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When the Child is Born into the Internet : Sharenting as a Growing Trend among Parents on Facebook

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Parents actively share information about their children on Facebook, but little research has explored the extent of this issue. The goal of this paper is to theorize a new type of parents’ online activities concerning their children, especially the problem of sharenting, which is increasingly common in contexts where social media such as Facebook play a significant role in relationships and interactions. This paper explores what kind of baby pictures parents share on Facebook and what are the likely causes of doing it. The presented research was conducted with the use of social media ethnography among 168 Polish parents using Facebook. The findings have shown that the phenomenon of sharenting is common practice among parents.
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When the Child is Born into the Internet :
Sharenting as a Growing Trend among Parents
on Facebook
DOI: 10.15804/tner.2016.43.1.19
Abstract
Parents actively share information about their children on Facebook, but
little research has explored the extent of this issue. e goal of this paper is
to theorize anew type of parents’ online activities concerning their children,
especially the problem of sharenting, which is increasingly common in contexts
where social media such as Facebook play asignificant role in relationships and
interactions. is paper explores what kind of baby pictures parents share on
Facebook and what are the likely causes of doing it. e presented research was
conducted with the use of social media ethnography among 168 Polish parents
using Facebook. e findings have shown that the phenomenon of sharenting
is common practice among parents.
Keywords: children exposure, digital risks, Facebook, online privacy, social media,
sharenting
Introduction
Today’s parents are raising children in a digital-first culture, facing more
unique parenting problems than previous generations. But as anew generation
of adults joins the ranks of parents, Facebook seems to be avery easy platform
to dealing with new or difficult challenges associated with their children – even
for parentswhose time is ascarce commodity. erefore, they share the joys and
challenges of parenthood and document childrens lives publicly with increasing
Anna Brosch
Poland
226 Anna Brosch
frequency, which has almost become asocial norm. Consequently, many children
have aplethora of pictures, posts and updates about their lives on social media
before they can even walk.
is kind of activity is called sharenting and has been defined by Collins Dic-
tionary as “the practice of aparent to regularly use the social media to communi-
cate alot of detailed information about their child” (Sharenting, as cited in: Collins
Dictionary). e phenomenon of sharing and disclosure of intimate information
about children by their parents through social media is growing rapidly. erefore,
it has become asubject of research by increasing numbers of scholars worldwide.
At the end of 2014, the University of Michigan’s C.S.Mott Children’s Hospital
National Poll on Childrens Health conducted research among 569 parents of
children aged 0 4 (Davis, 2015). According to the survey, 56% mothers and 34%
fathers share information related to parenting in social media. Over 70% parents
who use social media know of another parent who has given information that
might embarrass achild (56%), offered personal information that could identify
achild’s location (51%), or photos of achild perceived as inappropriate (27%).
Another research has been conducted by Hart Research Associates on behalf of
Family Online Safety Institute (FOSI) using data from an online nationwide sur-
vey of 589 parents of children aged 6 to 17. According to the “Parents, Privacy &
Technology Use report, released in November 2015, among the parents who have
asocial networking account, nearly 20% share information online about achild,
which he/she may find embarrassing in the future. What is more, one out of ten
parents was asked by their own child to remove some information about him/her
that was posted online by the parent (Family Online Safety Institute, 2015, p. 22).
Undoubtedly, in the era of camera-phones the most common practice on
social networking sites is sharing photographs. Every 60 seconds 136,000 photos
(zephoria.com) are uploaded on Facebook. Today’s parents willingly share photos
of their children. In some research the number of parents who post pictures of
their children on Facebook reaches even 98% (Bartholomew et al., 2012). However,
mothers are more willing to post photos of their children. Perhaps they prefer
sharing photos online because communication via photographs is easier and faster
than telling astory (cf.: Jomhari et al., 2009).
Parents post online an enormous number of pictures to chronicle almost every
moment of their childrens life – from the birth through the first steps and starting
school to teenage years. e research conducted in 2010 by AVG Technologies
found that, on average, children acquire adigital identity by the age of six months.
But in many cases, these online practices start even before the birth of achild,
when expectant mothers share sonogram images of their unborn children (AVG
227When the Child is Born into the Internet
Technologies, 2010). In that way, Facebook has become a“modern day baby book”
(Kumar & Schoenebeck, 2015), where children are becoming micro-celebrities in
their communities (Marwick, 2013, p. 10).
ere is no doubt that Facebook offers today’s parents aunique opportunity to
exchange experiences and happiness about their parenthood or search for help
with parenting issues. But the problems arise when they share embarrassing or too
personal information about their children and therefore run arisk of breaching
childrens privacy.
