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Sweet lime (Citrus limettarisso) is also known as ‘Mosambi’ in the Indian subcontinent region. It has multiple pharmacological effects and its constituents are extensively utilized for many clinical applications. Traditionally it has been widely used in the treatment of the scurvy, indigestion and constipation, diabetes, ulcers, urinary disorder and for improvement of immune system. Advancement in analytical techniques led to identification of multiple constituents among which d-limonene was found to be in abundant. Being chief component of Citrus limetta and having better pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of d-limonene, it is worth full to explore it in detail. This study is focused on highlighting the phytochemical investigations, traditional uses and clinical applications of Citrus limetta as well as its chief constituent-limonene, which provides approval for further pharmacological and clinical investigations. © 2016, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. All Right Reserved.
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Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2016, 8(3):555-563
Review Article
ISSN : 0975-7384
CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5
555
Phytochemical and pharmacological properties on Citrus limetta (Mosambi)
Ahmed Abdullah Khan*
1
, Tarique Mahmood
1
, Hefazat H. Siddiqui
1
and Juber Akhtar
2
1
Department of Pharmacology, Integral University, Lucknow, India
2
Department of Pharmaceutics, Integral University, Lucknow, India
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
ABSTRACT
Sweet lime (Citrus limettarisso) is also known as ‘Mosambiin the Indian subcontinent region. It has multiple
pharmacological effects and its constituents are extensively utilized for many clinical applications. Traditionally it
has been widely used in the treatment of the scurvy, indigestion and constipation, diabetes, ulcers, urinary disorder
and for improvement of immune system. Advancement in analytical techniques led to identification of multiple
constituents among which d-limonene was found to be in abundant. Being chief component of Citrus limetta and
having better pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of d-limonene, it is worth full to explore it in
detail. This study is focused on highlighting the phytochemical investigations, traditional uses and clinical
applications of Citrus limetta as well as its chief constituent-limonene, which provides approval for further
pharmacological and clinical investigations.
Keywords: Sweet lime, Mosambi, D-limonene, Vitamin C, Antioxidant, Scurvy treatment
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
INTRODUCTION
Plants existed on the face of this earth since time immemorial and from ancient times human beings and animals are
getting benefits from them in some or other way. In fact plants make earth worth living. The World Health
Organization (WHO) estimates that about 80% of the population of the world still depends upon the herbal
medicines for the treatment of various diseases due to easy availability, economic reasons and less side
effects[1].Herbal medicines have made the basis of traditional systems of medicine for ages and have made a non-
voidable place in modern pharmacology [1].
The sweet lime (Citrus limettarisso), is commonly known as “Mosambi” in Indian subcontinent. It is native to Asia
and best cultivated in India, China, southern Japan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. This fruit is eaten
fresh or squeezed to make juice, a rich source of vitamin C and replenish energy [2,3].
Citrus fruit juice finds its place as the major constituent product of the juice and food industry around the world.
Along with the juice, fruit peel which is a waste to the juice industry is the main source of flavonoids, pectin and
essential oils [4]. Peel oil have a strong aroma and refreshing effect and used as flavoring agent in different
industries like food, beverages and pharmaceutical industries. Aromatic oils are considered to be safe due to their
wide spectrum of biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and as anxiolytic. Citrus
fruits generally composed of 90% terpenes, 5% oxygenated compounds and less than 1% non-volatile compounds
such as waxes and pigments [5]. D-limonene, the most abundant terpene has antimicrobial properties, primarily the
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exhibition of antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and also increases the effectiveness of sodium
benzoate as a preservative [6-8].
Table 1. Botanical classification of Citrus limetta
Kingdom Plantae
Division
Magnoliophyta
Class Dicotyledons
Sub class Sapindales
Order Rosidae
Family Rutaceae
Sub family Aurantoideae
Genera Citrus
Sub genera Papeda
Species Limetta
2. Geographical distribution:
The Mosambi fruit which is also known as sweet lime is a native plant of Asia and it is best cultivated in India,
China, south Japan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand.
1. Synonyms
Citrus limetta is commonly known as sweet lime, sweet lemon and sweet limetta. It is called by different names in
different parts of the world.
Table 2. Synonyms of Citrus limetta across the world
Iran
Limushirin
North India
Mausambi, mosambi or mosambi
South India Moossambi (Kannada & Malayalam)
Bathayakayalu (Telugu)
SathuKudi (Tamil)
Nepal Mausam
Sindh Mosami
France Bergamot
(a) (b)
Figure 1. Citrus limetta fruit and peel
4. Phytochemical analysis
Natural products are chemical compounds found in nature and they possess multiple pharmacological activities.
These natural products are used in drug discovery and drug design. Separation of single molecular entity is very
difficult from complex mixtures containing fats, oils, alkaloid, tannins and glycoside. In 1803 the first alkaloid
nicotine was separated followed by morphine, strychnine, emetine and many others.
