weeks. The second group participated in a 1-hour yoga program in addition to aerobic exercise training. Functional capacity was assessed by the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Peripheral muscle strength was evaluated with a hand-held dynamometer. The fatigue severity level was assessed with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). The QOL was determined by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results. There were statistically significant increases in peripheral muscle strength, the 6MWT distance, and the perception of QOL in both groups (P < .05). Additionally, the group with aerobic exercise and yoga showed marked improvement compared with the aerobic exercise group in fatigue perception (P < .05). Conclusion. According to the data from this study, aerobic exercise training and yoga improved the functional capacity and QOL of breast cancer patients. Aerobic exercise programs can be supported by body mind techniques, such as yoga, in the rehabilitation of cancer patients for improving functional recovery and psychosocial wellness. © The Author(s) 2015.
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Objectives The purpose of this article is to review all randomized control trials (RCTs) that have looked at the health effects of yoga on pregnancy, and to present their evidence on the specific ways in which pregnant women, and their infants can benefit from yoga intervention. The purpose is also to determine whether yoga intervention during pregnancy is more beneficial than other physical exercises. Methods Four databases were searched using the terms "yoga and (pregnancy or pregnant or prenatal or postnatal or postpartum)." Databases were searched from January 2004 to February 2014. Results Ten randomized controlled trials were evaluated. The findings consistently indicate that yoga intervention presented with lower incidences of prenatal disorders (p ≤ 0.05), and small gestational age (p < 0.05), lower levels of pain and stress (p < 0.05), and higher score of relationship (p < 0.05). In addition, yoga can be safely used for pregnant women who are depressed, at high-risk, or experience lumbopelvic pain. Moreover, yoga is a more effective exercise than walking or standard prenatal exercises. Conclusions The findings suggest that yoga is a safe and more effective intervention during pregnancy. However, further RCTs are needed to provide firmer evidence regarding the utility and validity of yoga intervention. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
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Perimenopausal period is characterized by a continuous decline in ovarian function due to which women are vulnerable to various physical and psychological symptoms affecting their quality of life. Currently these symptoms are managed by hormone replacement therapy. However, hormonal therapy can cause complications including malignancy which has resulted in search for various alternative therapies to improve the quality of life (QOL). Yoga is one such alternative therapy shown to enhance the QOL at all stages of human life associated with the chronic illness. There are very few scientific studies regarding the effect of yoga on perimenopause and in this study we investigated the effects of yoga therapy on physical and psychological symptoms using the standardized questionnaire. To study the effect of yoga therapy on physical, psychological, vasomotor and sexual symptoms of perimenopause. It is a prospective non-randomized control study of 216 perimenopausal women with 12 weeks of intervention. The subjects were divided in two groups with either yoga therapy [n = 111] or exercise [n = 105] as the interventional tool. The symptoms control and QOL before and after intervention in both the groups were assessed by using the menopausal QOL questionnaire. The perimenopausal symptoms in all the four domains were improved by yoga therapy, thus significantly improving the overall QOL compared to the control group. This study clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of yoga therapy in managing the distressing perimenopausal symptoms. It is easy, safe, non-expensive alternative therapy helping the well-being of perimenopausal women and must be encouraged in the regular management of perimenopausal symptoms.
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Complementary and alternative medical treatment, yoga therapy in particular, is being increasingly used for treating psychiatric disorders. Although some claim that such a time-tested practice, yoga, does not need validation, standards of contemporary medical practice make it necessary to test these treatments through modern evidence-based research methods. This paper discusses yoga as a therapy in medical and psychiatric disorders, the challenges that it faces in becoming accepted by the general medical community, and directions for future research in this area.
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Background. Serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to be modulators of nociception. However, pain-related connection between yoga and those neuromodulators has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of yoga on pain, BDNF, and serotonin. Methods. Premenopausal women with chronic low back pain practiced yoga three times a week for 12 weeks. At baseline and after 12 weeks, back pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and serum BDNF and serotonin levels were evaluated. Additionally, back flexibility and level of depression were assessed. Results. After 12-week yoga, VAS decreased in the yoga group (P < 0.001), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) in the control group. Back flexibility was improved in the yoga group (P < 0.01). Serum BDNF increased in the yoga group (P < 0.01), whereas it tended to decrease in the control group (P = 0.05). Serum serotonin maintained in the yoga group, while it reduced (P < 0.01) in the control group. The depression level maintained in the yoga group, whereas it tended to increase in the control group (P = 0.07). Conclusions. We propose that BDNF may be one of the key factors mediating beneficial effects of yoga on chronic low back pain.
