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Conversational Organization: Interaction Between Speakers and Hearers

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... Conversation analysis (CA) was developed out of interest in the organisation of interaction and the resources interlocutors use to produce and interpret each other's social actions in situ (see e.g., Goodwin 1981 ; 20 0 0 ; Sacks et al., 1974 ). Already one of the early works by Sacks et al. (1974) showed the complexities of multiparty interaction, in which turn-taking and participation need to be collaboratively negotiated, among many people. ...
... The two extracts highlighted the students' verbal practices as key, also showing the relevance of roles (see Rusk & Pörn 2019 ), turnrelated contextualisation and the mobilisation of the shared interactional space for other-oriented gestures (cf. Goodwin, 1981 ; see also Mondada 2011 ). This finding is important in that it points towards a connection between role-based behaviour and 'embodied interactional competence' ( Okada, 2018 ; see also Pekarek Doehler & Berger 2016 ) that can be seen to facilitate interactional processes in the hybrid learning environment. ...
Article
In group-to-group videoconferencing (VC), social actions are coordinated between participants in the physical and online environment, which raises the practical problem of how to manage the interactional space in a collaborative and inclusive manner. This can be particularly challenging for less experienced (i.e., novice) users of VC. The present study uses multimodal conversation analysis (CA) to investigate how university students, who speak English as a foreign language, organise their conduct in the moment-by-moment unfolding of VC. It focuses on moments that make additional interactional work to include the remote party salient, namely transitions regarding next-speaker selection and topic change. The analysis illustrates the reflexive use of different constellations of talk and screen-oriented behaviours as key for coordinating actions in the VC environment. The study has implications for educational research and practice, since it helps understand the interactional competence learners need to develop to succeed in environments of online collaborative work.
... As teacher Lieke walks back to her chair, she gazes at her colleague to identify the intended recipient of her subsequent speech (Goodwin 1981). Lieke says in Dutch that she always has the same experience (l. ...
... Teacher Helena thus engages in 'bodily emotion socialisation', mediated by the touch with child Finja (Cekaite and Holm Kvist 2017), and simultaneously orients to her colleague's storytelling by gaze and body positioning. Looking away can communicate a low engagement in the collaborative action (Goodwin 1981) and Helena shows a higher level of engagement in the storytelling of her colleague. ...
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This paper analyses how teachers and toddlers enact participation frames in bidialectal early education in Limburg, the Netherlands. Teachers’ language choice is often context-bound as they use the national language, Dutch, for instruction and the regional language, Limburgish, for playful or social-emotional situations with individual children. Drawing on ethnographic data generated during 4.5 months of fieldwork in a bidialectal pre-school, I address how teachers and toddlers use the two language varieties, respectively, as well as other semiotic means to shape situational participation in multiparty interaction. My multi-modal analysis of selected video- and audio-recordings of interactions of two teachers and the target child Felix as well as varying other participants shows that teachers may use Limburgish to move into a personal conversation amongst colleagues in front of the children. In contrast, they use Dutch to stage conversations which they intend to be overheard by the children. Closely investigating children’s orientation towards participatory statuses and their interactional consequences, it becomes evident that children co-create participation frames initiated by the teachers at times and subvert them at other times.
... Thus many researchers are retooling to accommodate the detailed organization of naturally occurring talk while at the same time training students not to dismiss prematurely some phenomenon as insignificant or disorderly (see Heritage, 1984, p. 241;Zimmerman, 1988). In this sense, seemingly "small" and what may at first appear to be relatively unimportant phenomena (e.g., pauses, overlaps, tum constructions, laughter, gazes, gestures) turn out to be dense achievements (e.g., Goodwin, 1981). Microinteractional achievements constitute the organization of both "larger" units of social order (e.g., power, identity, sex, culture; see Schegloff, 1987a) and less encompassing but no less important social encounters, such as telephone calls, family picnics, courtroom interrogation and testimony (see Atkinson & Drew, 1979), and medical diagnostic interviews (Frankel, 1984, in press). ...
