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When the Child is Born into the Internet : Sharenting as a Growing Trend among Parents on Facebook


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Parents actively share information about their children on Facebook, but little research has explored the extent of this issue. The goal of this paper is to theorize a new type of parents’ online activities concerning their children, especially the problem of sharenting, which is increasingly common in contexts where social media such as Facebook play a significant role in relationships and interactions. This paper explores what kind of baby pictures parents share on Facebook and what are the likely causes of doing it. The presented research was conducted with the use of social media ethnography among 168 Polish parents using Facebook. The findings have shown that the phenomenon of sharenting is common practice among parents.
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When the Child is Born into the Internet :
Sharenting as a Growing Trend among Parents
on Facebook
DOI: 10.15804/tner.2016.43.1.19
Parents actively share information about their children on Facebook, but
little research has explored the extent of this issue. e goal of this paper is
to theorize anew type of parents’ online activities concerning their children,
especially the problem of sharenting, which is increasingly common in contexts
where social media such as Facebook play asignificant role in relationships and
interactions. is paper explores what kind of baby pictures parents share on
Facebook and what are the likely causes of doing it. e presented research was
conducted with the use of social media ethnography among 168 Polish parents
using Facebook. e findings have shown that the phenomenon of sharenting
is common practice among parents.
Keywords: children exposure, digital risks, Facebook, online privacy, social media,
Today’s parents are raising children in a digital-first culture, facing more
unique parenting problems than previous generations. But as anew generation
of adults joins the ranks of parents, Facebook seems to be avery easy platform
to dealing with new or difficult challenges associated with their children – even
for parentswhose time is ascarce commodity. erefore, they share the joys and
challenges of parenthood and document childrens lives publicly with increasing
Anna Brosch
226 Anna Brosch
frequency, which has almost become asocial norm. Consequently, many children
have aplethora of pictures, posts and updates about their lives on social media
before they can even walk.
is kind of activity is called sharenting and has been defined by Collins Dic-
tionary as “the practice of aparent to regularly use the social media to communi-
cate alot of detailed information about their child” (Sharenting, as cited in: Collins
Dictionary). e phenomenon of sharing and disclosure of intimate information
about children by their parents through social media is growing rapidly. erefore,
it has become asubject of research by increasing numbers of scholars worldwide.
At the end of 2014, the University of Michigan’s C.S.Mott Children’s Hospital
National Poll on Childrens Health conducted research among 569 parents of
children aged 0 4 (Davis, 2015). According to the survey, 56% mothers and 34%
fathers share information related to parenting in social media. Over 70% parents
who use social media know of another parent who has given information that
might embarrass achild (56%), offered personal information that could identify
achild’s location (51%), or photos of achild perceived as inappropriate (27%).
Another research has been conducted by Hart Research Associates on behalf of
Family Online Safety Institute (FOSI) using data from an online nationwide sur-
vey of 589 parents of children aged 6 to 17. According to the “Parents, Privacy &
Technology Use report, released in November 2015, among the parents who have
asocial networking account, nearly 20% share information online about achild,
which he/she may find embarrassing in the future. What is more, one out of ten
parents was asked by their own child to remove some information about him/her
that was posted online by the parent (Family Online Safety Institute, 2015, p. 22).
Undoubtedly, in the era of camera-phones the most common practice on
social networking sites is sharing photographs. Every 60 seconds 136,000 photos
( are uploaded on Facebook. Today’s parents willingly share photos
of their children. In some research the number of parents who post pictures of
their children on Facebook reaches even 98% (Bartholomew et al., 2012). However,
mothers are more willing to post photos of their children. Perhaps they prefer
sharing photos online because communication via photographs is easier and faster
than telling astory (cf.: Jomhari et al., 2009).
Parents post online an enormous number of pictures to chronicle almost every
moment of their childrens life – from the birth through the first steps and starting
school to teenage years. e research conducted in 2010 by AVG Technologies
found that, on average, children acquire adigital identity by the age of six months.
But in many cases, these online practices start even before the birth of achild,
when expectant mothers share sonogram images of their unborn children (AVG
227When the Child is Born into the Internet
Technologies, 2010). In that way, Facebook has become a“modern day baby book”
(Kumar & Schoenebeck, 2015), where children are becoming micro-celebrities in
their communities (Marwick, 2013, p. 10).
ere is no doubt that Facebook offers today’s parents aunique opportunity to
exchange experiences and happiness about their parenthood or search for help
with parenting issues. But the problems arise when they share embarrassing or too
personal information about their children and therefore run arisk of breaching
childrens privacy.