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Importance: Psychological and health-restorative benefits of mind-body therapies have been investigated, but their impact on the immune system remain less defined. Objective: To conduct the first comprehensive review of available controlled trial evidence to evaluate the effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system, focusing on markers of inflammation and anti-viral related immune responses. Methods: Data sources included MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO through September 1, 2013. Randomized controlled trials published in English evaluating at least four weeks of Tai Chi, Qi Gong, meditation, or Yoga that reported immune outcome measures were selected. Studies were synthesized separately by inflammatory (n = 18), anti-viral related immunity (n = 7), and enumerative (n = 14) outcomes measures. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean difference when appropriate. Results: Thirty-four studies published in 39 articles (total 2, 219 participants) met inclusion criteria. For inflammatory measures, after 7 to 16 weeks of mind-body intervention, there was a moderate effect on reduction of C-reactive protein (effect size [ES], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 1.12), a small but not statistically significant reduction of interleukin-6 (ES, 0.35; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.75), and negligible effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (ES, 0.21; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.58). For anti-viral related immune and enumerative measures, there were negligible effects on CD4 counts (ES, 0.15; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.34) and natural killer cell counts (ES, 0.12, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.45). Some evidence indicated mind-body therapies increase immune responses to vaccination. Conclusions: Mind-body therapies reduce markers of inflammation and influence virus-specific immune responses to vaccination despite minimal evidence suggesting effects on resting anti-viral or enumerative measures. These immunomodulatory effects, albeit incomplete, warrant further methodologically rigorous studies to determine the clinical implications of these findings for inflammatory and infectious disease outcomes.
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Background Walking and yoga have been independently evaluated for weight control; however, there are very few studies comparing the 2 with randomization. Material/Methods The present study compared the effects of 90 minutes/day for 15 days of supervised yoga or supervised walking on: (i) related biochemistry, (ii) anthropometric variables, (iii) body composition, (iv) postural stability, and (v) bilateral hand grip strength in overweight and obese persons. Sixty-eight participants, of whom 5 were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) and 63 were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2; group mean age ±S.D., 36.4±11.2 years; 35 females), were randomized as 2 groups – (i) a yoga group and (ii) a walking group – given the same diet. Results All differences were pre-post changes within each group. Both groups showed a significant (p<0.05; repeated measures ANOVA, post-hoc analyses) decrease in: BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, lean mass, body water, and total cholesterol. The yoga group increased serum leptin (p<0.01) and decreased LDL cholesterol (p<0.05). The walking group decreased serum adiponectin (p<0.05) and triglycerides (p<0.05). Conclusions Both yoga and walking improved anthropometric variables and serum lipid profile in overweight and obese persons. The possible implications are discussed.
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Yoga therapy has been demonstrated to be useful in treatment of negative symptoms and improving the socio-occupational functioning and emotion recognition deficits in antipsychotic-stabilized schizophrenia patients. Oxytocin has been recently implicated in social cognition deficits in schizophrenia. The effect of yoga therapy on oxytocin levels in schizophrenia has not been studied. This study aimed to assess the effect of yoga therapy on symptoms, socio-occupational functioning, facial emotion recognition deficits and plasma oxytocin levels in antipsychotic stabilized schizophrenia patients. Randomized controlled study on 43 consenting, medication stabilized patients with schizophrenia in a tertiary psychiatric center using yoga intervention and waitlisted groups. A total of 43 schizophrenia patients were randomized to yoga group (n=15) or waitlist group (n=28). Patients in the yoga group received training in a specific yoga therapy module for schizophrenia. Patients in both groups were continued on stable antipsychotic medication. Assessments included scale for assessment of positive symptoms, scale for assessment of negative symptoms, socio-occupational functioning scale and tool for recognition of emotions in neuropsychiatric disorders (TRENDS) and plasma oxytocin levels; performed at baseline and at the end of 1 month. A total of 15 patients in the yoga group and 12 in waitlist group completed the study. The yoga therapy group showed a significant improvement in socio-occupational functioning, performance on TRENDS (P<0.001) and plasma increase in oxytocin levels (P=0.01) as compared with the waitlist group. The study supported the role of add-on yoga therapy in management of schizophrenia and demonstrated an improvement in endogenous plasma oxytocin levels in schizophrenia patients receiving yoga therapy.
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Therapeutic effect of yoga in depression is recognized. Neuroplastic effects of antidepressant therapies are inferred by elevations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Role of yoga in both these effects has not been studied. Non-suicidal, consecutive out-patients of depression were offered yoga either alone or with antidepressants. The depression severity was rated on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) before and at 3 months. Serum BDNF levels were measured at the same time points. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to look at change across groups with respect to HDRS scores and BDNF levels over 3 months of follow-up. Relationship between change in serum BDNF levels and change in HDRS scores was assessed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Both yoga groups were better than drugs-only group with respect to reduction in HDRS scores. Serum BDNF rose in the total sample in the 3-month period. This was not, however, different across treatment groups. There was a significant positive correlation between fall in HDRS and rise in serum BDNF levels in yoga-only group (r=0.702; P=0.001), but not in those receiving yoga and antidepressants or antidepressants-alone. Neuroplastic mechanisms may be related to the therapeutic mechanisms of yoga in depression.