Another serious issue related to sharenting is aphenomenon called “digital kid-
napping, where strangers steal baby photos and repost them across the Internet as
if the child was their own (O’Neill, 2015). As aresult, the child is given anew name
and anew story to start acompletely new online life. But it should be emphasised
that kidnapping is acrime independently of where it is committed. Sharenting may
also expose children to ridiculing by strangers. An extreme example was the secret
Facebook group consisting of mothers who were taking photos of children from
other Facebook accounts before re-posting them online and making fun of the chil-
dren (Parker, 2013). More importantly, the victims were children with disabilities.
Unfortunately, sometimes parents do not think about how the information they
share might be interpreted by others, especially in the case of sharing embarrassing
stories or inappropriate photos and, what is more, they never know where these
contents might end up someday. As Richard Follett argues, something posted online
now may not be appropriate in the future : “Not only might these images be used
to embarrass them in their delicate teenage years, they could also be accessed by
potential employers or university admissions departments” (Daily Mail, 8.02.2014).
In Poland, there are currently nearly 12.5 million Facebook users, with the larg-
est age group being 19 25-year-olds (27%), followed by 26 33-year-olds (23%)
(Fanpage Trends, 11.2015). Given that over ahalf of active Facebook users are
in prime childbearing years, it is likely that aconsiderable portion of users are
undergoing the transition to parenthood or have already been parents.
Methodology
Data collection was conducted from September to December, 2015 among
Polish Facebook users. e main goal of the research was to learn about parents’
habits with regard to their children on Facebook, especially how much and what
kind of information about the children they share. erefore, this study was guided
by two main research questions:
228 Anna Brosch
1. What types of information concerning children are shared by parents?
2. What are the likely causes of these digital practices?
e research was carried out by using social media ethnography, which is one of
the online research methods, such as virtual ethnography (Hine, 2008), netnography
(Kozinets, 2010) or digital ethnography (Murthy, 2011), which have evolved from
classical ethnography. In general, all these online ethnographic methods focus on
conducting and constructing an ethnography using the virtual, online environment
as the site of the research (Evans, 2010, p. 11). Accordingly, the research field of
social media ethnography involves the digital platforms transited by users, as for
example Facebook. From this perspective, the concept of virtual communities
becomes the central point for social media ethnography through studying users’
strategies of self-presentation and online social identity and therefore creating their
own role within aconfined community. us, this method allows for exploring the
various types of users’ online practice and behaviour on social media, which consti-
tute the natural ecosystem for their daily interactions. According to Helen Morton
(2001, p. 6), there are two possible ways of conducting research online – involved or
distanced. Involved research includes, inter alia, interviewing respondents via chat
rooms, e-mails and other synchronous ways of computer-mediated communication.
However, this study uses distanced research, which consists in the evaluation of
material sources such as texts or images and the observation of social interactions.
As the members of population were difficult to locate, exponential non-dis-
criminative snowball recruiting was used. is non-random method allowed for
selecting the final sample including 168 participants. Each of them had at least
one child under the age of 8 and had posted some photos of his/her own child
on aFacebook profile. In addition to the photo analysis data, for each Facebook
account the following data was recorded: the date of creation of aFacebook profile,
Facebook privacy settings, the number of friends, the total number of pictures, the
number of photos of children, and the content of posts and comments. Analysis of
this data allowed for working out whether it was possible to determine children’s
identity by using publicly available information.
Research Results
One of the key research objectives was to examine the usage of Facebook among
parents, which was measured on two dimensions: how long the participants had
had their Facebook account and how many people were listed as “friends” in their
Facebook profiles.
229When the Child is Born into the Internet
e research has shown that the growth of Facebook usage among Polish
parents began accelerating in 2010. Most of the surveyed Facebook profiles were
created between 2010 and 2012 (73%) and the median year of joining the Face
-
book community was 2012. It means that the large majority of the parents have
been active Facebook users for several years.
In the profiles studied on Facebook, the number of friends ranged from 17 to
1537, with an average of 388.9 friends per account. e majority of the parents
(71.4%) had 200 or more friends, with only 2.4% of the respondents having anum-
ber of friends in the range of 100 and fewer. It should be emphasized that only
7.7% of the parents changed Facebook privacy settings but mainly to hide their
friend lists. Taking into account that parents in general do not use privacy settings
to limit their audience, it indicates that they share their photos and comments with
alarge number of people.