Another serious issue related to sharenting is aphenomenon called “digital kid-
napping, where strangers steal baby photos and repost them across the Internet as
if the child was their own (O’Neill, 2015). As aresult, the child is given anew name
and anew story to start acompletely new online life. But it should be emphasised
that kidnapping is acrime independently of where it is committed. Sharenting may
also expose children to ridiculing by strangers. An extreme example was the secret
Facebook group consisting of mothers who were taking photos of children from
other Facebook accounts before re-posting them online and making fun of the chil-
dren (Parker, 2013). More importantly, the victims were children with disabilities.
Unfortunately, sometimes parents do not think about how the information they
share might be interpreted by others, especially in the case of sharing embarrassing
stories or inappropriate photos and, what is more, they never know where these
contents might end up someday. As Richard Follett argues, something posted online
now may not be appropriate in the future : “Not only might these images be used
to embarrass them in their delicate teenage years, they could also be accessed by
potential employers or university admissions departments” (Daily Mail, 8.02.2014).
In Poland, there are currently nearly 12.5 million Facebook users, with the larg-
est age group being 19 25-year-olds (27%), followed by 26 33-year-olds (23%)
(Fanpage Trends, 11.2015). Given that over ahalf of active Facebook users are
in prime childbearing years, it is likely that aconsiderable portion of users are
undergoing the transition to parenthood or have already been parents.
Data collection was conducted from September to December, 2015 among
Polish Facebook users. e main goal of the research was to learn about parents’
habits with regard to their children on Facebook, especially how much and what
kind of information about the children they share. erefore, this study was guided
by two main research questions:
228 Anna Brosch
1. What types of information concerning children are shared by parents?
2. What are the likely causes of these digital practices?
e research was carried out by using social media ethnography, which is one of
the online research methods, such as virtual ethnography (Hine, 2008), netnography
(Kozinets, 2010) or digital ethnography (Murthy, 2011), which have evolved from
classical ethnography. In general, all these online ethnographic methods focus on
conducting and constructing an ethnography using the virtual, online environment
as the site of the research (Evans, 2010, p. 11). Accordingly, the research field of
social media ethnography involves the digital platforms transited by users, as for
example Facebook. From this perspective, the concept of virtual communities
becomes the central point for social media ethnography through studying users’
strategies of self-presentation and online social identity and therefore creating their
own role within aconfined community. us, this method allows for exploring the
various types of users’ online practice and behaviour on social media, which consti-
tute the natural ecosystem for their daily interactions. According to Helen Morton
(2001, p. 6), there are two possible ways of conducting research online – involved or
distanced. Involved research includes, inter alia, interviewing respondents via chat
rooms, e-mails and other synchronous ways of computer-mediated communication.
However, this study uses distanced research, which consists in the evaluation of
material sources such as texts or images and the observation of social interactions.
As the members of population were difficult to locate, exponential non-dis-
criminative snowball recruiting was used. is non-random method allowed for
selecting the final sample including 168 participants. Each of them had at least
one child under the age of 8 and had posted some photos of his/her own child
on aFacebook profile. In addition to the photo analysis data, for each Facebook
account the following data was recorded: the date of creation of aFacebook profile,
Facebook privacy settings, the number of friends, the total number of pictures, the
number of photos of children, and the content of posts and comments. Analysis of
this data allowed for working out whether it was possible to determine children’s
identity by using publicly available information.
Research Results
One of the key research objectives was to examine the usage of Facebook among
parents, which was measured on two dimensions: how long the participants had
had their Facebook account and how many people were listed as “friends” in their
Facebook profiles.
229When the Child is Born into the Internet
e research has shown that the growth of Facebook usage among Polish
parents began accelerating in 2010. Most of the surveyed Facebook profiles were
created between 2010 and 2012 (73%) and the median year of joining the Face
book community was 2012. It means that the large majority of the parents have
been active Facebook users for several years.
In the profiles studied on Facebook, the number of friends ranged from 17 to
1537, with an average of 388.9 friends per account. e majority of the parents
(71.4%) had 200 or more friends, with only 2.4% of the respondents having anum-
ber of friends in the range of 100 and fewer. It should be emphasized that only
7.7% of the parents changed Facebook privacy settings but mainly to hide their
friend lists. Taking into account that parents in general do not use privacy settings
to limit their audience, it indicates that they share their photos and comments with
alarge number of people.