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An individual's level of physical activity influences their risk of infection, most likely by affecting immune function. Regular moderate exercise reduces the risk of infection compared with a sedentary lifestyle, but very prolonged bouts of exercise and periods of intensified training are associated with an increased risk of infection. There are several lifestyle, nutritional, and training strategies that can be adopted to limit the extent of exercise-induced immunodepression and minimize the risk of infection. This expert statement provides a background summarizing the evidence together with extensive conclusions and practical guidelines.
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Background: Chronic low back pain is a common problem that has only modestly effective treatment options. Objective: To determine whether yoga is more effective than conventional therapeutic exercise or a self-care book for patients with chronic low back pain. Design: Randomized, controlled trial. Setting: A nonprofit, integrated health care system. Patients: 101 adults with chronic low back pain. Intervention: 12-week sessions of yoga or conventional therapeutic exercise classes or a self-care book. Measurements: Primary outcomes were back-related functional status (modified 24-point Roland Disability Scale) and bothersomeness of pain (11-point numerical scale). The primary time point was 12 weeks. Clinically significant change was considered to be 2.5 points on the functional status scale and 1.5 points on the bothersomeness scale. Secondary outcomes were days of restricted activity, general health status, and medication use. Results: After adjustment for baseline values, back-related function in the yoga group was superior to the book and exercise groups at 12 weeks (yoga vs. book: mean difference, -3.4 [95% Cl, -5.1 to-1.6] [P< 0.001]; yoga vs. exercise: mean difference, -1.8 [Cl, -3.5 to - 0.1] [P= 0.034]). No significant differences in symptom bothersomeness were found between any 2 groups at 12 weeks; at 26 weeks, the yoga group was superior to the book group with respect to this measure (mean difference, -2.2 [Cl, -3.2 to - 1.2]; P < 0.001). At 26 weeks, back-related function in the yoga group was superior to the book group (mean difference, -3.6 [Cl, -5.4 to - 1.8]; P< 0.001). Limitations: Participants in this study were followed for only 26 weeks after randomization. Only 1 instructor delivered each intervention. Conclusions: Yoga was more effective than a self-care book for improving function and reducing chronic low back pain, and the benefits persisted for at least several months.
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The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of yoga on the quality of life in patients with cancer. Twenty patients (10 were in yoga program, 10 were in exercise group) between 65 and 70 years of age under going treatment for cancer were included in the study. Physical characteristics of the patients were recorded and general physiotherapy assessments performed. Eight sessions of a classical yoga program including warming and breathing exercises, asanas, relaxation in supine position, and meditation and 8 sessions of classical exercise program were applied to participants. Before and after yoga and exercise program, quality of life assessments for the patients were conducted using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Patients' depression levels were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. Their level of pain, fatigue and sleep quality was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS). It was found that all patients' quality of life scores after the yoga and exercise program were better than scores obtained before the yoga and exercise program (p < 0.05). When the post treatment data of the groups were compared in terms of NHP and subcategories, ER, SI, S, PA and the total scores of NHP were found significantly different in favor of Group I (p < 0.05). However EL and P scores of the NHP were not different between the groups (p > 0.05). When the groups were compared in terms of depression, pain, fatigue, and sleep quality, statistically significant differences were found in all parameters between pre and post treatment values for both groups (p < 0.05). When the post-treatment values of the groups were compared, fatigue and sleep quality were found statistically different between the groups in favor of Group I (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that yoga is valuable in helping to diminish depression, pain, fatigue and helps cancer patients to perform daily and routine activities, and increases the quality of life in elderly patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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From the world's greatest and best-known teacher of yoga comes this guide to the discipline. Patanjali, an early Indian sage and mystic, was the first to systematize and codify the principle and practice of yoga. Patanjali's collection of 185 aphorisms, "Yoga Sutras", remains the classical work on the subject - this book provides a commentary on Patanjali's work.
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Yoga can significantly reduce cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index, blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, says a systematic review that found it had similar benefits to aerobic activities such as cycling or brisk walking. Researchers analysed 37 randomised controlled trials, including 2768 people, that compared cardiovascular risk factors in adults who practised yoga to control groups who were not offered yoga therapy. People in the studies practised yoga for 30 to 90 minutes at each …