In order to determine the level of sharenting, two main data sets were estab-
lished. Firstly, the posted photos were analyzed, including the number and type
of pictures. Secondly, commentaries about the photos on Facebook profiles were
studied. is allowed for determining the amount and kind of available infor-
mation about the children and finally to identify particular stories that were
communicated. Photobased stories were categorized according to the dates they
were taken, background of the pictures and also the text description which can be
seen in the sequence of stories.
e total number of the posted pictures by the parents is 25,727, including
19,431 (75.5%) photos containing achild between zero and eight years old, for
an average of 116 baby photos per account (range from 7 to 936). Every third
parent shared fewer than 50 photos of their child, but nearly 40% of the parents
posted over 100 photos of their child. What is more, the parents also willingly
shared private information about their child. Of these 168 accounts, 90.5% had
posted or received acomment mentioning the childs first name, and 83.9% had
also revealed the child’s date of birth. Many parents (23.2%) made this information
available by reporting their child’s birthday party in the public photo albums. In
addition, 32.7% of them uploaded their baby video and other documents relating
to the child, such as abirth certificate, kindergarten diploma or the child’s art.
Table 1. Information concerning children posted on Facebook profiles by parents
Name Age Date of birth Films Other documents
N152 141 52 55 12
%90.5 83.9 30.9 32.7 7.1
230 Anna Brosch
e research has shown that all of the participants regularly post digital con
-
tent on Facebook. Posts containing the child’s name and date of birth are most
common among the parents in the first month aer the childs birth by recording
almost every moment of her/his life (48.2%), sharing photos taken in the hospital
(4.8%) or simply posting this information on the parent’s profile or timeline. In
some cases, the parents created adigital footprint for their unborn child by posting
asonogram image (10.7%) or sharing photos of the expectant mother (8.3%).
Types of baby photos shared on Facebook
Similarly to other studies on photo sharing practices, the participants surveyed
in this study basically tend to post happy moments of their life. Analysis of the
posted photos of children allowed for defining five photo categories as shown in
Table 2.
Table 2. Types of baby photos
Daily life Outings Special
events
Embarrass-
ing Professional To t al
N 8736 5629 4209 710 147 19431
%45.0 29.0 21.7 3.7 0.8 100
e participants shared avariety of stories by posting photos of their children.
e three top categories are Daily life, Outings and Special events (95.6%). Daily
life pictures relate to spontaneous moments of achild’s life, e.g. playing with toys,
sleeping or meal-time oen with other family members. Many pictures in this cat-
egory also focus on the baby’s face and body movements. Outings include photos
which were taken outside or during holiday. Examples of Special events include
baptism, Christmas Day, the first day at kindergarten, birthday party and other
celebrations. Arelatively small group comprises pictures taken by professional
photographers – only 0.8%. However, embarrassing photos should be paid more
attention to. is is all the more significant because 113 (67.3%) parents shared at
least one photo of their child that may be considered as inappropriate. erefore,
among the embarrassing photos four subcategories have been identified. e
overall results are presented in Figure 1.
e most popular type of embarrassing pictures of children shows them nude
or semi-nude. However, of these 113 accounts, 77.9% of the parents posted, in
231When the Child is Born into the Internet
fact, 411 photos of this kind. Admittedly, they were usually taken during bath
or on the beach and basically concern children under 3 years of age, but even
then they should not be exposed to public viewing. Consequently, the child might
be at great risk if these photos fall into the wrong hands, such as those of child
pornographers. Other photos of children that the parents willingly shared can
be described as funny photos. Every second parent shared photos of their child
that seemed to be amusing. But in most cases, these pictures showed children in
disturbing situations, e.g. sitting on apotty, crying, sleeping in astrange position
or pulling faces. e last type are photos of grimy children, which were taken
usually aer meals. us, the participants posted pictures of their children with
porridge, chocolate, and other food on their faces. ese photos were oen widely
commented on, but always in an inappropriate manner.
In view of the above, sharenting remains aworrying problem. Firstly, parents
tend to spread on Facebook the information about their children that might
include things like the date of birth, the child’s full name, or post photographs
and contents which might embarrass the children in the future. Secondly, parents
never know who might use this information for purposes other than intended.
ereby, they make their own children apotential target of child predators.
The likely causes of sharenting
Virtual communities, such as Facebook, are usually strongly influenced by the
number of users they have and can provide sociability, information, asense of
belonging, social identity and support of non-hierarchical communication (Well-
Figure 1. Types of embarrassing photos of children
294
117
Total number of photos
nude
semi-nude
funny
grimy
]
51
45
The number of parents sharing photos
nude
semi -n
ude
funny
grimy
117
182
37
61
232 Anna Brosch
man et al., 2002). Furthermore, it allows individuals to express their identities and
to create and maintain social relations online. erefore, parents may feel validated
by the numerous likes and comments they receive on their baby photos, even if
they come from users they have weak ties with. What is more, the popularity of
Facebook has grown steadily in Poland since 2010 and hence it has the relatively
long history of using. Controlling the length of Facebook usage is also important,
because many-year users might be more likely to succumb to the norms established
among Facebook users. Statistical analyses are therefore presented only for two
hypotheses:
H1. e number of Facebook Friends is positively correlated with the number
of photos of children shared by parents on Facebook.