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... The conversational analysis approach was used to analyse the data as it is one of the approaches that fits to use to the data (Goodwin, 1981;ten Have, 1999;Schegloff, 2007;Schegloff et al., 1977;Wooffitt, 2005). The analysis concerns conversation structure and forms like turn-taking systems among the participants. ...
Article
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In the last decade, the researchers have suggested peer feedback in English as a foreign language (EFL) writing classroom. It is one of the professional activity tools to be provided in the EFL writing classroom, which makes the students involved more in the class. It makes classes learner-centred rather than teacher-centred. Therefore, many researches have been carried out about the usefulness, cognitive, and social benefits of peer feedback. This paper investigates overlap and repair, as two elements of the turn-taking system, that take place at the oral feedback writing session. The study also aimed to investigate how these elements happen and which of them is taken most. The qualitative approach was implemented in this study. The data was collected through audio recording. A group of freshmen students in an EFL writing course were participated. Their oral peer feedback session was recorded. The conversation analysis approach was used to analyse the interaction in the classroom. The study's result has shown that in the collaborative oral feedback session overlap and repair have taken place in the EFL writing classroom. It also revealed that it has a great role during the class session as well as an impact on those students who want to improve their writing skills. Overall, it has been recommended that collaborative feedback sessions should be investigated more in classroom conversation particularly in writing courses.
... 14-15). The overlap continues throughout the turn construction, despite A's recycling of turn-initiation (Goodwin, 1981;Schegloff, 1987). But by raising her pitch, while leaning forward and gesturing toward the screen (Figure 1), A continues to compete for the floor, and finally manages to resolve the overlap and gain the other group members' attention at line 16 (Schegloff, 2000). ...
Article
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The presentation of self is a specific kind of knowledge of how to appear and speak publicly in the face of inferences of what can be drawn about how you have appeared and what you have said. As a specific case of the latter, there are things you cannot say publicly even if-or, in particular, when-they are true. This can be called recognition of false true facts. Of course, it could be claimed that knowing false true facts is just knowledge of a type of fact which does not require know-how but plain knowledge. In this article, we try to show that knowing false true facts is part of the presentation of self, which is based on know-how of telling false true facts from other facts (i.e., what you should never say publicly, however true it might be). Regarding our data, we analyze a videotaped interaction among a group of young females discussing what would be different in life if they were men. In their group discussion, they make a distinction regarding how a woman could answer that question and what could not be answered. Through defining what women could publicly say, the group performatively defines how women can present themselves. In that way, the presentation of self is based on know-how of the distinction between false true facts and other facts. At least on occasion, there does exist gender-specific expertise that delimits public performance of gender.
... In her response to the first formulation, the teacher called attention to the additional requirements of the task at hand. This prompted another 'ratified participant' (Goodwin, 1981) who was following the interaction to issue a second formulation developed over the course of the previous interaction between the teacher and another student in the same group. ...
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This study investigates how shared understanding is established during a rarely researched instructional and interactional context, namely teacher–student interactions during between-desk instructions (BDIs). Specifically, the authors focus on instructional interactions initiated by students during project-based language teaching in an upper-secondary Swedish classroom and probe into how students’ formulations of understanding of a teacher’s prior responses shape the subsequent interactional trajectories. Their conversation analytic investigation reveals that the teacher produces either confirming or disconfirming actions following students’ formulations of understanding. These response types accomplish two distinct forms of interactional work: (a) when the teacher confirms the students’ formulations, she expands the sequence with instruction-related elaborations; and (b) when the teacher does not confirm the formulations, she accounts for that, prompting students to reformulate their understanding. Overall, this study contributes to the body of research on BDIs as a recurring yet under-investigated lesson practice during project work.