In order to determine the level of sharenting, two main data sets were estab-
lished. Firstly, the posted photos were analyzed, including the number and type
of pictures. Secondly, commentaries about the photos on Facebook profiles were
studied. is allowed for determining the amount and kind of available infor-
mation about the children and finally to identify particular stories that were
communicated. Photobased stories were categorized according to the dates they
were taken, background of the pictures and also the text description which can be
seen in the sequence of stories.
e total number of the posted pictures by the parents is 25,727, including
19,431 (75.5%) photos containing achild between zero and eight years old, for
an average of 116 baby photos per account (range from 7 to 936). Every third
parent shared fewer than 50 photos of their child, but nearly 40% of the parents
posted over 100 photos of their child. What is more, the parents also willingly
shared private information about their child. Of these 168 accounts, 90.5% had
posted or received acomment mentioning the childs first name, and 83.9% had
also revealed the child’s date of birth. Many parents (23.2%) made this information
available by reporting their child’s birthday party in the public photo albums. In
addition, 32.7% of them uploaded their baby video and other documents relating
to the child, such as abirth certificate, kindergarten diploma or the child’s art.
Table 1. Information concerning children posted on Facebook profiles by parents
Name Age Date of birth Films Other documents
N152 141 52 55 12
%90.5 83.9 30.9 32.7 7.1
230 Anna Brosch
e research has shown that all of the participants regularly post digital con
tent on Facebook. Posts containing the child’s name and date of birth are most
common among the parents in the first month aer the childs birth by recording
almost every moment of her/his life (48.2%), sharing photos taken in the hospital
(4.8%) or simply posting this information on the parent’s profile or timeline. In
some cases, the parents created adigital footprint for their unborn child by posting
asonogram image (10.7%) or sharing photos of the expectant mother (8.3%).
Types of baby photos shared on Facebook
Similarly to other studies on photo sharing practices, the participants surveyed
in this study basically tend to post happy moments of their life. Analysis of the
posted photos of children allowed for defining five photo categories as shown in
Table 2.
Table 2. Types of baby photos
Daily life Outings Special
ing Professional To t al
N 8736 5629 4209 710 147 19431
%45.0 29.0 21.7 3.7 0.8 100
e participants shared avariety of stories by posting photos of their children.
e three top categories are Daily life, Outings and Special events (95.6%). Daily
life pictures relate to spontaneous moments of achild’s life, e.g. playing with toys,
sleeping or meal-time oen with other family members. Many pictures in this cat-
egory also focus on the baby’s face and body movements. Outings include photos
which were taken outside or during holiday. Examples of Special events include
baptism, Christmas Day, the first day at kindergarten, birthday party and other
celebrations. Arelatively small group comprises pictures taken by professional
photographers – only 0.8%. However, embarrassing photos should be paid more
attention to. is is all the more significant because 113 (67.3%) parents shared at
least one photo of their child that may be considered as inappropriate. erefore,
among the embarrassing photos four subcategories have been identified. e
overall results are presented in Figure 1.
e most popular type of embarrassing pictures of children shows them nude
or semi-nude. However, of these 113 accounts, 77.9% of the parents posted, in
231When the Child is Born into the Internet
fact, 411 photos of this kind. Admittedly, they were usually taken during bath
or on the beach and basically concern children under 3 years of age, but even
then they should not be exposed to public viewing. Consequently, the child might
be at great risk if these photos fall into the wrong hands, such as those of child
pornographers. Other photos of children that the parents willingly shared can
be described as funny photos. Every second parent shared photos of their child
that seemed to be amusing. But in most cases, these pictures showed children in
disturbing situations, e.g. sitting on apotty, crying, sleeping in astrange position
or pulling faces. e last type are photos of grimy children, which were taken
usually aer meals. us, the participants posted pictures of their children with
porridge, chocolate, and other food on their faces. ese photos were oen widely
commented on, but always in an inappropriate manner.
In view of the above, sharenting remains aworrying problem. Firstly, parents
tend to spread on Facebook the information about their children that might
include things like the date of birth, the child’s full name, or post photographs
and contents which might embarrass the children in the future. Secondly, parents
never know who might use this information for purposes other than intended.
ereby, they make their own children apotential target of child predators.
The likely causes of sharenting
Virtual communities, such as Facebook, are usually strongly influenced by the
number of users they have and can provide sociability, information, asense of
belonging, social identity and support of non-hierarchical communication (Well-
Figure 1. Types of embarrassing photos of children
Total number of photos
The number of parents sharing photos
semi -n
232 Anna Brosch
man et al., 2002). Furthermore, it allows individuals to express their identities and
to create and maintain social relations online. erefore, parents may feel validated
by the numerous likes and comments they receive on their baby photos, even if
they come from users they have weak ties with. What is more, the popularity of
Facebook has grown steadily in Poland since 2010 and hence it has the relatively
long history of using. Controlling the length of Facebook usage is also important,
because many-year users might be more likely to succumb to the norms established
among Facebook users. Statistical analyses are therefore presented only for two
H1. e number of Facebook Friends is positively correlated with the number
of photos of children shared by parents on Facebook.
