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Heat Death (The Ultimate Fate of the Universe)

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Abstract

Anthropic Principle says that conditions that are observed in the universe must allow the observer to exist. At the deep level of the existence that means the universe must have properties that make inevitable the existence of intelligent life. But What if, the Anthropic Principle will become wrong in far further future? What If, Universe will become a place where no life exists at all? Universe itself having Death! "Heat Death " !!!
International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences
www.ijetmas.com September 2015, Volume 3, Special Issue, ISSN 2349-4476
162
R. Lathia, T. Agrawal, V. Parmar, K. Dobariya, A. Patel
Heat Death
(The Ultimate Fate of the Universe)
R. Lathia*, T. Agrawal, V. Parmar, K. Dobariya, A. Patel
Mechanical Engineering,
Chandubhai S. Patel Institute of Science & Technology,
CHARUSAT University,
Changa, Gujarat, India - 388421
Abstract:-
Anthropic Principle says that conditions that are observed in the universe must allow the observer to exist. At
the deep level of the existence that means the universe must have properties that make inevitable the existence of
intelligent life. But What if, the Anthropic Principle will become wrong in far further future? What If, Universe will
become a place where no life exists at all? Universe itself having Death! "Heat Death”!!!
Keywords:-
Heat Death; Anthropic Principle; Thermodynamics; Entropy
PACS Nos.:- 95.30.Tg; 05.70.-a; 05.70.Ln
1. Second law of Thermodynamics
In order to make the concept of the heat death, we must have knowledge about the second law of
thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics gives us the direction of flow of heat. Second law says that
the change of mechanical work into heat may be complete but heat into work must be incomplete, this means
all those processes in which work is converted into heat are unidirectional. Since, all the processes in the
universe involve conversion of small amount of work or energy into heat. It means that almost all the
processes of universe are irreversible. All this can be stated mathematically by introducing the new quantity
called Entropy.
In simple sense Entropy means the degree of randomness or degree of disorder. Mathematical
representation of change in entropy is as follows...
ds = ∫ dQ / T (Only for Reversible Process)
Here, ds = change in entropy
dQ = heat supplied or given out by a body
(Available work for system) - (work done by system)
T = temperature of body
And,
ds > ∫ dQ / T (Only for Irreversible Process)
Entropy is a point function so it does not depend on the path follow by the system. If end state of
reversible and irreversible process is same then entropy change will be same. If change in entropy is more,
available work decreases and possibility of conversion of heat into work decreases.
2. Heat Death (How?)
Heat Death is the phenomenon in which all processes will eventually stop, no further work can
proceed due to irreversible nature of entropy and time. For universe, heat death is defined as...
"A Suggested ultimate fate of universe in which the universe has diminished to a state of no
thermodynamic free energy and therefore can no longer sustain processes that consume energy."
- Rudolf Clausius
Simplifying the concept of heat death...
According to second law of thermodynamics heat always flows from hot body to cold body. For that
we can derive expression of change in entropy. Let Q be the rate of heat transfer from reservoir A at T1 to
reservoir B at T2, (T1>T2)
International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences
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R. Lathia, T. Agrawal, V. Parmar, K. Dobariya, A. Patel
Fig-1:- Heat Transfer through Finite Temperature Difference
For Reservoir A, ΔSA = - Q / T1. It is negative because heat Q flows out of the reservoir. For
Reservoir B, ΔSB = + Q / T2. It is Positive because heat flows into the reservoir. The rod connecting the
reservoirs surfaces no entropy change because once in the steady state, its coordinates do not change.
Therefore, for the isolated system comprising the reservoirs and the rod, and since entropy is an additive
property. S = SA + SB
ΔSuniverse = ΔSA + ΔSB
ΔSuniverse =


= Q 

Since T1>T2, ΔSuniverse is positive and the process is irreversible and possible if T1=T2,
ΔSuniverse is Zero and the process is reversible. If T1<T2. ΔSuniverse is Negative and the process is impossible and
process will stop when Temperature of both reservoirs will become equal. In all cases the result obtained is
that isolated systems or system plus surrounding experiencing irreversible process proceed towards state of
greater disorder.
