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Abstract

Genres are constituted by stages that fulfil different functions within the whole text and each stage has particular realizations at the lexico-grammatical and semantic strata in relation to that function. Genre studies describe these patterns with little or no reference to their realization at the level of phonology. On the other hand, phonological studies rarely refer to communicative functions in terms of linguistic genres. There are studies that refer to different choices in tonality and tonicity which affect stretches of discourse larger than the tone unit. Some of these studies relate intonation choices to the textual structure positing the notion of paratone. The aim of this paper is to enquire whether it is possible to find correlations between phonological realizations and specific generic functions in different stages of the discourse. It explores the relationship between prosodic and generic configurations in general interest interviews from a BBC programme. The corpus is analysed showing generic configurations and both auditory and instrumental analysis are used for the phonological study. The preliminary conclusions reached show that intonation choices tend to have a role in signalling textual and interpersonal meanings within generic structures together with, and independently from, lexico-grammatical choices.
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https://www.academia.edu/30711759/Volume_10_Number_2_Upload_Date_01_Janu
ary_2017_
... Something similar happens with the few studies of intonation related to genre from the systemic-functional perspective (e.g. Rivas and Germani 2016), since genre conceptualization in Systemic-Functional Linguistics (Martin et al. 1987) departs from our research interests. Finally, O'Grady (2020) has recently argued for register studies to incorporate prosodic analysis. ...
Article
Ignacio Guillén Galve Miguel A. Vela-Tafalla University of Zaragoza, Spain ABSTRACT The digital multimedia environment where research communication develops nowadays has important consequences for EAP course design (Pérez-Llantada 2016), since speaking and visuals are ever more decisive for communicative success (Crawford-Camiciottoli and Fortanet-Gómez 2015). However, intonation manuals have remained virtually unchanged for decades, reflecting a time of limited access to actual academic intonation in use. To countervail this situation, we draw on Hafner’s (2018) multimodal analysis of experimental biology Video Methods Articles by examining the intonation used in an exploratory corpus of the Researcher’s Introduction section, identified as the most hybrid in generic nature. Our analysis suggests that traditional Hallidayan intonation explained in handbooks like Hewings (2007) and Brazil (1994) fails to capture phenomena observed in our corpus. These intonational phenomena (mostly deviations from traditional tonicity) have been found to be consistent with genre-specific factors like communicative purpose and move structure. Consequently, a broader revision of academic intonation materials is proposed.
... The context-first approach has motivated genre studies in ESP to move beyond linguistic descriptions, and researchers working in this camp are more interested in finding (1) why a given genre is shaped as it is, and (2) how it achieves its goals. As Paltridge (2013) noted, there are still researchers (e.g., Martin & Rose, 2008) who prefer the text-first approach, but they draw on Halliday's systemic functional framework (Halliday, 1985(Halliday, , 1994Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004) for text analysis, and use 'schematic structure' rather than 'genre' to refer to the discourse structure of texts (See also Gonzalez, 2016;Heberle & Morgado, 2016;Hood & Lander, 2016;Jesus et al., 2016;Macken-Horarik & Sandiford, 2016;McQueen, 2016;Oteiza & Pinuer, 2016;Rivas & Germani, 2016;Shum et al., 2016;Tehseem, 2016;Zuppa & Rezzano, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
English for specific purposes (ESP) began around fifty years ago as a result of pressing worldwide demands for fast-paced language training in occupational and professional settings, rapid revolutions in theoretical linguistics, and burgeoning pressures on schools and educators to focus on, and to be responsive to, learners’ needs. It started within the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) but has gradually established itself as an autonomous subfield of Applied Linguistics (AL). This paper will review the origins, evolution, and status quo of ESP, and then predict the future directions of this important field. The theoretical, analytical, and methodological evolutions of ESP are reviewed, the positions of genre analysis, target language use situation analysis, and context in ESP are described, the ‘just-in-case’ EAP and ‘just-in-time’ EOP approaches are compared, and the text-first and context-first approaches to discourse structure analysis are compared. The paper predicts that ESP will adopt a wide-angled epistemological stance to survey the (a) discursive, (b) generic, (c) social, and (d) organizational structures of specialized texts and discourses, as well as those of texts and discourses simplified for the popularization of science, in a systematic and contextualized manner. ESP practitioners are also warned about the potential threats of teaching genres of power within ESP. ----------->[CITATION IN APA STYLE] Salmani Nodoushan, M. A. (2020). English for Specific Purposes: Traditions, trends, directions. Studies in English Language and Education, 7(1), 247-268.
... The remaining 37.5% showed mid Key, and these cases usually corresponded to stages or phases which were very short. (Rivas & Germani, 2016). ...
... The remaining 37.5% showed mid Key, and these cases usually corresponded to stages or phases which were very short. (Rivas & Germani, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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This pilot study aims to gain some insights of the evaluative strategies in English and Chinese used by three multinational luxury clothing companies: Chanel, Dior, and Louis Vuitton. Data are the English and Chinese blog entries taken from these companies’ online corporate blogs. Texts totalling 914 English words and 939 Chinese words are examined. To examine evaluation in this study, Martin and White’s (2005) Appraisal theory is adopted. According to White (2015), the analytical framework of Appraisal theory should be regarded as an ever-developing research project, and it can and should be adapted to fit the analysis of texts in different contexts (Hommerberg & Don, 2015; Macken-Horarik & Issac, 2014). For this reason, an adapted Appreciation framework of Appraisal theory, containing some luxury and fashion specific sub-types, is employed because this study focuses on the evaluation of artefacts in the luxury clothing industry. The finding suggests that the Chinese data contains substantially more Reaction, the only form of Appreciation that is related to emotion, than the English data. Therefore, this study concludes that the text producers of the Chinese data may take a relatively more emotional approach to persuade than the text producers of the English data. It highlights the flexibility of the Appraisal framework by a field-specific and bilingual application and it draws attention to the different evaluative strategies used in the English and Chinese data even where the targets of evaluation are the same.