H2. e length of Facebook usage is positively correlated with the number of
photos of children shared by parents on Facebook.
Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses and
investigate the impact of the number of Facebook friends and the length of Face-
book usage on the number of photos of children shared by parents (Table 3).
Table 3. Results of hierarchical regression analyses
b t pβ
e number of Facebook friends 0.12 2.68 0.008 0.21
e length of Facebook usage -0.44 -0.06 0.95 -0.004
e analysis shows that the number of Facebook friends significantly affects
sharing information about children on Facebook, as expected (b = 0.12, t = 2.68,
p < 0.01). us, hypothesis H1 is confirmed. In other words, the number of online
friends moderated parents’ online activity and therefore was asignificant predictor
of sharenting. However, the interaction between the length of Facebook usage
and the number of photos of children shared by parents on Facebook was not
significant (b = -0.44, t = -0.06, p = 0.95).
e research has shown that Facebook provides another form of social behavior,
closely related to voyeurism, and occurs due to the social control and the need for
monitoring other users. It demands anew type of reflexivity about the creation
233When the Child is Born into the Internet
of virtual identities and the management of personal information, resulting in
increased transparency. erefore, today’s parenting is becoming adigitally shared
Undoubtedly, sharentingcan satisfy parents’ need for self-realization and social
approval. Moreover, the early period of parenthood might cause social isolation
and the digital era gives apossibility to make this time morecomfortable. ere-
fore, they are leaving scores of digital footprints online, which tell stories of their
childrens private lives. In many cases parents excessively share intimate details of
their children and then this practice reaches astage where sharenting is associated
with oversharenting, e.g. by posting 100 of baby pictures or even more.
On the other hand, sharenting might be aform of social comparison. It was
indicated by the positive correlation between the number of Facebook Friends
and the number of photos of children shared by parents on Facebook. Generally
speaking, the number of friends determines the number of shared photos. Moreo-
ver, by sharenting parents declare that they are able to fulfil the parental tasks and
Facebook seems to be the modern equivalent of sending aletter with asnapshot
enclosed. In this way, parents share their happiness about their parenthood with
their friends. Another possible reason for these findings is that Facebook provides
parents with apossibility to compare themselves with others on abroad range of
dimensions, such as social status and life experiences.
However, problems arise when parents share pictures of moments that might
embarrass their child now and in the future. According to these findings, it is
rather common practice among Polish parents, who post inappropriate photos of
their children, especially naked and semi-naked or showing them in an unfavora-
ble situation.
On the subject of sharing photos of children, the research has also shown that
many of them compromise childrens privacy and expose them to public viewing
without their consent. us, children have digital images already created by their
parents before they themselves are ready to use Facebook. It is aserious problem,
bearing in mind that actions today shape childrens online experience tomorrow.
Apart from present security risks and permanence of online contest, it may cause
other consequences in the future. Due to sharenting, children grow up with an
entirely different concept of privacy. us, it might seem to be normal to them
that everything is in the public domain. In this way, the idea of privacy is quickly
234 Anna Brosch
e age of social media has given rise to anew hobby among Polish parents –
sharenting. e debate on its morality has been raging since the term was coined
and is still open. Although it can be argued that parents have the right to do so,
the privacy of the children involved should be taken into account. By exposing
children on Facebook or in other social media, parents are creating ageneration
of kids born under media glare and public attention. erefore, children grow
up with asense that aworld where what is private is public and sharing personal
details is common practice is normal. When they become parents, the young
generation might be even more open.
Otherwise, parents tend to share content about children which may put them
at risk, including things like the date of birth, the child’s full name, or posting any
photographs that may be embarrassing for children. It should be emphasised that
by posting content about children, parents create their digital footprint, which
could have unforeseen consequences now and in years to come. All the more,
because nobody knows how this information will be used to shape childrens
online experience, like social development and school or job prospects. Eric
Schmidt predicts that every young person one day will be allowed to change their
name in order to disown embarrassing digital past (Holman & Jenkins, 2010).
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... Kemunculan media sosial telah membawa banyak perubahan dari era sebelumnya, seperti: gaya hidup, perilaku, serta berbagi dan keterbukaan informasi (Hidayati & Zaman, 2021). Sehingga orang tua menghadapi tantangan pengasuhan yang lebih unik saat mengasuh anak karena mereka hidup dalam budaya yang mengutamakan digitalisasi dalam kehidupannya (Brosch, 2016). Namun orang tua muda yang tergolong generasi baru tampaknya menjadi pengguna paling aktif dalam menyajikan informasi secara online (Marasli et al., 2016). ...