H2. e length of Facebook usage is positively correlated with the number of
photos of children shared by parents on Facebook.
Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses and
investigate the impact of the number of Facebook friends and the length of Face-
book usage on the number of photos of children shared by parents (Table 3).
Table 3. Results of hierarchical regression analyses
b t pβ
e number of Facebook friends 0.12 2.68 0.008 0.21
e length of Facebook usage -0.44 -0.06 0.95 -0.004
e analysis shows that the number of Facebook friends significantly affects
sharing information about children on Facebook, as expected (b = 0.12, t = 2.68,
p < 0.01). us, hypothesis H1 is confirmed. In other words, the number of online
friends moderated parents’ online activity and therefore was asignificant predictor
of sharenting. However, the interaction between the length of Facebook usage
and the number of photos of children shared by parents on Facebook was not
significant (b = -0.44, t = -0.06, p = 0.95).
Discussion
e research has shown that Facebook provides another form of social behavior,
closely related to voyeurism, and occurs due to the social control and the need for
monitoring other users. It demands anew type of reflexivity about the creation
233When the Child is Born into the Internet
of virtual identities and the management of personal information, resulting in
increased transparency. erefore, today’s parenting is becoming adigitally shared
experience.
Undoubtedly, sharentingcan satisfy parents’ need for self-realization and social
approval. Moreover, the early period of parenthood might cause social isolation
and the digital era gives apossibility to make this time morecomfortable. ere-
fore, they are leaving scores of digital footprints online, which tell stories of their
childrens private lives. In many cases parents excessively share intimate details of
their children and then this practice reaches astage where sharenting is associated
with oversharenting, e.g. by posting 100 of baby pictures or even more.
On the other hand, sharenting might be aform of social comparison. It was
indicated by the positive correlation between the number of Facebook Friends
and the number of photos of children shared by parents on Facebook. Generally
speaking, the number of friends determines the number of shared photos. Moreo-
ver, by sharenting parents declare that they are able to fulfil the parental tasks and
Facebook seems to be the modern equivalent of sending aletter with asnapshot
enclosed. In this way, parents share their happiness about their parenthood with
their friends. Another possible reason for these findings is that Facebook provides
parents with apossibility to compare themselves with others on abroad range of
dimensions, such as social status and life experiences.
However, problems arise when parents share pictures of moments that might
embarrass their child now and in the future. According to these findings, it is
rather common practice among Polish parents, who post inappropriate photos of
their children, especially naked and semi-naked or showing them in an unfavora-
ble situation.
On the subject of sharing photos of children, the research has also shown that
many of them compromise childrens privacy and expose them to public viewing
without their consent. us, children have digital images already created by their
parents before they themselves are ready to use Facebook. It is aserious problem,
bearing in mind that actions today shape childrens online experience tomorrow.
Apart from present security risks and permanence of online contest, it may cause
other consequences in the future. Due to sharenting, children grow up with an
entirely different concept of privacy. us, it might seem to be normal to them
that everything is in the public domain. In this way, the idea of privacy is quickly
disappearing.
234 Anna Brosch
Conclusion
e age of social media has given rise to anew hobby among Polish parents –
sharenting. e debate on its morality has been raging since the term was coined
and is still open. Although it can be argued that parents have the right to do so,
the privacy of the children involved should be taken into account. By exposing
children on Facebook or in other social media, parents are creating ageneration
of kids born under media glare and public attention. erefore, children grow
up with asense that aworld where what is private is public and sharing personal
details is common practice is normal. When they become parents, the young
generation might be even more open.
Otherwise, parents tend to share content about children which may put them
at risk, including things like the date of birth, the child’s full name, or posting any
photographs that may be embarrassing for children. It should be emphasised that
by posting content about children, parents create their digital footprint, which
could have unforeseen consequences now and in years to come. All the more,
because nobody knows how this information will be used to shape childrens
online experience, like social development and school or job prospects. Eric
Schmidt predicts that every young person one day will be allowed to change their
name in order to disown embarrassing digital past (Holman & Jenkins, 2010).
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... Online personal profiles are no longer solely personal spaces to meet new and old friends but have transformed into a virtual sphere to express and share texts, pictures, and videos of personal experiences, including parenting. "Sharenting," an amalgamation of "sharing" and "parenting," is an emerging internet trend wherein parents post detailed information about their children [1,2]. Sharenting first appeared as a term on the internet in 2013, and the phenomenon has since grown rapidly in popularity and was named in a scientific publication for the first time in 2015 [3]. ...