There are various classes of phytoconstituents like Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Phenolic, Tannins, Terpenes,
Saponins, Anthraquinones, Essential oils and Steroids. On a complete basis the phytochemical investigation of a
plant involves the selection, collection, identification and authentication, extraction of the plant material (first
fractionation), fractionation/separation (second fractionation) and isolation (third fractionation) of the constituents,
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characterization of the isolated compounds and investigation of the biosynthetic pathways of particular compound,
quantitative evaluations and pharmacological activities. After selection, collection, identification and authentication
of the plant drug there comes extraction and isolation of the phytoconstituents [9]. Out of many techniques available
for isolation of a compound many researchers have taken Gas chromatography along with Mass spectrophotometry
of the phytochemicals present in Citrus limetta peel essential oil. Various compounds have been identified by the
process of Mass spectrophotometry. Till now about 30 compounds have been identified in various studies.
Limonene is the main component of the citrus peel oils and it ranges from 40-95% in concentration in citrus fruits.
Table 3. Chemical composition of the Citrus limetta peel as analyzed by GCMS[2]
S. No Retention time Active constituents Quantity (%)
1 11.32 d-limonene 78.3
2 14.59 Bergamol 6.21
3 9.14 β-pinene 5.6
4 14.51 Linalool 5.15
5 7.54 α-pinene 1.58
6 11.51 1,8 cineole 0.76
7 14.60 α-terpineol 0.51
8
21.50
Neral
0.28
9 22.31 Geranial 0.21
10 31.72 β-Bisabolol 0.10
11 30.03 β-Bisabolene 0.10
12 9.78 β-Myrcene 0.08
13
10.30
Sabinene
0.08
14
16.95
Citronellal
0.07
15 15.06 α-Terpineol acetate 0.06
16 8.07 Camphene 0.06
17 31.72 α-Bisabolol 0.05
18 31.80 Bicyclogermacerene 0.03
19
20.97
Farnesol
0.03
20
51.07
Terpinen
-
4
-
ol
0.03
21 14.59 Trans-nerodilol 0.03
22 53.01 β Farnesene 0.03
23 10.29 Nonanal 0.01
24 44.30 Phytol 0.01
25
34.07
Hinesol
0.01
26
10.11
α
-
phellandrene
0.01
27 17.57 Borneol 0.01
28 42.10 Myrcenil acetate 0.01
29 27.09 β-Santalene 0.01
2. Introduction and pharmacokinetic of d-limonene
It is one of the most common terpenes in nature. It has the molecular formula (1-methyl-4-(1-methylethynyl)
cyclohexane. It is a monocyclic monoterpene with a lemon like odor and is major constituent in several citrus oils
like orange, lemon, mandarin, and grape fruit. Because of its pleasant citrus fragrance additive in perfumes, soaps,
foods, chewing gum and beverages. d-limonene is listed in the code of federal regulations as generally recognized as
safe (GRAS) for a flavoring agent [10].
Oral administration of d-limonene is rapidly and almost completely absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in humans
as well as animals [11-14].It is rapidly distributed to different tissues in the body and is readily metabolized. d-
limonene or its metabolite are detectable in serum, liver, lung, kidney, and many other tissues [11], with higher
concentration in adipose tissues and mammary glands than in less fatty tissues [13]. Half-life ofd-limonene is
metabolized to oxygenated metabolites in rats and humans. In humans, the predominant circulating metabolites and
perillic acid, dihydroperillic acid and limonene-1,2-diol. Other metabolites in plasma include limonene 3-9-diol and
perillic acid isomer [14-16].
5. Safety and Toxicity issues of d-limonene
d-limonene is considered to have fairly low toxicity when tested for carcinogenicity in mice and rats. Although
initial results showed d-limonene increased the incidence of renal tubular tumors. Subsequent studies have
determined the pathogenesis and further suggested that d-limonene does not pose a mutagenic, carcinogenic or
nephrotoxic risk to humans. In humans, d-limonene has demonstrated low toxicity after single and repeated dosing
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for up to one year. The oral dose LD
50
for d-limonene in male and female mice is reported to be 5.6 to 6.6 g/kg body
weight, respectively while LD
50
in male and female rats is reported to be 404 and 5.1 g/kg body weight respectively.
The toxicity of d-limonene at doses ranging from 413-6600 mg/kg daily administered to rats and mice five
days/week for 3 weeks. No sign of compound related toxicity were noted at doses <1650 mg/kg daily [17, 18].
Another study observed decreased weight gain and even death in male rats starting at a dose of 600 mg/kg daily and
at dose reached 1200-2400 mg/kg/day rats developed rough hair coats, lethargy and excessive lacrimation.