... Media sosial telah menjadi wadah bagi orang tua muda untuk berbagi suka dan duka membesarkan anak sebagai orang tua muda (Brosch, 2016). Selain itu, orang tua lebih terbuka untuk mendokumentasikan dan berbagi konten yang berkaitan dengan kehidupan mereka sendiri. ...
... Namun, Facebook adalah media sosial yang sering digunakan orang tua, seperti Maeve et al (2015) dan Marasli et al. (2016) menemukan bahwa 74% orang tua menggunakan Facebook untuk mengunggah foto dan video anaknya dengan caption terkait kehidupan pribadi sang anak. Sebuah studi oleh Brosch (2016) menegaskan bahwa 75,5% gambar yang dikirim oleh orang tua membahayakan anak usia 0-8 tahun. Ia menambahkan bahwa 90,5% orang tua mengunggah atau menerima komentar yang menyebutkan nama anak mereka, 83,9% juga mengungkapkan tanggal lahir anak mereka, dan 32,7% orang tua memiliki video dan dokumen lain terkait unggahan Facebook anak mereka. ...
Full-text available
More parents are sharing personal information about their children on social media, such as status updates, pictures, and videos. The term for this activity is sharenting. Parents raising their children in digital- and digital-native environments are also often involved. But this sharenting activity often conflicts with children's interests. The purpose of this study was to look at sharenting activities carried out by young parents and the protection of children's privacy on social media. This research uses literature studies sourced from national and international articles. The results of the study show that parents often do sharenting activities on social media, either consciously or unconsciously, such as uploading photos or videos about personal life on various social media, such as Instagram, Twitter, WeChat, and even YouTube. Sharenting activities must also be accompanied by protection of children's privacy rights to avoid negative impacts. Semakin banyak orang tua yang berbagi dan membagikan informasi pribadi tentang anak-anak mereka di media sosial, seperti pembaruan status, gambar, dan video. Istilah untuk aktivitas ini adalah sharenting. Orang tua yang membesarkan anak-anak mereka dalam lingkungan yang mengutamakan digital dan digital native juga sering terlibat. Namun aktivitas sharenting ini sering bertentangan dengan minat anak-ana. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk melihat aktivitas sharenting yang dilakukan oleh orang tua muda serta perlindungan privasi anak di media sosial. Penelitian ini menggunakan studi literatur yang bersumber dari artikel nasional dan internasional. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa orang tua sering melakukan aktivitas sharenting di media sosial, baik secara sadar atau tidak sadar, seperti mengunggah foto atau video mengenai kehidupan pribadi di berbagai media sosial, seperti Instagram, Twitter, WeChat, bahkan youtube. Aktivitas sharenting juga harus dibarengi perlindungan akan hak privasi anak agar terhindar dari dampak negatif.
... In fact, 81% of children under the age of two already have some type of digital footprint created by their parents, according to the results of the AVG Technologies in 2010 survey conducted in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Spain (Cino et al., 2020). The findings of Brosch (2016) reveal that parents are the most active users of social media, posting an average of 116 infant images per account to document both the most significant occasions in their children's lives, such as family vacations and unplanned moments from everyday life. ...
... Several changes from the preceding era have been brought about by the introduction of social media, including lifestyle, behaviour, sharing, and information transparency (Hidayati & Zaman, 2021). As a result, parents have additional challenges raising their children and experiencing parenting in unique ways since they live in a society where digitization is a priority (Brosch, 2016). Nonetheless, parents of the younger members of the generation appear to be the most frequent online information providers (Jorge et al., 2022). ...
... Young parents now use social media as a platform for sharing their happiness and hardships as well as raising their kids (Brosch, 2016). In addition, parents are more willing to provide documents and other pertinent information when they are living alone. ...
On social media, parents are increasingly posting photographs, videos, and status updates containing private information about their children. This action is known as sharenting. Digital native parents who have raised their children in first-generation digital societies commonly partake in this pastime. However, distributing content on a regular basis hurts kids' interests. This essay's goals are to assess sharenting offences and highlight how important it is to protect children from sharenting's dangers. A review of the literature served as the study's methodology. The results demonstrate that the three stages of reality construction are represented by the six steps of the sharing process: (1) documentation, (2) choosing, (3) editing, (4) giving captions, (5) uploading, and (6) getting responses. Sharing behaviour has the potential to expose children's identities in a public way on social media, has a tendency to violate children's privacy, and even appears to exploit children. However, sharing might put pressure on the kids themselves and perhaps have an effect on online criminality. This article is meant to educate parents on the value of preserving attitudes and behaviours when sharing and protecting kids' rights and privacy on social media. Parenting quality is determined by parental norms for the information that must be shared and its selection. A good sharing is one that promotes the child's healthy development by transferring parenting expertise to other parents. Sharing is bad if the parents have violated the child's privacy and endangered their safety
... In this context, mothers and fathers constitute a significant group of people for sharing photos of their children and information about their children on social media (Maraşlı et al., 2016). Parents create a permanent digital record of family life by sharing information about their children with multimedia content such as pictures and videos on social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram (Brosch, 2016;Leaver, 2017). Parents' behaviour of sharing information about their children through pictures, videos and status updates on social networks is referred to in the literature as 'sharenting' (Blum Ross and Livingstone, 2017). ...
