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In the current survey the natural environment¸ socio and
economic factors of the sustainable agriculture were the
dependent variables measured by the perceptions of
respondents, and the independent variables were the
knowledge about the farming and social, economic and
There was defined the α coefficient of Chronbach which
showed the high reliability of the study.
The descriptive study showed that the respondents were
male, with average age of 50 years old, and 90% had no
university diploma. Majority of farmers had more than 18
years working experience. The questionnaire also had the
following items: working experience, type of product, the total
area of the land plot (Chart 1 and Chart 2).
Many experts consider that small countries have good
chances to get competitive position if they move toward
the sustainable agriculture.
In Georgia most farmers don’t have initial money to start
their own business, but they can use cheap working
power (in many cases their own family members),
Unique natural recourses of country increases their
chances to become competitive producer and exporter
of bio products to Europe.
There is no real support from Georgian government - the
law “Biological Agriculture” defining the main principles
of organic production was planned to take effect in 2012,
but it has not joined into force until now.
The problems impeding the farmers to start bio
agriculture are quite many; The number of bio farms is
not increasing and the initial interest was lost. So our
attempt was to find reasons and factors putting
obstacles in the way of bio production.
First part of the study (June-July 2011) - was conducted
the pilot survey involving 30 farmers in Kakheti region of
Georgia and aiming to find out the opinion of farmers
about the social, economic and environmental issues of
Second part - conducted in October 2011-March 2012 -
survey of 125 farmers from different regions of Georgia
– Shida Kartli (25 farmers), Kveda Kartli (35) and Imereti
Production of organic products is alternative, modern
system of agricultural products production, which has
steadily increasing economic potential.
Our recent researches show that the rapid increase in
production of organic products could be a good
alternative for agricultural development of Georgia, but
the growth rate of bio production is quite low than
expected. So, the aim of this study was to find the main
socio economic factors which predetermine low growth
rate of bio production.
Study objective: To define the factors affecting the
social, economic and environmental aspects of the
sustainable agriculture and their analysis.
Methodology: The choice of respondents was made by
the “snowball sampling” ; the data was collected
through the interviews.
The data obtained from the survey were analyzed with
SPSS. There was conducted the interpretation of the
results and accent was made on the use of quantitative
The focus was set on the statistical conclusion -
defining the factors. We have use the descriptive
The questionnaire consisted of semantically different
(yes/now) answers and Likert-type scale (it allows to
measure the level of agreement or disagreement of
respondent). First part of the questionnaire deals with
the personal information of respondents, second part –
farmer’s opinion about the socio-economic aspects of
The variables include the factors affecting the
ecological, economic and social aspects, also the
educational, political and farming means.
The measurement units were five-level Likert item. The
respondents were asked to mark the level of agreement
or disagreement of the statement.
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The green farming could be developed only if the
following problems will be solved systematically:
1.Qualification: The knowledge about the bio production,
bio products, problems connected with the transfer to
the green farming and corresponding qualification
2. Support: In the transition period from regular to green
farming farmers should have the sufficient financial aid.
3.Certification – The guarantees of recognizing
production as bio products, if they are produced
according to all requirements of green farming.
. Sales: Providing help in finding the potential markets
for bio products.
Green farming has the chance to flourish only in case of
the strong support from the government and the Ministry
Three main ways of improving the current situation:
1. Organizing help for the small farmers, pheasants in
1. Organizing help for the small farmers, pheasants in
finding markets for bio products
finding markets for bio products - this will change the
attitude of population toward the green farming.
2. Yield insurance
2. Yield insurance – important for the encouraging the
farmers to switch on the green farming feeling safe.
3. Education and information spreading
3. Education and information spreading - to give the
pheasants and farmers information about newest
technologies in green farming.
Regarding the policy making - Government should
explore ways to increase the participation of farmers in
planning, implementing and evaluating programs related
to sustainable agriculture. This could speed up the
adoption of new methods of sustainable agriculture and
facilitate the exchange of ideas among various
The research shows that the most influential are the
economic factors and the least are the social factors.
Amongst the environmental factors the highest priority
was defined for the improving the quality of soil and the
lower priority for the improving the quality of water.
The utmost priority is to decrease the economic risks
and the lesser to improve the social conditions.
The survey of environmental and social factors shows
that the higher priority is given to the environment and
the lowest to social.
Chart 3 - The means of
respondents views about the
factors affecting the
Chart 4 – Respondents opinion
about the importance of
environmental, Economic and
Social aspects of sustainable
Chart 1- Age of owners Chart 2- Working experience
From all factors affecting the sustainable agriculture the most
significant were the following 5: Economic, Social, Farming,
Policy making and education factors. As we can see from the
survey the highest mean number refers to economic factors (4.36)
and the lowest mean to social factors (3.12).
The results show that farmers consider the implementation of
new farming methods an essential step due to economic factors,
while the social factors are not so important element for
Regarding the respondents perception about the aspects of
environment in sustainable agriculture - the highest mean refers
to maintain or improve the quality of soil (3.78) and the lowest
mean refers to maintain the quality of water (mean = 3.78).
Regarding perception of respondents about social aspect of
sustainable agriculture, the highest mean refers to decrease risk
and hazard of production (mean=3.97) and the lowest mean refers
to enhance equity between farmer, self-reliance and improve
welfare and quality of living (mean = 3.92).
The perception of respondents about sustainable agriculture
considering environmental, economical and social aspect of
sustainable agriculture was displayed in Chart 4.