Nephropathy was noted in all male rats at the end of the study. In the case of mice decreased body weight, lethargy
and rough hair coats were observed at (1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day [17-19]. Whereas in a chronic study of two years,
female rat given 600 mg/kg daily experienced significantly lower survival compared to controls [18].
5.1. Human Safety Studies
In a study for the human safety study performed on five healthy subjects by giving a single dose of 20 g d-limonene
it was observed that subjects complained about increased bowel movements (2-3 times daily) and tenesmus, blood
tests showed no abnormalities in liver (total protein, bilirubin, cholesterol, AST,ALT, and alkaline phosphatase),
kidney (BUN), or pancreatic (amylase) functions [20].d-limonene has also been found to be safe, without gradable
toxicity, when 100 mg/kg (equivalent to about 7 g for an average adult male) was ingested. Only mild eructation for
1-4 hours post-ingestion, mild satiety for 10 hours post-ingestion, and slight fatigue for four hours post-ingestion
were reported [15].
In a dose escalation study of 32 subjects with refractory solid tumors, d-limonene was given orally at0.5-12
g/m2/day (1-24 g/day, considering an average area per person is 1.9 m
2
). Patients initially received d-limonene for
21 days. The maximum tolerated oral dose was 8 g/m
2
/day (15 g/day). Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were the only
side effects observed and were dose dependent. One breast cancer patient was on the dose of 8 g/m
2
/day (15 g/day)
for 11 months. The authors concluded that d-limonene had low toxicity after single and repeated dosing for up to
one year [14].
Nephropathy seen in rats on high-dose of d- limonene does not appear to be possible in humans, since neither the
quantity nor type of protein that binds d-limonene or d-limonene-1,2-oxide is present. The protein content of human
urine is very different from rat urine, as humans excrete very little protein if any (1percent or less of the
concentration found in urine of male rats). There is also no protein in human plasma or urine identical to α
2u
-
globulin and no α
2u
-g-like protein has been detected in human kidney tissue. AlthoughD-limonene-1,2-oxide binds
to α
2u
-g, no other proteins, particularly those synthesized by humans, bindd-limonene-1,2-oxide. Finally, there is no
evidence that any human protein can contribute to a renal syndrome similar to α
2u
-globulin nephropathy [18, 19].
6. Clinical applications
Because it is a solvent of cholesterol, d-limonene (in-vitro)has been clinically used to dissolve cholesterol-
containing gallstones. It has also been used to relieve heartburn, because of its potential for gastric acid
neutralization and its support for healthy peristalsis. d-limonene has potent anticancer activity which were
established through different cancer model studies as well as through clinical trials like evidence from a phase I
clinical trial shows a partial response in a patient with breast cancer and stable disease for more than six months in
three patients with colorectal cancer [10].
6.1. Gallstone dissolution
In an in vitro study performed on d-limonene, it was observed that it could dissolve human gallstones within two
hours [21]. In animals, infusion of d-limonene into the gallbladder dissolved and disintegrated gallstones, which
were excreted through the common bile duct [21]. In patients post gallstone surgery, infusion of20 mL d-limonene
every other day dissolved gallstones overlooked during surgery. In some patients gallstone dissolution occurred after
only three infusions [21].
6.2. Anticancer activity
Animal studies have set the stage for further investigation into the chemoprotective activity of d-limonene for
several types of cancer. Several studies suggested that inhibition of chemically-induced mammary cancer in rodents
administered either orange peel oil or pure d-limonene [22-25] caused inhibition in either the initiation or promotion
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phases, depending on the chemically-induced medium used [26-28]. Other experimental studies demonstrated that d-
limonene inhibited development of liver cancer, pulmonary adenoma, and for stomach tumors [29-31].
d-limonene induces phase I and phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome p450), which metabolize
carcinogens to less toxic forms and prevent the interaction of chemical carcinogens with DNA. d-limonene has been
shown to enhance gastrointestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity in rats [32]. It also inhibits tumor
cell proliferation, acceleration of the rate of tumor cell death and/or induction of tumor cell differentiation.
Furthermore, d-limonene inhibits protein isoprenylation. Many prenylated proteins regulate cell growth and/or
transformation. Impairment of prenylation of one or more of these proteins might account for the antitumor activity
of d-limonene [26]. It was found that d-limonene attenuates gastric cancer through increasing apoptosis, while
decreasing DNA synthesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity of cancer cells [27-28]. d-limonene inhibits
hepatocarcinogenesis via inhibition of cell proliferation, enhancement of apoptosis, and blockage of oncogene
expression [33-34]. d-limonene may also exhibit immune-modulating properties. One experimental study suggested
that increased survival in lymphoma-bearing mice placed on a high d-limonene diet. These mice also demonstrated
increased phagocytosis, microbicidal activity, and nitric oxide production [35].