... The remaining 37.5% showed mid Key, and these cases usually corresponded to stages or phases which were very short. (Rivas & Germani, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study attempts to explore how Alternative Joint Construction (AJC) can improve the fifth semester-English-Education-Department students’ academic descriptive writing in large Indonesian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Classrooms with Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and a Genre-Based Approach (GBA). AJC combines Derewianka’s (1999) whole-class-model and Emilia’s (2010) small-group-model of Joint Construction to be a Group Class-Group-Class (GCGC) model that merges the advantages of those models. The implementations of traditional Joint Construction caused serious problems: teachers’ difficulties in guiding, supervising, and providing feedback to the students’ Joint Construction due to the big number of students. Therefore, previously identified issues with the students’ descriptive writing—such as (1) the students’ incohesive and incoherent flow of information exchange, (2) the red herring of a personal perspective, and (3) lexicogrammatical issues—were not optimally improved. The result of this case study shows that AJC eliminates various problems in the implementation of traditional Joint Construction. The students’ writing also improved in some respects: (1) more cohesive and coherent text, (2) a less personal perspective, and (3) lexicogrammatical improvement in some parts of their writing. In sum, Joint Construction with the GCGC model is recommended for teaching academic descriptive writing in large EFL classrooms with similar characteristics to this Indonesian context.
... The remaining 37.5% showed mid Key, and these cases usually corresponded to stages or phases which were very short. (Rivas & Germani, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This pilot study aims to gain some insights of the evaluative strategies in English and Chinese used by three multinational luxury clothing companies: Chanel, Dior, and Louis Vuitton. Data are the English and Chinese blog entries taken from these companies’ online corporate blogs. Texts totalling 914 English words and 939 Chinese words are examined. To examine evaluation in this study, Martin and White’s (2005) Appraisal theory is adopted. According to White (2015), the analytical framework of Appraisal theory should be regarded as an ever-developing research project, and it can and should be adapted to fit the analysis of texts in different contexts (Hommerberg & Don, 2015; Macken-Horarik & Issac, 2014). For this reason, an adapted Appreciation framework of Appraisal theory, containing some luxury and fashion specific subtypes, is employed because this study focuses on the evaluation of artefacts in the luxury clothing industry. The finding suggests that the Chinese data contains substantially more Reaction, the only form of Appreciation that is related to emotion, than the English data. Therefore, this study concludes that the text producers of the Chinese data may take a relatively more emotional approach to persuade than the text producers of the English data. It highlights the flexibility of the Appraisal framework by a field-specific and bilingual application and it draws attention to the different evaluative strategies used in the English and Chinese data even where the targets of evaluation are the same.
... The remaining 37.5% showed mid Key, and these cases usually corresponded to stages or phases which were very short. (Rivas & Germani, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Discourses have been extensively described in terms of their generic configurations: stages and phases of genres have been characterized according to the functions they fulfil within the text as a whole, and the choices made in the lexico-grammar and the semantics have been explored; but little has been said about the phonological realizations of genres in oral texts. In the understanding that ‘the prosodic resources of the phonological system, its intonation and rhythm, are [...] central to the workings of a language [...]’ and that ‘phonology is an essential component in the making of meaning’ (Halliday & Greaves, 2008, pp. 74, 79) we set out to explore oral texts, looking for correspondences between the lexico-grammatical and semantic patterns described and their phonological realizations. Our analysis has been based mainly on the developments in SFL phonology and on Discourse Intonation Theory, and we have observed linguistic features within the systems of Tonality, Tonicity and Tone, and paralinguistic ones, concerning tempo, articulation, extension of segments, volume, pitch span, among others. Our auditory perceptions have been validated by means of the computer software Praat. As a result, we have found some consistent tendencies in the realizations of both textual and interpersonal meanings through particular phonological choices.
... The three female teachers participated in individual interviews following Rivas' and Germani's (2016) suggestions.. These interviews were conducted by one of the researchers, and held at the teachers' convenience. ...
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In Second Language Acquisition, there is an emerging amount of research which argues that beliefs heavily influence the effectiveness of classroom interactions. However, the extent to which teacher’s and learners’ beliefs impact on speaking practice—i.e., interactions during which learners mostly develop communicative competence in the foreign language classroom—is still not known. Following the claim that any understanding of why teachers and learners behave in the way they do requires an investigation of their underlying beliefs, the present study aims to enhance our knowledge of how the beliefs that teachers and learners have concerning interactions for speaking practice may conflict with pedagogical principles that teachers and learners simultaneously endorse. In exploring perceptual data from teacher interviews and learner focus groups, the findings suggest that teacher and learner beliefs surrounding speaking practice are intricate, and potentially influential in ways that contradict teachers’ and learners’ pedagogical principles regarding communicative approaches. These findings provide an important opportunity to direct our attention towards the effects of beliefs on teaching and learning practices which follow communicative principles, and ways through which teachers and learners can make the most of effective interactional and learning opportunities during speaking practice.
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This is a bibliographical list of (applied) linguistics research in Iran and by Iranian and foreign professors.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.