... Sharenting first appeared as a term on the internet in 2013, and the phenomenon has since grown rapidly in popularity and was named in a scientific publication for the first time in 2015 [3]. Social media represents an integral part of parents' lives [2], with 91% of mothers using at least one social media platform in the United States (see Moms and Media study [4]). Parents' multimedia content posts on social media about their children include pictures, videos, and other media [5]. ...
... Parents' multimedia content posts on social media about their children include pictures, videos, and other media [5]. Parents post about their children on social media for many reasons, to solicit support, to share experiences, to seek advice related to parenting challenges and concerns [2,[6][7][8], to stay in touch and update family and friends about their child's development [2], to record developmental milestones [9], and to collect memories [3,9]. Taken together, these reasons parents post together afford parents a platform on which to build a community and feel part of a group through mutual support [10][11][12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
“Sharenting” is an internet trend in which parents report detailed information or repeatedly post pictures, videos, and other content about their children on social media. Due to the duality of sharenting, which takes place online but has offline consequences, it is essential to understand the implications of sharenting for real-world parenting and child development. The present work analyzes references in the existing literature and links among published articles to better understand sharenting, evidence for it, and major topics associated with it and to uncover the gaps in the literature. Citation analysis of the current literature mainly focuses on risks and benefits related to sharenting practices, especially for the children, and on ethical and privacy concerns. Future studies should investigate the psychological mechanisms that drive sharenting-related behaviors in parents and multidisciplinary approaches to the phenomenon. With a broader perspective on these issues, practitioners and professionals in family studies will be able to delineate guidelines for informative interventions to increase awarenes about the causes and consequences of publicly sharing child content.
... In the current age of widespread social media usage, it is increasingly common for parents to post photos, videos, and stories of their children online, oftentimes without the child's explicit consent. This behavior is sometimes referred to as "sharenting," and has been a source of controversy in recent years (e.g., [1]; [2]; [3]). Prior research has examined the various psychosocial motivations behind this form of internet disclosure and has touched upon the potential positive and negative effects of this practice. ...
... Second, our research aims to examine associations between parental sharing and children's early internet exposure. Our focus follows from previous commentaries that raise concern about the lasting consequences that parental sharing may have on children's personal online use and privacy preferences [2]. That is, it is possible that parental sharing is related to exposure, normalization, and acceptance of regular social media communication at younger ages in children. ...
... In addition to examining the broader context in which parental sharing occurs, we were interested in the extent to which sharing frequency was associated with children's early online exposure, experiences, and internet use. Although parental sharing was not associated with reported increases in children's general interest in the internet or social media, parental sharing was associated with: (1) young children having their own social media accounts controlled by a parent, (2) reports that children desired to post photos of themselves online, and (3) reports that children viewed photos posted of themselves online. To our knowledge, these findings are among the first to confirm that parents who share more frequently are also engaging their young children under the age of ten with social media. ...
Article
Parents posting photos and other information about children on social media is increasingly common and a recent source of controversy. We investigated characteristics that predict parental sharing behavior by collecting information from 493 parents of young children in the United States on self-reported demographics, social media activity, parenting styles, children's social media engagement, and parental sharing attitudes and behaviors. Our findings indicate that most social media active parents share photos of their children online and feel comfortable doing so without their child's permission. The strongest predictor of parental sharing frequency was general social media posting frequency, suggesting that participants do not strongly differentiate between "regular" photo-sharing activities and parental sharing. Predictors of parental sharing frequency include greater social media engagement, larger social networks with norms encouraging parental sharing, more permissive and confident parenting styles, and greater social media engagement by their children. Contrasting previous research that often highlights benefits of parental sharing, our findings point to a number of risky online behaviors associated with parental sharing not previously uncovered. Implications for children's privacy and early social media exposure are discussed, including future directions for influencing parental sharing attitudes and behaviors.
... While SNSs offer new ways of communication between parents and children, parents also contribute to their child's online identity by sharing information about their child or family activities. Through sharenting, parents receive emotional support and get in touch with like-minded people (Brosch, 2016). As parents are sometimes confronted with issues and questions when raising their child, sharenting can make them feel less alone to work through parenting as they seek advice from others in their online network (Duggan et al., 2015). ...
... Previous research on sharenting predominantly focused on prevalence rates, and the content and motives for sharenting from the perspective of the parents (Duggan et al., 2015;Kumar and Schoenebeck, 2015;Brosch, 2016;Latipah et al., 2020) and the children (Moser et al., 2017;Lipu and Siibak, 2019;Ouvrein and Verswijvel, 2019;Sarkadi et al., 2020). The current study extends the literature on sharenting by increasing the insights on sharenting and privacy management of parents and children within one family. ...