The Increase in Entropy of a system and its surrounding occur in all aging process whether in
a living organism or non-living organism, There is no doubt which condition is prior in time, youth or
maturity, structure or Erosion on condition always precedes the other; Order precedes disorder entropy always
increases during in aging processes. In short entropy is arrow of time furthermore the arrow has only one
direction it points forward into future. Entropy always increases with increasing time and at equilibrium state
entropy will become maximum. System and surrounding together form universe. Since, universe is an isolated
system so that from example we can conclude that entropy of universe increase.
ΔSuniverse > 0
Entropy may decrease locally at some region within isolated system, but it must be compensated by a
greater increase of entropy, somewhere within the system so that net effect of an irreversible process is an
entropy increase. If the entropy of an isolated system varies with some parameter 'X' (time) then there is
certain value of Xe which maximizes entropy.  
   And represent the equilibrium state the system is
then said to exist at the pick of the entropy hill at ds=0 when the system is in equilibrium any conceivable
change in entropy would be zero.
Fig-2:-Equilibrium State of an Isolated System
International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences
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R. Lathia, T. Agrawal, V. Parmar, K. Dobariya, A. Patel
As shown in graph if universe reaches at the state of maximum entropy or the equilibrium state
universe will cool down, no further work can be proceed, all the available energy will be converted into
unavailable energy that situation called Heat Death.
In the case of sun and most other stars the out flow of heat can continue for many billions of years but
it is not inexhaustible. A normal star's heat is generated by nuclear processes in its interior as we shall see the
sun will eventually run out of fuel and unless overtaken by event. it will cool until it reaches the same
temperature as the surrounding space for whole universe this process will occur so that there will no more
energy or no sufficient available heat for the birth of new stars, so far further in future, There will be no stars,
No galaxy to form a new life only remain some amount of matter and black holes. Then black holes will start
to suck all the matters of the universe. At 10100years from big bang, black holes themselves will evaporate due
to Hawking radiation (Electromagnetic radiation which, according to theory, should be emitted by a black
hole. The radiation is due to the black hole capturing one of a particle-antiparticle pair created spontaneously
near to the event horizon.(Radius of a black hole)) What Remains? Only darkness. This is the Death of the
Universe.
Since Big Bang average temperature of universe constantly decreases. 10-43sec after the big bang
temperature of universe became 1032K but now average temperature of the universe is 2.73K. It means
universe cools down towards the absolute zero temperature. Mathematical expression for that is given by...
Change in entropy of universe ΔSuniverse = ΔQ / T
Here, T = final temperature of the universe
T must going towards absolute Zero.
.·. T 0 so that ΔS
This is the case of maximum entropy. In this highly disordered state, no heat or energy interaction can proceed
and all the process in the universe will eventually stop. negative temperature in Kelvin scale is not possible
(The third law of thermodynamics) so that no further temperature reduction is possible and universe remain in
that condition forever, that's why Heat Death is also known as Big Freeze or Cold Death.
3. Effect of Time Travel on Heat Death
Most of the scientist of 21st century believes in time travel. How does time travel affect the rate of
change of entropy?
Mathematically speed required to the trip of past is minimum 3,00,000 km/sec. and for future nearby
3,00,000 km/sec but not exactly that much. In 1905, Einstein wrote about this phenomenon in his research
paper called ‘special theory of relativity’. He wrote about the strange behaviour about time, velocity and
space.
Einstein's equation for the energy required to time travel is given by.....
  
  
As v c then,
E ∞,
Because of the interaction between particle of time traveller and Higg's field (According to Pieter
Higgs, universe is a submerged in to a field known as Higg's field. It is mainly responsible for mass of the
particle, if particle having more interaction with Higg's field then it gets more mass and vice-versa. If velocity
of the particle increases, interaction increases so that the mass of the particle also increases), Time traveller
will get more and more mass, according to that we must have more energy to speed up, at speed of light
interaction will become maximum so mass of particle must become infinite, so that we must have infinite
amount of energy sources to reach up to speed of light. That’s why; huge amount of available energy will be
converted into unavailable energy. Eventually, change in entropy due to huge conversion of available energy
into unavailable energy will also increase (may be infinite). so that if time travel is possible then Heat Death
will become more nearer to us, may be several thousand years. That’s why the time travel is not advisable for
human being.