... Excursus I: Grounding Belonging in the Local Adverb aquí (or the objects pointed to in them) are indexed with different spatial demonstratives. However, these approaches to local (and other) deictics rarely encompass the situatedness of speakers in interactional circumstances and the actual relevancies of deictic expressions in different situational contexts (Wortham, 1996;Goodwin, 1981;Schegloff, 1972). 148 This is why its use needs to be interpreted in the situational context of an interview interaction with me as an outsider. ...
Book
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In this book, the author introduces belonging from a sociolinguistic perspective as a concept that is accomplished in interaction. Belonging can be expressed linguistically in social, spatial and temporal categories – indexing rootedness, groupness and cohesion. It can also be captured through shared linguistic practices within a group, e.g. collectively shared narrative practices. Using conversation analysis and an analysis of narrative as practice bolstered with ethnographic knowledge, the author shows how belonging is tied to locally contextualized use of deictics and to collectively shared narrations of the past in a Guatemalan community. The book examines the understudied phenomenon of belonging at the intersection of pragmatics and linguistic anthropology.
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Interactional closings constitute a crucial aspect of social interaction and, in social work practice, are organized around participants’ orientation to an asymmetrical distribution of tasks between professional and client, informed by a “dialectics of care and control.” Proceeding from a conversation analytic framework, and grounded on video recordings of encounters between social workers and clients in diverse institutional settings in Portugal, the present paper investigates how the routine of closing social work encounters is carried out through professionals’ and clients’ joint and progressive orientation toward bringing the encounter to an end, and examines some of the interactional and embodied practices mobilized by them for accomplishing this task. By providing a detailed analysis of participants’ audible and visible conduct and their interactional practices, this study shows how social workers orchestrate clients’ leave-taking through the concerted mobilization of linguistic, bodily and material resources, shedding light into how the dialectics of care and control are managed in the everyday exercise of social intervention.
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The study of so-called 'disfluency' phenomena (uh and um, filled and unfilled pauses, self-repairs and the like) has gained a lot of attention in various fields in linguistics in the past few decades, but a majority of studies tend to be production-oriented and often disregard fundamental aspects of face-to-face communication such as interactional dynamics and gesture. This paper presents a multimodal and multilevel model of "inter-fluency", considering different levels of analysis, mainly, talk, gesture, and interaction, by combining different theoretical frameworks and methodologies in gesture studies and interactional linguistics in order to bridge this gap and go beyond previous cognitive-oriented models.
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: Research relevant to psychotherapy regarding facial expression and body movement, has shown that the kind of information which can be gleaned from the patients words - information about affects, attitudes, interpersonal styles, psychodynamics - can also be derived from his concomitant nonverbal behavior. The study explores the interaction situation, and considers how within deception interactions differences in neuroanatomy and cultural influences combine to produce specific types of body movements and facial expressions which escape efforts to deceive and emerge as leakage or deception clues.
Chapter
Furthermore, certain transcription conventions invite modification by others with expertise in the field. It was the purppose of this chapter to: I. Identify what constitute data for the developmental psycholinguist. 2. Expose theoretical and cultural underpinnings of the transcription process. 3. Provide a setof basic transcription conventions sensitive to psychological, linguistic, and cultural dimensions of young children's behavior. 4. Indicate the relevance and usefulness of these conventions to current theoretical concerns. A greater awareness of transcription form can move the field in productive directions. Not only will we able to read rrmch more off our own transcripts, we will be better equipped to read the transcriptions of others. This, in turn, should better equip us to .evaluate particular interpretations of data (i.e., transcribed behavior). Our data may have a future if we give them the attention they deserve.
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Two linguistic codes have been proposed, elaborated and restricted. These codes are regarded as functions of different social structures. The codes are considered to entail qualitatively different verbal planning orientations which control different modes of self-regulation and levels of cognitive behaviour. Social class differences in the use of the codes were postulated and the hesitation phenomena associated with them predicted. Speech samples were obtained and the hesitation phenomena analysed from a discussion situation involving small groups of middle-class and working-class subjects with varying I.Q. profiles.