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Parents sharing information about their children on social network sites (SNSs) (i.e., sharenting) is common today. However, previous work confronting parents’ and adolescents’ views on sharenting and related privacy concerns is limited. Therefore, the present study scrutinizes parents’ motives for sharenting and adolescents’ attitudes toward sharenting and negotiated privacy management strategies. Communication Privacy Management (CPM) was used as a theoretical framework. Based on 30 semi-structured interviews, two motives for sharenting were identified. Parents share information about their adolescent children because they are proud of their offspring or to inform family and friends. In turn, adolescents’ approval of their parents’ sharenting behavior depends on the content parents disclose online. Adolescents perceive sharenting as positive as long as they are nicely portrayed and positive events are shared. Additionally, both adolescents and parents are concerned about the child’s online privacy. They adopt several strategies to respect privacy boundaries and to avoid privacy turbulence.
... Past researchers claim that sharenting influences children's identity development due to mediated representations through networked communication and persistence online via social media [39]. Previous research such as Brosch [40] has only focused on the types of information and the causes of sharenting behaviour. Other research have also discussed the factors that motivates parents to become involved in sharenting behaviour [4]. ...
... The eight respondents interviewed indicated that they had some understanding and knowledge on the consequences of sharenting. According to the report "Parents, privacy and technology use" which was published on November 2015, 20% of the content of sharenting included content that makes their children feel embarrassed and uncomfortable [40]. However, the findings in the current study contradicts this. ...
Article
With social media having penetrated people’s daily life, sharenting has become a common phenomenon among the current generation. The term “sharenting” is derived from the combination of the words “share” and "parenting” which refers to parents who often post or share their children’s photos/videos on social media such as Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, YouTube, Blog, and so on. Sharenting has resulted in a lot of consequences due to the sharing of children’s information. To understand the consequences of sharenting, the current research analysed the contents of children’s information that are shared by parents in Malaysia. The research also investigated the reasons that motivated parents to be involved in the trend of sharenting. A qualitative research adopting one-to-one interview was conducted to obtain in-depth information and knowledge from the respondents selected through a non-probability snowball sampling method. The responses from the interviews were analysed using a thematic analysis where it was noted that in terms of the content shared, two key themes emerged specifically funny and interesting photos as well as children’s educational progress. On the other hand, in terms of reasons for sharenting, the respondents listed several reasons including to keep in touch with friends/family members, to keep as memories, and gain support from others.
... According to Ranzini et al. (2020) privacy can be understood between a) general privacy: social and institutional and b) situational privacy: platform-based, the user decides the level of self-disclosure based on privacy options; which can be helpful for parents, as they should be aware of the information they share on the Internet (Marasli et al., 2017), who can, or cannot, view the content they post. Within this reflection, parents also need to be aware of the changing concept of privacy that their children are growing up with (Brosch, 2016). There must be a co-responsibility of the family in the care of the child's privacy, for which it is necessary to consider family digital education and the development of parents' digital competences in order to safeguard the privacy and digital security of minors (Cino & Vandini, 2020;Kopecký & Szotkowski, 2018;Pineda & Jiménez, 2020). ...
... Sharing photos of children can be seen as a metric of connection with people by receiving emotional reactions, such as a validation of the parenting received through a like, which may prompt the parent to post more photos . Brosch (2016) states that this practice is often a response to the social isolation that occurs in the early period of parenthood, to be in contact with the outside world and share in the life of the new family member, including as a way to compare oneself to others, such as in social status or life experiences, to gain social feedback and to demonstrate pride in front of others (Wagner & Gasche, 2018). Here again, the monetisation of the child's image comes into play, as the intention to post content crosses the boundaries from social reactions such as seeking validation of parenthood or seeking to generate reactions, to influencing parental purchasing decisions (Kaur & Kumar, 2021). ...
Article
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Sharenting is a current phenomenon of online communication, which is related to the sharing of images of the youngest members of the family (often minors) by parents or relatives, mainly on social networks. However, this constitutes a series of consequences that compromise privacy and may put the child at risk. The aim of this work was to validate the Sharenting Evaluation Scale (SES), designed to assess the degree of sharenting in the adult population, in order to catalogue the type of practice performed through ranges. A rigorous process of design and validation of the scale was carried out on a sample of 146 Spanish adults. Different strategies were used, such as expert judgement, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and reliability analysis using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. After that, the scale was composed of 17 items configured in three factors: implications, social behaviour, and self-control. Finally, the scale showed good psychometric properties, providing a unique and reliable instrument to assess the degree of sharenting performed by an adult.