International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences
www.ijetmas.com September 2015, Volume 3, Special Issue, ISSN 2349-4476
165
R. Lathia, T. Agrawal, V. Parmar, K. Dobariya, A. Patel
'Myth' About Heat Death
Some scientists may believe that due to expansion of universe, it cools down. But it is not
true; there is no any entropy change due to expansion of the universe. We can prove that as follows...
For that we are not considering the whole universe instead of that we put an imaginary sphere around
few thousand galaxies and consider the entropy in this sphere.
As the universe expands so does the sphere whose entropy we are considering this is called the
entropy per comoving volume. We parameterize the expansion of the universe with a scale factor R. This
means that when the universe increases in size by a given factor, R increases by the same factor. The entropy
density s of a radiation field of temperature T is sT3.The entropy S in a given comoving volume V is S= s·V.
Since the commoving volume V increases as the universe expands, we have VR3. And since the temperature
of the microwave background goes down as the universe expands T1/R, we have the result that the entropy
of a given comoving volume of space SR3R3=constant.
Thus the expansion of the universe by itself is not responsible for any entropy increase. There is no
heat exchange between different parts of the universe. The expansion is adiabatic and isentropic:
ΔSexpansion =0
4. Why Heat Death?
There are many other theories which describe the end of the universe like, Big Crunch and Big Freeze
(heat death).But why we consider only Heat death? This is the brief introduction about big crunch.
The Big Crunch is one scenario for the end of the universe. In this case, the universe contains enough
mass - it is above the critical density (If average matter density of the universe exceeds so called Critical
Density of about a 10-29gram per cubic cm (five hydrogen atoms for every cubic meter of the universe ) then a
large enough gravitational force will permeate the universe to halt and reverse the expansion. If the average
matter density is less than the critical value, the gravitational attraction will be too weak to stop the
expansion, which will continue forever.) - to stop its expansion. Once it stops expanding, it will start to
contract. Slowly at first, and then faster and faster, the universe will contract and galaxies will come closer to
each other. Eventually, everything will merge, for the universe will no longer be large enough for separate
galaxies or stars. As it continues to shrink, the universe will heat to huge temperatures, and everything will be
compacted into a black hole. Finally, at the end, the universe will be as it began - an infinitely small, infinitely
dense, and infinitely hot point. No one knows what if anything would happen after that.
An easy way to think of this is by throwing a ball; you throw a ball up into the air. Your release is like
the Big Bang, and starts the ball's acceleration. As the ball climbs skyward, it slows its ascent because the
Earth has enough gravity to slow it down and pull it back to it. This is like the mass of the universe being
enough to overcome its expansion. As the ball reaches its maximum height, it stops, which is what the
universe will do if it is over the critical density. Then, ever so slowly, the ball begins to fall back down, faster
and faster, until it reaches your hand again. This is the end of the ball's throw, and is like the end of the
universe.
In Heat Death concept, universe must have lower density than critical density. If Big Crunch theory is
right then gravity is dominating force and expansion of the universe must slow down and eventually stop. But
in 1998 Hubble Telescope proved that universe is expanding more quickly so that expanding nature of the
universe is accelerating, therefore evidence is against the Big Crunch theory so that there will be one
possibility left for the ending of the universe " Heat Death".