6.3. Gastroesophageal reflux
d-limonene has been shown to be effective in relieving occasional heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disorder
(GERD). In a clinical setting, 19 adults suffering from chronic heartburn or GERD were invited to use d-limonene to
relieve their symptoms. All participants had a history of chronic heartburn or GERD, with symptoms ranging from
mild/moderate to severe for at least five years. Before taking d-limonene, each participant was asked to rate the
frequency and severity of symptoms on a scale of 1-10, with 1 corresponding to complete relief and 10
corresponding to severe and/ or painful symptoms that occur every day. Most participants had an initial severity and
frequency rating of 5 or greater. Participants were asked to discontinue current treatments (OTC and/or prescription
medications), take one capsule containing 1,000 mg d-limonene every day or every other day, and rate symptoms
daily using the frequency/severity index described above. On the second day of taking d-limonene, 32 percent of
participants experienced a significant relief of symptoms (severity rating=1-2); this relief rate improved gradually
during the regimen. By day 14, 89 percent of participants achieved complete relief of symptoms [36].
7. Pharmacological properties
Citrus flavonoids have a large spectrum of biological activity including antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic,
anticancer and antiviral activities [37, 38]. Flavonoids can function as direct antioxidants and free radical
scavengers, and have the capacity to modulate enzymatic activities and inhibit cell proliferation [39]. In plants, they
appear to play a defensive role against invading pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi [40].
7.1. Antibacterial and antifungal effects:
Even though pharmacological industries have produced a number of new antibiotics in the last three decades,
resistance to these drugs by microorganisms has increased. In general, bacteria have the genetic ability to transmit
and acquire resistance to drugs, which are utilized as therapeutic agents [41]. Above stated activities were shown by
the peel oil extract when applied against different food borne pathogens including bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356,
E. coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhymurium ATCC 14028 and fungi (Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Aspergillus
flavus ATCC 204304, Aspergillus fumigatus KM 8001, Aspergillus ficuum ATCC 66876, Aspergillus oryzae ATCC
10124, Fusarium oxysporum ATCC 48122, Penicillum digitatum ATCC 201167, Fusarium miniformes MAY 3629,
Fusarium saloni MAY 3636, Candida utilis ATCC 9950). It was found that peel oil exhibited maximum zone of
inhibition against B. cereus ATCC 6633 (26 mm) followed by S. aureus ATCC25923 (21 mm) after 48 hours of
incubation at 37
0
C, whereas the minimum zone of inhibition was shown by F. oxysporum ATCC 48122 (11 mm)
after 48 hours of incubation at 25
0
C in comparison with streptomycin/fluconazole at 20 µl per disc. However, A.
niger ATCC 16404, A. flavis ATCC 204304, A fumigates KM 8001, A. ficuum ATCC 66876, C. utilus ATCC 9950,
P digitatum ATCC201167, E. coli ATCC 25922, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, S. typhimurium 14028 and E.
aerogenes ATCC 13048 gave 22,19,14,12,13, 18, 13, 18, 17 mm of zone of inhibition [42].
7.2. Antioxidant activity
Antiradical activity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the examined C. limetta oil on the 2, 2-
diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical. The DPPH assay was performed as described by [43]. The samples (100
µl each) were mixed by 3 ml of DPPH solution. The absorbance of the resulting solution and the blank (with only
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560
DPPH and no sample) were recorded after an incubation time of 30 min at room temperature against ascorbic acid as
a positive control. For each sample, three replicates were recorded. The disappearance of DPPH was measured
spectrophotometrically at 517 nm. The percentage of radical scavenging activity was calculated. It is the ability of
essential oils to act as a donor for hydrogen atoms or electrons in the transformation of DPPH-H (which is measured
spectrophotometrically) gives them antioxidant activity characteristic. The results of DPPH scavenging activity of C.
limetta oil compared with ascorbic acid as a reference standard indicating that it has slightly lower antioxidant
activity comparative to reference standard, ascorbic acid, being a strong antioxidant reagent [44].
7.3. Antihyperglycaemic activity
Citrus limetta fruit peel contain the flavonoids hesperidin and naringin. Hesperidin and naringin both are proven to
be potent hypoglycaemic agents and their hypoglycaemic activity is postulated to be partly mediated by hepatic
glucose regulations enzymes in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Dietary hesperidin also exerts hypoglycemic and
hypolipidemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [45]. Naringin provided a significant amelioration of
hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats [46]. Therefore, it can be postulated that the
presence of flavonoids in the extract might be the reason of the antihyperglycemic action.
7.4. Antitumor potential of Citrus limetta peel
Methanolic extract of Citrus limetta peel at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight increased the life span,
non-viable tumor cell count and decreased the cell count compared to the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) control
mice [47].