... 87% of non-sharing parents believed that their child's life should have remained private. Parents can put the information that they share about their children on their own accounts or their children's accounts (Brosch, 2016). According to the results of a survey conducted by, ...
... This sharing does not only cover infancy, but can also be carried out at every stage of a life course from early childhood to late childhood and adolescence (Moser et al., 2017;Verswijvel et al., 2019). Moreover, social media accounts with thousands of followers set up for unborn children also show that this action starts before children's birth (Brosch, 2016;Nottingham, 2019). This information shows that there are differences in the beginning of the sharenting experience, in its frequency, and in parents' perceptions about it. ...
The rapid changes in the field of technology have made the use of social media one of the routines in the life of the individual. This behaviour of parents who share information about their children with pictures, videos, stories, and status updates on social networks such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp is defined as “Sharenting”. Parents sharing information about their children on social media brings with it many risks. Children who do not realise the possible risks due to their age are abused by their primary caregivers. Understanding the experience of Sharenting, which is seen as a present danger to children, motivated the researchers to conduct this research. From this point of view, the aim of this research is to understand the reasons and effects of social media sharing of parents about their children. In this study, which was carried out in the phenomenological design of the qualitative research method, twelve participants were reached with the snowball sampling method. The data collected from the participants were obtained with a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. The semi-structured interview form consisted of nine open-ended questions, each of which was aimed at understanding the sharenting phenomenon. Within the scope of the research, online interviews were conducted with each participant with ZOOM Meeting, which lasted an average of 40 min. The interviews with the participants were transcribed. The obtained data were subjected to content analysis independently by three researchers who conducted the research. Afterwards, the research team evaluated the themes and categories determined by each researcher and finalised the findings. As a result, it was seen that the sharing experiences of the participants were gathered under six different themes. These themes were determined as sharenting “reasons”, “actions”, “platforms”, “effects”, “criteria”, and “awareness”. The reasons for sharenting of the participants were determined as “Collecting Memories”, “Affectivity”, “Staying in Communication”, “Approval/Being Liked”, “Providing Benefit with Followers”, “Followers/Relatives Reaction”, and “Change in Routine”. When the participants shared, “Increased Social Media Use”, “Evil Eye Anxiety”, “Positive Affect”, “The Feeling of Being a Good Woman/Good Parent”, “Addiction”, “Wondering About Others”, “Temporary Happiness”, and “Neutral Effect” effects were found. In the absence of sharing, the effects of “Neutral Effect”, “Impulse to Share”, and “Feeling Inadequate” were determined. The findings are presented by giving exemplary quotations for each theme.
... Outra pesquisa, também de 2010, do Instituto AVG Technologies, apurou que as crianças adquirem identidade virtual com seis meses de vida, em média. No entanto, essa identidade digital pode ter início até antes do nascimento da criança, quando os genitores compartilham ultrassonografias de seus bebês (BROSCH, 2016). ...
... Também surgiram novos perigos, como cita Brosch ao falar sobre o "digital kidnapping" 2 , que ocorre quando estranhos roubam as fotos dos bebês alheios e repostam na internet como se fossem seus próprios filhos (BROSCH, 2016). Steinberg exemplifica o sequestro digital ao relatar o caso de Paris, uma mãe que, após postar uma foto de sua filha no Facebook, recebeu um "like" de um usuário que não conhecia. ...
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A rede mundial de computadores conquistou a maior parte da população, que já naturalizou a criação de um perfil virtual correspondente à pessoa real de cada um, utilizado para publicar textos, fotos e vídeos que podem ficar à disposição do mundo todo, ao alcance de um clique. Muitos pais, inclusive, adquiriram o hábito de postar conteúdos que contém informações privadas de seus filhos, por vezes desde antes de seu nascimento, fenômeno que ganhou o nome de sharenting. O presente trabalho busca identificar se o sharenting pode violar direitos da personalidade da criança e de que forma esses direitos podem ser salvaguardados. A metodologia utilizada é descritiva e qualitativa, com pesquisa bibliográfica. Os resultados mostraram que o sharenting pode violar os direitos da personalidade das crianças e adolescentes, como o direito à privacidade, à imagem e à intimidade, que podem ser salvaguardados através da imposição de limites ao sharenting.