... (intensive parenting) (Douglas & Michaels, 2005;Green, 2012;Orton-Johnson, 2017), (Gross & Pattison, 2007) . (Marasli et al., 2016), (Ouvrein & Verswijvel, 2019), (Brosch, 2016;Steinberg, 2017). 2016 13 (Leaver & Highfield, 2018;Steinberg, 2017). ...
Article
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Objectives: This study investigates the current state and subjective meaning of “sharenting” using social media by mothers raising children with rare diseases. In addition, the future direction of parenting social support for parents using ICTs was explored.Methods: Among the mothers raising a children with rare diseases, those who informed their children of their diseases with hashtags(#) and shared their daily lives on social media, such as Instagram and Facebook, were purposefully sampled. Nine mothers with children age one to seven years with different rare diseases participated in the in-depth interviews.Results: Mothers raising children with rare diseases with low prevalence have met various parenting support needs through sharenting. In addition, it was found that many mothers were willing to support other parents with similar experiences by actively sharing their information or daily lives. In other words, sharenting not only enhances the positive cognitive and emotional experiences of mothers raising children with rare diseases but also provides an opportunity to contribute to society, ultimately helping support healthy parenting. Moreover, mothers benefited from various support that transcends time and space through sharenting using social media. Thus, social support for parents in need should be delivered through both traditional and digitalized support integrated with ICTs.Conclusion: To support the healthy development of a children with rare diseases, it is necessary to support the high quality of life of parents and their children. By integrating ICTs, individualized and customized social services can be flexibly provided to families and children with rare diseases that have been neglected.
... 42 Anlaşılacağı üzere bu kavram sadece çocukla ilgili aşırı paylaşım yapma anlamında değil çocuğun gizliliğini ihlal eden ve bu paylaşımları onun izni olmadan yapma anlamında da kullanılmaktadır. 47 Örneğin bu paylaşımlarda çocuğun çıplak veya gelecekte çocuğu utandırabilecek fotoğraflarını ve onun yabancı biri tarafından bile kolaylıkla bulunmasını sağlayabilecek, devam ettiği okul gibi, özel bilgileri paylaşılabimektedir. 42,43 Bu paylaşımlardaki temel motivasyonun aidiyet ve kendilik sunumuyla ilgili bulunduğu, hatta paylaşan ebeveynin dijital bir kendilik sunumu şekli olduğu ileri sürülmektedir. 44,45 Dijital medya platformlarında paylaşma sürecinde ebeveyn, kamuya açık hale getirme ile sorumlu olduğu mahremiyeti koruma arasında bir ikilemde kalmaktadır. ...
... Previous research about the privacy paradox indicates that individuals share personal information online because they overestimate the short-term benefits of such disclosure. Research on sharenting has identified that motivations for this practice are diverse and include: (a) collecting and curating memories (Blum-Ross & Livingstone, 2017;Kumar & Schoenebeck, 2015); (b) staying connected with family and friends (Brosch, 2016); (c) getting affirmation and support (Duggan et al., 2015;Marasli et al., 2016;McDaniel et al., 2012) or exchanging advice about parenting challenges (Blum-Ross & Livingstone, 2017); and (d) impression management or presenting oneself as a good parent (Kumar & Schoenebeck, 2015, see also Verswijvel et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Despite being worried that children may compromise their privacy by disclosing too much personal data online, many parents paradoxically share pictures and information about their children themselves, a practice called sharenting. In this article we utilise data from the EU Kids Online survey to investigate this paradox. We examine both how individual characteristics such as demographics and digital skills, and relational factors, including parental mediation styles, concerns about children's privacy, and communication between parents and children influence sharenting practices. Counter-intuitively, our findings show that parents with higher levels of digital skills are more likely to engage in sharenting. Furthermore, parents who actively mediate their children's use of the internet and are more concerned about the privacy of their children, are also more likely to engage in sharenting. At the same time, and further emphasising the complexities of this relational practice, many parents do not ask for their children's consent in advance of sharing information about them. Overall, parents seem to consider the social benefits of sharenting to outweigh the potential risks both for themselves and for their children. Given the paradoxical complexities of sharenting practices, we propose further research is required to distinguish between different kinds of sharenting and their potential implications for children and young people's right to privacy.