7.5. Antagonizing the hypertensive effect of angiotensin II
In a study reported acute response of blood pressure to angiotensin II administration was measured in mice. Also,
the acute oral toxicity profiles were determined. Investigations showed that different concentrations of the aqueous
extract prevented the raise of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure with a dose
dependent effect for diastolic pressures at 125-500 mg/kg dosages. The 500 and 1000mg/kg doses inhibited the
action of Ang II in similar extent to telmisartan. Toxic signs or deaths were not observed in mice treated at
2000mg/kg of Citruslimetta extract. All doses of C. limetta aqueous extract, used in this assay, were safe and
effective [48].
7.6. Larvicidal activity
Citrus limetta peel extracts were prepared using hexane and petroleum ether as the solvents and it was assessed
against dengue fever vector, Aedesaegypti and malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Toxicity effects were evaluated
on early fourth instars. Both the extracts were found effective against both the species. Evaluation results revealed
that the hexane extracts possessed 1.9 fold more larvicidal potential against A. stephensi as compared to the extracts
obtained using petroleum ether as solvent [49].
8. Traditional uses of Citrus limetta
In the treatment of scurvy: This disease is caused by vitamin C deficiency characterized by swollen gums, frequent
bouts of flu, clod and cracked lip corners. Being rich in vitamin C, mosambi is effective in curing scurvy.
As digestive aid: Due to its sweet fragrance, mosambi juice facilitates the release of saliva from the salivary glands
which assists in quick digestion. The flavonoids present in lime juice enhance the digestive process by stimulating
the secretion of bile, digestive juices and acids. Thus, drinking mosambi juice frequently throughout the day can
ward off stomach problems, indigestion, nausea and dizziness. The acids present in mosambi juice help in the
removal of toxins from the bowel tracts, thus easing constipation. Sweet mosambi juice with a pinch of salt can
provide immediate relief. Additionally, it is effective in case of stomach upsets, dysentery, diarrhea and loose
motions as it is rich in potassium. Due to its tasty flavor, it helps in avoiding vomiting and nausea. It also helps in
curing bloody amoebic dysentery.
Antidiabetic benefits: Mosambi juice is beneficial for diabetes patients. To treat diabetes, you can mix 2 teaspoons
mosambi juice, 4 teaspoons amla juice and 1 teaspoon honey and take this on an empty stomach every morning for
best results.
Antiulcer effects: Peptic ulcers are open sores that occur on the inner lining of your esophagus, stomach or upper
intestine and cause a lot of abdominal pain. The acids in lime juice provide relief against peptic ulcers by causing an
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alkaline reaction in the system, thus reducing gastric acidity. For best results, you can drink a mixture of mosambi
and lemon Juices. Drinking mosambi juice in warm water treats mouth ulcers and bad breath.
Immunity booster: Regular consumption of mosambi juice ensures proper blood circulation by improving the
function of the heart. This results in a much healthier immune system.
Weight reduction: Being low in fat and calories, mosambi juice helps in reducing weight. You can drink a mixture
of mosambi juice and honey to burn extra calories.
Beneficial in pregnancy: Pregnant women are often advised to drink mosambi juice as it provides a lot of calcium
that benefits both the growing fetus and the mother to be.
Treatment of urinary disorders: Being rich in potassium, mosambi juice helps in treating urinary disorders such as
cystitis. Cystitis is an inflammation of urinary bladder, also known as urinary tract infection (UTI). Mosambi juice
boiled in water should be taken within a couple of hours after cooling for immediate relief in cystitis. Potassium
facilitates the detoxification process of kidneys and bladder, preventing various types of urinary tract infections.
Ophthalmic benefits: Due to its antioxidant and anti-bacterial properties, this juice protects your eyes from
infections and muscular degeneration. Washing your eyes with a few drops of mosambi juice mixed in plain or salt
water can help in treating infections like conjunctivitis.
Remedy for Common Cold: Being rich in vitamin C, mosambi juice helps in clearing common cold and improves
the body’s resistance towards cold.
Antihyperlipidemic effects: Drinking mosambi juice reduces cholesterol and lowers blood pressure.
9. Benefits of Mosambi Juice in various skin diseases:
Mosambi juice has an important role to play in skincare. Being rich in vitamin C, it improves the skin color naturally
and is used in several beauty products and alternative medicine supplements and vitamins. Some of its skin benefits
are:
Treatment of Pigmentation, Spots and Blemishes: Mosambi juice treats various pigmentation issues such as spots,
pimples and blemishes. For this purpose, apply fresh mosambi juice on the affected area at bedtime and wash with
warm water the next day.
Prevention of Skin Problems: Mosambi juice is great for skin health due to the presence of vitamins and minerals.
Its antioxidant, antibiotic and disinfectant properties rejuvenate the skin by protecting it from infections. Mosambi
juice cleanses your blood, thus providing relief against skin problems.