... Research shows that parents who use Facebook have 200 or more friends on the platform on average, and this includes people that they would not consider as friends in the offline world 9 . Many parents have profiles that have minimal privacy settings, making the shared content accessible to more people than they think. ...
... Dijitalleşme, ebeveynlere yeni görev ve sorumluluklar yüklemektedir. Yaşadığımız çağda ebeveynler öncelikli olarak çocuklarını dijital kültüre uygun olarak yetiştirmek zorundadır (Brosch, 2016). Baumrind (1972) ebeveynlerin çocuk yetiştirme ile ilgili tutum ve davranışlarını "parenting style" (çocuk yetiştirme stilleri) olarak adlandırmıştır. ...
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Sharenting which in this study is viewed as an evolving social media practice of sharing personal information of the child on social media spaces by parent(s) or guardian(s) is gaining increasing gratifications among African social media users. However, critics have argued that in spite of any justification or gratifications derivable from sharenting, that it largely translate to ignorance- ridden breach of the child’s right to privacy, dignity and reputation. Consequently, the study aimed at: determineing the level of knowledge in social media use among parents in Ebonyi State,ascertaining the extent to which parents engage in social media sharentingin Ebonyi State determining the major gratifications that parents in Ebonyi State get from sharenting and ascertaining the extent to which parents in Ebonyi State know that sharenting violates a child’s right to privacy. Survey research design was adopted for the study. Consequently, a sample size of 398 adult respondents was drawn through the use of online Australian calculator from the projected 2,917,479 adult population of Ebonyi State as at 2022. 385 copies of the questionnaire distributed were validly filled and retrieved. The findings of the study suggest that: majority (84%) of the parents in Ebonyi State, Nigeria admitted that they have knowledge of social media use, majority of them (97%%) also admitted that they engage is sharenting, 65% of them said that they sharent for the purpose of showing love to the child and as well, express gratitude to God for the gift of the child and more than half of the them cannot explain if sharenting violates the child’s rights including right to privacy. We therefore, recommended that: Ebonyi State Ministry of Education in conjunction with Ministry of Justice should embark on school to school sensitization of pupils and secondary school students on the dangers of sharenting and Governments in Ebonyiand relevant security agencies should seek intervention of churches, opinion leaders to mobilise parents across the state against irresponsible sharenting.
Conference Paper
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O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a influência digital mirim no Instagram, tema instaurado no cerne de estudos acerca de cultura digital, consumo e celebridades. Utilizando uma abordagem quantitativa e exploratória, visou-se mapear quem são os principais influenciadores mirins brasileiros por meio de um levantamento on-line (KOZINETS, 2014) realizado na lista “Os 1000 principais influenciadores do Instagram”, disponibilizada pelo site HypeAuditor. Com base no extenso material obtido, realizou-se uma pesquisa amostral que possibilitou a formulação de inferências sobre o fenômeno midiático no contexto brasileiro. Palavras-chave: Infância; Influenciadores mirins; Instagram.
Günümüzün dijital ebeveynleri Instagram’da çocuklarına ait görsel ve bilgileri herkese açık bir şekilde paylaşmaktadır. Çocukların ve ailelerin adına oluşturulan hesaplardan çocuklara ait içeriklerin paylaşılması sharenting olarak adlandırılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Instagram’da “child” hashtagi kullanılarak paylaşılan içerikler netnografik yöntem kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Çalışmada ebeveynlerin sharenting aracılığıyla oluşturdukları içeriklerin belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Bu bakımdan Instagram’da 1-15 Haziran 2023 tarihleri arasında “child” hashtagi kullanılarak paylaşılmış olan 6134 gönderi incelenmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda ebeveynlerin Instagram’da “çocukları” ve “aileleri” adına hesaplar oluşturup paylaşım yaptığı belirlenmiştir. Paylaşımlar içerik bakımından değerlendirildiğinde ise sharenting aracılığıyla çocukların birer ticari “meta” olarak kullanıldığı belirlenmiştir. Bunun yanı sıra oluşturulan içeriklerle ebeveynler ideal ebeveyn imajı oluşturmak için sharentingi temsil aracı olarak kullanırken, çocuklarına ait paylaştığı özel görüntü ve bilgilerle çocukların mahremiyetini ihlal ettiği belirlenmiştir. Instagram’da çocukların farkında ve rızası olmadan paylaşılan içerikler, çocukların gelecekteki yaşlarında psikolojik sorunlara yol açabileceği gibi aynı zamanda çocuklar adına ailelerin bir karar merci olarak dijital kimlik oluşturması da sharentingin olumsuz sonuçlarını göstermektedir.