... Sharenting merupakan aktivitas orang tua yang membagikan berbagai informasi terkait anak mereka di situs jejaring sosial (Marasli, dkk, 2016). Situs jejaring sosial yang berperan signifikan dalam praktik sharenting oleh orang tua adalah instagram (Holiday, Norman & Densley, 2020;Choi & Lewallen, 2018) dan facebook (Brosch, 2016). Hal yang dibagikan oleh orang tua tentang anak-anak mereka sebagian besar adalah momen bahagia dalam bentuk foto, video, maupun hanya sekedar mengupdate status (Kumar & Schoenebeck, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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Advances in digital technology, especially social media, have brought changes to human life. One of the impacts of social media is the practice of sharing, which is the publication of photos or videos about caring for their children on social networks. This sharing practice raises various opinions and further studies, one of which is sharing from an Islamic perspective whose studies are still limited. Therefore, this study examines the practice of sharenting through an Islamic perspective, which includes parenting in Islam, sharing as a means of da'wah, 'ain in sharing, sincerity in sharing, and friendship in sharing. The method used in this study is a literature review. The results of data analysis concluded that sharing from an Islamic perspective is allowed by considering the concept of parenting in Islam, allowed by considering sincere attitudes, sharing has the potential as a means of da'wah, a medium of friendship but also has the potential to cause 'ain disease.
Article
Objective Parents’ tracking of developmental milestones can assist healthcare providers with early detection of developmental delays and appropriate referrals to early intervention. Crowdsourcing is one way to update the content and age data distribution of developmental checklists for parents and providers. This feasibility study examined which developmental milestones parents chose to track and what they added beyond traditional milestones, using the babyTRACKS crowd-based mobile app. Method We analyzed the developmental diaries of 3,832 children, registered in the babyTRACKS app at an average age of 9.3 months. Their parents recorded a median of 5 milestones per diary, selecting from the accumulating lists of age-appropriate milestones or authoring new milestones. The final database included 645 types of milestones; 89.15% were developmental, of which 43.6% were comparable to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) milestones while the rest were crowd-authored. Milestones were categorized into developmental domains: Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Oral Motor, Self-Care, Cognitive, Language Comprehension, Speech, Non-Verbal Communication, Social, Emotional, and Regulation. Results On average, the milestone domains of Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Cognitive and Social were the most added to diaries (20%-30% of a diary). Within the Cognitive, Speech and Language Comprehension domains there were significantly more CDC comparable versus crowd-authored milestones (29% versus 21%, 22% versus 10%, 8% versus 4%). In contrast, within the Regulation and Oral Motor domains there were more crowd versus CDC milestones (17% versus 3%, 9% versus 3%). Crowd-authored Speech milestones were significantly older by 7 months than CDC milestones. Conclusion Tracking daily observations of child development provides a window into personally relevant milestones for the child and parent. The crowd of parents can independently track and add new milestones across main developmental domains. Regulation and Oral Motor development especially interest parents. Parents may be less aware of early progress in Language Comprehension and Speech; thus, these domains require more structured screening. Designing mobile early screening which is crowd-based engages parents as proactive partners in developmental tracking.
Article
Social media technologies such as YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook promised a new participatory online culture. Yet, technology insider Alice Marwick contends in this insightful book, "Web 2.0" only encouraged a preoccupation with status and attention. Her original research-which includes conversations with entrepreneurs, Internet celebrities, and Silicon Valley journalists-explores the culture and ideology of San Francisco's tech community in the period between the dot com boom and the App store, when the city was the world's center of social media development.Marwick argues that early revolutionary goals have failed to materialize: while many continue to view social media as democratic, these technologies instead turn users into marketers and self-promoters, and leave technology companies poised to violate privacy and to prioritize profits over participation. Marwick analyzes status-building techniques-such as self-branding, micro-celebrity, and life-streaming-to show that Web 2.0 did not provide a cultural revolution, but only furthered inequality and einforced traditional social stratification, demarcated by race, class, and gender.
Article
New parents' Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Mid-western U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated that mothers used Facebook more than fathers, and that mothers perceived an increase in use over the transition. When more of mothers' Facebook friends were family members or relatives, and when fathers reported connecting with more of their Facebook friends outside of Facebook, they reported better parental adjustment. For mothers, however, more frequent visits to Facebook accounts and more frequent content management were each associated with higher levels of parenting stress.
Article
Communities started changing from groups to networks well before the advent of the Internet. Initially, people believed that industrialization and bureaucratization would dissolve community groups and leave only isolated, alienated individuals. Then scholars discovered that communities continued, but more as sparsely-knit, spatiallydispersed social networks rather than as densely-knit, village-like local groups. A similar debate has developed about the impact of the Internet on community. Some fear that it will isolate people from face-to-face interactions. Others extol the Internet's ability to support far-flung communities of shared interest.
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Davis, M.M. (2015). Parents on Social Media: Likes and Dislikes of Sharenting, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital. University of Michigan System. 23 (2). Retrieved 29/12/2015, from http://mottnpch.org/sites/default/files/documents/031615_sharenting_0.pdf Evans, L.(2010). Authenticity Online: Using Webnography to Address Phenomenological Concerns, In: A. Mousoutzanis & D. Riha, New Media and the Politics of Online Communities, Inter-Disciplinary Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.