Treatment of Body Odor and Sweat: Taking a bath with mosambi juice mixed water helps in tackling body odor
and sweat.
Treatment of Cracked Lips: Rubbing mosambi juice on lips 2-3 times a day can reduce the darkness of lips and also
treats chapped lips.
Reduction of Swelling and Pain: Applying a mixture of mosambi juice and castor oil on the affected area can lessen
swelling and pain. CONCLUSION
Mosambi is well cultivated in central and south Asia. It is the place from where most of the production of the fruit
comes from. Citrus species is known for its medicinal and nutritional properties. It is commonly known as the rich
source of vitamin C. Nearly all parts of the plant as peel, flower, and fruit juice are used as the traditional medicine.
Literature available does not give the sufficient information about the toxicity and adverse effects of any part of the
plant. Some pharmacological activities are reported such as antibacterial and antifungal activity, antioxidant activity,
anti-hyperglycemic activity, antitumor potential, Larvicidal property and property to antagonize the hypertensive
effect of angiotensin II. d-limonene, one of the most abundant terpene found in the plant is reported to be very low
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toxic. Studies have determined that this isolated chemical does not pose a mutagenic, carcinogenic or nephrotoxic
risk to humans. d-limonene helps in gallstone dissolution, shows anticancer activity and shown potential in
Gastroesophageal reflux disorder. This study concluded with findings of many pharmacological/clinical values of
Mosambi as well as d-limonene and with a view to explore and established the d-limonene in various disorders as a
good alternative for modern medicine.
Acknowledgement
Authors are thankful to Prof. S.W. Akhter, Vice Chancellor, Integral University for providing opportunity and
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... All parts of the mosambi plant can be used as a traditional medicine and also it does not have any toxicity and adverse effects of any part of plant. It was reported that it has some pharmacological activities like antibacterial, antifungal activity, antioxidant activity antihyperglycemic activity and antitumor potential (Ahmed Abdullah Khan et al., 2016) [1] . Susana Rubio Arraez et al. (2016) [18] studied on physio-chemical properties of citrus jelly with non-carcinogenic and functional sweetners. ...
... Mechanical properties of samples were evaluated with texture profile analysis test (TPA) using a texture analyser. Ahmed Abdullah Khan et al. (2016) [1] carries studies on phytochemical and pharmacological properties on citrus limetta (mosambi). It includes that nearly all parts of plant can be used as a traditional medicine and also it does not have any toxicity and adverse effects of any part of plant. ...
... The Mosambi, originating from India, is one such fruit. Mosambi is a common name shared by two reported hybrid citrus fruits in India: Citrus sinensis Osbeck (sweet orange), which is described to have yellow peel with low acidity; and Citrus limetta, a citron (Citrus medica) and sour orange (Citrus aurantium) hybrid which has green peel and is often also referred to as sweet lime or sweet lemon [7][8][9]. Investigations into the genetic origins of these hybrids are often conducted using genetic analyses focusing on specific markers known to be unique to each type of parental species and can build on the results of analytical studies for further confirmation of the findings [10]. However, correlating these genetic markers to the physicochemical properties of these hybrids is challenging due to phenotypic changes that can arise from agricultural differences, postharvest conditions or spontaneous somatic mutations, resulting in variations that are not explainable by genetic makeup [11]. ...
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Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers and secondary metabolite composition were used in combination to study seven varieties of citrus for the first time. With reference to established accessions of citrus, two of the varieties (Chanh Giay and Ma Nao Pan) were predicted to be Mexican key limes, while three were mandarin hybrids (Nagpur, Pontianak and Dalandan) and the remaining two (Qicheng and Mosambi) were related to the sweet orange. Notably, Dalandan was genetically more like a mandarin despite often referred to as an orange locally, whereas Mosambi was more likely to be a sweet orange hybrid although it has also been called a sweet lime due to its green peel and small size. Several key secondary metabolites such as polymethoxyflavones (sinensetin, tangeretin etc.), furanocoumarins (bergapten, citropten etc.) and volatiles (citronellol, α-sinensal etc.) were identified to be potential biomarkers for separation of citrus species. However, despite having similar genetic profiles, variations in the volatile profile of the two limes were observed; similarly, there were differences in the secondary metabolite profiles of the three mandarin hybrids despite having a common ancestral parent, highlighting the usefulness of genetic and compositional analyses in combination for revealing both origins and flavour profiles especially in citrus hybrids. This knowledge would be crucial for variety screening and selection for use in flavour or fragrance creation and application.
... Unfortunately we had not accessions available from this citrus for our morphometric analyses. Given the numerous existing studies on the properties and uses of Indian mosambi fruits in medicine (Khan et al., 2016), bioremediation (Mondal et al., 2019) and food industry (Younis et al., 2016), it is important that this citrus be taken into consideration in further studies and that its morphometric characteristics and phylogenetic relationships are clarified. ...