Yapılan çalışmada okul öncesi dönemde çocuğu bulunan anne-babaların çocukların sosyal medya kullanımlarına yönelik düşüncelerini ölçen bir ölçek geliştirmektir. Ölçek maddeleri literatür çalışması sonucunda hazırlanmış ve maddelerin yapı ve kapsam geçerliğini sağlamak için maddeler, 5 alan uzmanının görüşüne sunulmuştur. Gerekli düzenlemelerle 34 maddeden oluşan ölçek için 2020-2021 eğitim öğretim yılında 317 anne-babadan veri toplanmıştır. Araştırma katılımcılarına uygun örneklem yolu ile ulaşılmıştır. Ölçek maddelerinin faktör analizine uygunluğuna bakmak için Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) ve Bartlett testleri yapılmıştır. KMO uyum ölçüsü değeri, 904 olarak bulunmuş ve Barlett Küresellik Testi değeri 3498,913 olarak bulunmuş olup ,00 düzeyinde anlamlıdır. Yapılan faktör analizi neticesinde 26 maddeden oluşan tek faktörlü bir ölçeğe ulaşılmıştır ve faktör yük değerleri incelendiğinde, değerlerin 0,44 ile 0,82 arasında değiştiği görülmüştür. Yapılan doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda örneklemde elde edilen verilerin modele uyum göstermiştir (X2/df = 2,31, RMSEA=0,095). Ölçeğe ilişkin hesaplanan Cronbach alpha katsayısı 0,95 iken McDonald ɷ katsayısı 0,96 olarak bulunmuş ve bu doğrultuda verilerin yüksek güvenirliğe sahip olduğu yorumu yapılmıştır.
Social media technologies such as YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook promised a new participatory online culture. Yet, technology insider Alice Marwick contends in this insightful book, "Web 2.0" only encouraged a preoccupation with status and attention. Her original research-which includes conversations with entrepreneurs, Internet celebrities, and Silicon Valley journalists-explores the culture and ideology of San Francisco's tech community in the period between the dot com boom and the App store, when the city was the world's center of social media development.Marwick argues that early revolutionary goals have failed to materialize: while many continue to view social media as democratic, these technologies instead turn users into marketers and self-promoters, and leave technology companies poised to violate privacy and to prioritize profits over participation. Marwick analyzes status-building techniques-such as self-branding, micro-celebrity, and life-streaming-to show that Web 2.0 did not provide a cultural revolution, but only furthered inequality and einforced traditional social stratification, demarcated by race, class, and gender.
New parents' Facebook use was examined from a social capital perspective. Surveys regarding Facebook use and parenting satisfaction, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting stress were completed by 154 mothers and 150 fathers as part of a larger study of dual-earner, Mid-western U.S. couples making the transition to parenthood. Results indicated that mothers used Facebook more than fathers, and that mothers perceived an increase in use over the transition. When more of mothers' Facebook friends were family members or relatives, and when fathers reported connecting with more of their Facebook friends outside of Facebook, they reported better parental adjustment. For mothers, however, more frequent visits to Facebook accounts and more frequent content management were each associated with higher levels of parenting stress.
Communities started changing from groups to networks well before the advent of the Internet. Initially, people believed that industrialization and bureaucratization would dissolve community groups and leave only isolated, alienated individuals. Then scholars discovered that communities continued, but more as sparsely-knit, spatiallydispersed social networks rather than as densely-knit, village-like local groups. A similar debate has developed about the impact of the Internet on community. Some fear that it will isolate people from face-to-face interactions. Others extol the Internet's ability to support far-flung communities of shared interest.
AVG Digital Diaries -digital birth
  • Avg Technologies
AVG TECHNOLOGIES (2010). AVG Digital Diaries -digital birth. Retrieved 11/01/2016, from
Parents on Social Media: Likes and Dislikes of Sharenting, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital. University of Michigan System Retrieved 29 Authenticity Online: Using Webnography to Address Phenomenological Concerns
  • M M Davis
Davis, M.M. (2015). Parents on Social Media: Likes and Dislikes of Sharenting, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital. University of Michigan System. 23 (2). Retrieved 29/12/2015, from Evans, L.(2010). Authenticity Online: Using Webnography to Address Phenomenological Concerns, In: A. Mousoutzanis & D. Riha, New Media and the Politics of Online Communities, Inter-Disciplinary Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.