References:-
[01] F. Reif Fundamentals of statistical and thermal physics p120
[02] M. Zemansky, R. Dittman Heat and thermodynamics p 216
[03] B. Greene The Elegant Universe (UK: Vintage 2000) J. Cape p 234 (1999)
[04] P. Davies Last Three Minutes Ch 2 (1993)
[05] W. Drees Beyond the Big Bang: Quantum Cosmologies and God p 272
[06] S. Sisti The Big Bang and relative Immortality: Seminal Essays on the creation of the Universe p 03
[07] P. K. Nag Engineering thermodynamics (INDIA: TATA McGRAW-HILL) S.Mukerjee p 167(2010)
[08] S. Weinberg The First Three Minutes (Fontana Paperbacks)
International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences
www.ijetmas.com September 2015, Volume 3, Special Issue, ISSN 2349-4476
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R. Lathia, T. Agrawal, V. Parmar, K. Dobariya, A. Patel
[09] F. C. Adams, G. Laughlin A Dying Universe-The Long Term Fate and Evolution of Astrophysical Object (1996)
[10] G. Giorbran A Bleak and Meaningless Universe...Not! (2007)
[11] R.E. Ulanowicz Increasing Entropy: Heat Death or Perpetual Harmonies? Vol. No. 2 (2009)
[12] P. Harremoes, F. Topsoe Maximum Entropy Fundamentals (2001)
[13] S. Solomon, N. Golo How Do Life, Economy and Other Complex Systems Escape the Heat Death?(2014)
[14] C. H. Lineweaver, C. A. Egan Life, gravity and the second law of thermodynamics (2008)
[15] K. Martinás, A. Grandpierre Thermodynamics Measure for nonequilibrium processes (2007)
[16] C. H. Lineweaver Cosmological and Biological Reproducibility:Limits on the Maximum Entropy Production
Principle
[17] G. Giorbran The Superstructure of an Infinite Universe (1994)
[18] G. Giobran At the Shore of an Infinite Ocean (1996);
[19] G. Giobran Exploring a Many Worlds Universe (1997)
... With rise in temperature because of global warming [1], the increase in the unavailable energy (increase in entropy) and unusual climatic changes seen in recent years [2] has caused an increased demand for heating and cooling technologies, which is what HVAC systems do and so these systems have a wide applicability ahead. ...
... Climate change and energy waste e increasing the entropy of the system e are among the largest problems facing the world today [1,2]. This HVAC system is considered to be one of the most promising energy saving systems with a low life cycle cost. ...
... Chapter 7 discusses the complex interaction of state energy policy and federal environmental policy. The substitution of renewable resources and energy efficiency is commonly seen as an environmentally friendly alternative to the burning of hydrocarbons (Bauner, 2011; Rutvik Lathia, 2015). However, Hawaii's experience with the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative strategy suggests that this assumption may be subject to significant administrative and organizational constraints. ...
... Chapter 7 discusses the complex interaction of state energy policy and federal environmental policy. The substitution of renewable resources and energy efficiency is commonly seen as an environmentally friendly alternative to the burning of hydrocarbons ( Bauner, 2011;Lathia et al., 2015). However, Hawaii's experience with the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative strategy suggests that this assumption may be subject to significant administrative and organizational constraints. ...
... Companies have to concentrate on the possible aspects to reach standards as high as BS-VI. In recent years, the increasing emission of greenhouse gases has led to climate change and an increase in entropy (Lathia et al., 2015), which has become a primary environmental concern. Strategies to overcome this problem include reducing or avoiding the use of fossil fuels as energy sources (Câmara et al., 2013) and how we develop a management approach towards the emission control -not only for vehicular emissions but also for the other types of emissions like Industrial, HVAC etc. † Proposed fuel quality. ...
... Extreme dependence on non-renewable fossil based fuel as well as technological pathways of the transportation have endangered global economy and creates plentiful economic and environmental issues which cause greenhouse effect and global warming and increase entropy of the system (Lathia, et al. 2015). Hence automobile and its energy use is a central focus of energy and environmental authorities in almost every country (Schipper 2011). ...
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Proefschrift Groningen. Met lit. opg., index. - Met een samenvatting in het Nederlands.
The Elegant Universe (UK: Vintage
  • B Greene
B. Greene The Elegant Universe (UK: Vintage 2000) J. Cape p 234 (1999)
A Bleak and Meaningless Universe
  • G Giorbran
G. Giorbran A Bleak and Meaningless Universe...Not! (2007)
  • P Harremoes
P. Harremoes, F. Topsoe Maximum Entropy Fundamentals (2001)