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Citrus (Rutaceae) species have a relevant role in the culture of the Mediterranean countries, not only for their gastronomic or medicinal value, but especially for their ornamental and symbolic importance. The interest on Citrus diversity led to collect and cultivate numerous cultivars around the Mediterranean Sea, at least since the Roman period. Their image is documented in mosaics, paintings, sculptures and coins since the first millennium BC. Among these, sweet and sour limettas Citrus × limon var. limetta (Risso) Ollitrault, Curk & R.Krueger stand for their history and conservation status. Presently sour limetta is cultivated in Morocco, especially in Marrakesh, and in the Valle de Ricote (Murcia, Spain). Our work has three main objectives: to characterize sour limetta on the basis of Spanish and Moroccan populations, as well as its cultural relevance throughout history, especially in painting, gastronomy, agriculture and gardening, to determine their relationships with limes and lemons and to evaluate the availability and state of conservation of that legacy. We analyze and illustrate the morphology of the plant, flowers and fruits of sour limetta and their differences with other related citrus species and cultivars: sweet limetta, lemon, common lime, Persian lime, bergamot, mellarosa, Meyer lemon, rough lemon, Pursha Romana lime, Palestine sweet lime, Pomum Adami lemon and Rangpur lime. The above species and cultivars were selected on the base of their known ancestry and pomological characters. The distinctive characters are useful for the identification of sour limetta in the field but also for the identifying images of this plant in paintings. We analyzed the ancestry of the different taxa involved and compared the classification based on phenotypes with the classification based on the proportion of ancestors’ genomes in each individual taxa. The image of sour limetta appears in different paintings, from the van Eyck's Ghent Polyptych (early 15th century), and numerous still life works by Italian and Spanish authors of the 16th to 18th centuries. A peculiar type of evidence is provided by presence of limetta in the pictorial catalogues of the Medici's fruit collections displayed in a series of paintings by Bartolomeo Bimbi. This distinctly sour limetta is sold in the markets of Rabat (and other cities of Morocco), either fresh, candied or brined and canned. It is an important ingredient of traditional Moroccan cuisine. Although sour lime was a widely used ingredient in Italian cuisine during the 17th century, its state of preservation is deplorable outside of Morocco, and even there it is gradually replaced by lemons. We recommend its cultivation as a resource both for obtaining rootstocks as well as for its fruits, both for Moroccan cuisine and that of other parts of the world for the excellent aromas and flavors that they contribute to the dishes. In this way, by promoting its crop, we will prevent it from disappearing. It is also important to preserve sour lime in germplasm banks.
... The nutritional contents of sweet lime fruit are Potassium (182 ± 39.4 mg), Vitamin C (46.96 ± 7.64 mg), Iron (0.11 ± 0.02 mg), Calcium (25.79 ± 5.02 mg), Copper (0.03 ± 0.00 mg), Sodium (1.17 ± 0.45 mg), and Energy (114 ± 5 KJ) all units are per 100 g of its edible portion (Longvah et al., 2017). Along with this, the d-limonene found as major chemical composition in sweet lime fruit peels have explored and established as a good alternative to modern medicines for primary health care and to cure chronic disease (Khan et al., 2016). Hence, because of these well-proven health benefits of sweet lime fruit, it places itself as the major ingredient of fruit juice and food industries as well as pharmaceutical and beauty product industries. ...
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In the past few decades, both academicians and industries have shown interest toward the agricultural post-harvest operation aiming to reduce the post-harvest losses. In order to assist farmers in post-harvest decision- making some effective and innovative methodological frameworks are required. The fruit weight measurement is of prime importance in many food processing industries during sorting, grading, and packaging. In this work, different Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers as well as weighing models developed using the optimized adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference sys-tem (ANFIS) coupled with a computer vision system are proposed. More precisely, the weighing models based on the hybrid ANFIS approach using two well-known optimization algorithms are analyzed. In the first approach, a series of GA-ANFIS models have been evaluated for different population size. In the later approach, different PSO-ANFIS models have been evaluated by varying the most influential parameters. The comprehensive self-built color image database has been used for both calibration and validation of the models. From an economic point of view, this indirect way of weighing fruits may be useful to fruit growers and traders in deciding the market depending on the fruit size and weight before packaging. The result shows the higher reliability and prediction capability of the proposed meta- heuristics (GA-ANFIS) model in estimating the weight of sweet lime fruit.
... The seed is also said to increase the production of breast milk in nursing mothers. A tea made from the seeds is a pleasant stomachic and carminative, and it has been used to treat flatulent colic (Zargari, 2014;Mozaffarian, 2011; Plant for a Future; Khan et al., 2016b). It is suitable to grow in light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. ...
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Corrosion occurs as a result of acid-based cleaning process in petroleum industry. Some of the procedures require 15% hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution thus speeding the corrosion rate. In this study, Citrus limetta pulp waste was used to obtain corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel (SS)-410 in presence of 15% HCl solution. The C. limetta pulp waste extract has shown maximum 90.90% corrosion inhibition efficiency at 4 g/L in 15% HCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization analysis. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-rays diffraction study confirmed the adsorption of the pulp waste extract on the SS surface. The pulp waste extract followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm thus confirming monolayer formation on the surface of SS-410. Theoretical and computational studies confirmed that Linalool was main phytochemical responsible for anti-corrosive effect. Linalool and SS-410 surface interactions was studied using molecular simulation. Overall, C. limetta pulp waste extract has shown anti-corrosive behaviour in 15% hydrochloric acid on SS-410 surface.
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Sweet lime (Citrus limetta), known as ’Mousambi’ or ’Mosambi’ in India, is one of the best citrus fruits regarding its nutrient contents. Its bioactive compounds (BAC) are exclusively used for multiple clinical applications considering many therapeutic benefits not only in Asian countries but also in the western world. The fruit pulp and juice are the best sources of ascorbic acid, B-vitamins, amino acids, and other secondary metabolites. Specifically, polyphenols such as flavanones, hesperetin, naringenin, and chlorogenic acid are highly rich in the fruit. The nutrients in sweet lime altogether provide significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective effects. The purpose of this study is to review and analyze the inhibitory and complementary therapeutic effects of sweet lime’s pulp and juices to inhibit the virulence caused by RNA viruses, mainly SARS-CoV-2. This review study was designed based on extensive online searches of relevant open-access literature available in the best quality and reliable databases by using specific keywords and boolean operators. After a rigorous review, we found that flavanones in the fruit can alter or inhibit the polyproteins (pp1a and pp1b) responsible for viral replication. Therefore, sweet lime has potentialities to provide an inhibitory and a complementary therapeutic effect against RNA viruses, mainly SARS-CoV-2. About the antiviral activities, more clinical trials are needed to prove its efficacy; however, reviewing current knowledge, Citrus limetta is one of the potent antioxidant, inflammatory fruits available and affordable almost worldwide.
Chapter
Mosambi (sweet lime) belonging to the family Rutaceae is a citrus fruit grown mostly in the Southeast Asia. Mosambi is popular in India and usually bears fruit within 5–7 years. It is a rich source of water-soluble vitamin, vitamin C, minerals and total polyphenols and has good antioxidant properties. Mosambi (sweet lime) possesses several health benefits as it aids digestion and helps in curing scurvy, diabetes, urinary disorder and skin problems. Mosambi is fibre-rich fruit with low-glycaemic index. The by-products derived from mosambi wastes can act as a source of nutraceuticals, and low-cost nutritional dietary supplements can be produced in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and food industries. This chapter summarized the detailed description of antioxidant components and the health benefits of the mosambi.
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The extracts from the peels of Citrus limetta were prepared using hexane and petroleum ether as the solvents. The larvicidal potential of each extract was assessed against dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti, and malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi, by evaluating the toxicity effects on early fourth instars. Both the extracts were found effective against both the species. The bioassay with hexane extracts resulted in LC(50) values of 132.45 and 96.15 ppm against A. stephensi and A. aegypti, respectively; while the petroleum ether extracts from the C. limetta peels showed LC(50) values of 244.59 and 145.50 ppm, respectively. It revealed that the hexane extracts possessed 1.9-fold more larvicidal potential against A. stephensi and 1.5-fold more efficacy against A. aegypti as compared to the extracts obtained using petroleum ether as solvent. The data further revealed that the extracts were 1.4-1.7 times more effective against A. aegypti as compared to A. stephensi. The qualitative phytochemical study of the extracts showed the presence of terpenoids and flavonoids as the common phytochemical constituents in the extracts suggesting their possible role in the toxicity. Other constituents tested were not detected except alkaloids which were found to be present only in the petroleum ether extract. Further studies are needed to isolate and identify the active principles involved, their mode of action, formulated preparations for enhancing potency and stability, toxicity, and effects on non-target organisms and the environment. This could help in formulating efficient strategies for mosquito control.
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The antimicrobial properties of essential oils, terpineol, and orange oil, in particular, varied according to the type of bacteria tested. Terpineol and other terpeneless fractions of citrus oils appeared to have greater inhibitory effect on food-borne bacteria than the other citrus oils or derivatives. Gram-positive bacteria were, in general, more sensitive to essential oils than gram-negative bacteria. Terpineol extended the shelf life of commercially pasteurized skim milk, low-fat milk, and whole milk for more than 56 days at 4 C. Orange oil extended the shelf life of skim milk and low-fat milk for the same period.
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