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On communicative competence

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... The consideration of intended meaning and the requirements of the context in the production and interpretation of oral and written discourse started to be incorporated in linguistic analysis since the early seventies (Hymes, 1972;Leech, 1983: Savignon, 1972Widdowson, 1978). Unlike structural and transformational generative grammars, which link the study of language to the observed structures of sentences, pragmatics focuses on the analysis of speakers'/writers' intended meaning, how the context affects this meaning, and it also examines how listeners, or readers can make sense of this meaning (Grice, 1975;Mey, 1980;Yule, 1996). ...
... This section examines the inclusion of pragmatics in three communicative competence models proposed respectively proposed by Hymes (1972), Canale and Swain (1980) and Bachman and Palmer (1996). These models have not been chosen randomly. ...
... In reaction to the structural and generative linguistic theories (De Saussure;1959;Chomsky, 1965), which exclude the features of social context in their language analysis, Hymes (1972) developed a communicative competence model comprising four sectors: possibility, feasibility, appropriateness, and occurrence. Possibility investigates the extent to which utterances can conform to the rules of grammar. ...
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This study attempts to explore the role of pragmatics in reinforcing the process of discourse production and comprehension. The paper starts with the delimitation of the scope of pragmatics and the identification of its main constituents, such as implicature, presupposition, speech acts, the context of situation, reference, deixis, and entailments. Then, it turns to the description of the way in which pragmatics has gradually been incorporated in three significant communicative competence models. In doing so, this paper incorporates the techniques of the historical-descriptive methods. The results of the study revealed that the integration of pragmatic elements in language analysis/teaching could contribute to the comprehension of speaker's/writer's implicated meaning.
... Halliday [5] identified three variables for situational context, i.e., field (what is happening), tenor (social roles and role relations), and mode (what part the language is playing) that correspond, respectively, to the three metafunctions/meanings, i.e., ideational, interpersonal, and textual. Although the three contextual variables can be essential, and the linguistic realization of any of these factors depends on its combination with the other two [47], this context view has a closed rather than open list of contextual variables, excluding some other important ones as proposed by [27] (Hymes [27] identified eight components: setting, participants, ends, act sequence, key, instrumentality, norms of interaction and interpretation, and genre that form the acronym "SPEAKING") and [48] (Lyons [48] then proposes six contextual variables which include role and status of the participants, time and space, formality, instrumentality, topic and attitudes of the participants towards it, and scope of topic). For instance, the variable, 'formality', which should be included in the situational stratum pinpoints the necessity for a situational stratum as formal language aligns with formal context, and informal language, informal context. ...
... Halliday [5] identified three variables for situational context, i.e., field (what is happening), tenor (social roles and role relations), and mode (what part the language is playing) that correspond, respectively, to the three metafunctions/meanings, i.e., ideational, interpersonal, and textual. Although the three contextual variables can be essential, and the linguistic realization of any of these factors depends on its combination with the other two [47], this context view has a closed rather than open list of contextual variables, excluding some other important ones as proposed by [27] (Hymes [27] identified eight components: setting, participants, ends, act sequence, key, instrumentality, norms of interaction and interpretation, and genre that form the acronym "SPEAKING") and [48] (Lyons [48] then proposes six contextual variables which include role and status of the participants, time and space, formality, instrumentality, topic and attitudes of the participants towards it, and scope of topic). For instance, the variable, 'formality', which should be included in the situational stratum pinpoints the necessity for a situational stratum as formal language aligns with formal context, and informal language, informal context. ...
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Recent inconsistent empirical findings on the impact of context on foreign language development (FLD) are related to some conflicting context views, which hinders healthy FLD. Given this, an ecocontextualized approach/perspective is presented as a ”recipe”, holding that inter-intrastratally interactive context-oriented learning starts with the alignment of implicit sound-meaning mapping (phonic listening and speaking only) with the low cognitive levels of early starters and physical objects/visual realia in the proximate context, and only when the learners’ cognitive levels develop several years later can it turn to explicit formal learning through abstract written language and contents. Based on this view, a sound-meaning mapping prioritizing (SMMP) route to healthy/sustainable FLD is proposed and testified via questionnaires and an interview/oral test. Results showed: (1) SMMP early starters surpassed the non-SMMP (NSMMP) early starters (learning reading, listening, speaking, and writing simultaneously) in oral proficiency at the late stage despite their homogeneity at the early stage; (2) oral, especially listening abilities, could not be well developed at the late stage by NSMMP learners; (3) written proficiency could be developed later by both types. These findings reveal the SMMP route to healthy/sustainable FLD in the Chinese context.
... A questão da proficiência lingüística, começou a ter um destaque maior com Hymes (1972) em que propõe a denominação de competência comunicativa para o conhecimento consciente e para um conjunto de habilidades para o uso da língua. Neste aspecto, Hymes ultrapassa a distinção de Chomsky entre competência e desempenho lingüísticos, pois para ele "existem regras de uso [da língua] sem os quais as regras de gramática seriam inúteis (op. ...
... É possível captar, de toda a evolução do conceito de proficiência lingüística, que houveram ênfases em aspectos diferenciados das competências para a linguagem. Primeiramente, com Chomsky (1965) o foco foi a estrutura interna da gramática; em seguida, com Hymes (1972), Canale e Swain (1980) e Canale (1983 abre-se a possibilidade de considerar o uso e a situação contextual e, por fim, com Chareaudeau o sujeito da linguagem, antes não cogitado, é considerado no modelo. ...
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No Brasil, a língua de sinais brasileira (LSB), mais comumente chamada de Libras, foi regulamentada pelo Decreto Federal nº 5.626/2005 e em seu reconhecimento lingüístico e legal existe a menção, inclusive, ao lançamento de um teste de proficiência lingüística. Esta testagem tornou-se realidade com o lançamento do Exame Nacional de Certificação de Proficiência em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Exame Nacional de Certificação de Proficiência em Tradução e Interpretação da Libras/Língua Portuguesa, o Prolibras, em 2006, pelo Ministério da educação (MEC). No entanto, antes mesmo do Prolibras, já existiam entrevistas e bancas de seleção para a entrada em cursos de preparação para intérpretes de língua de sinais (ILS) que explícita ou implicitamente também se dispunham a verificar a proficiência lingüística em Libras. A questão é: qual a concepção de competência lingüística, em seu aspecto mais abrangente, que transparece nos testes de proficiência lingüística de Libras? E, de que forma, está sendo feita esta testagem?
... Chomsky's 'linguistic competence' (1965) takes the mastery of grammar rules as criterion for a competent speaker and relies on intuition and linguistic knowledge of an abstract, isolated, ideal speaker-hearer instead of real speech of interlocutors in a social world. Hymes (1972) is known for adding/extending on grammatical competence in that considers the social and cultural context in which human communication takes place. ...
... However, communicative competence is yet problematic as it implies that appropriate language use can be evaluated against the native speaker language and culture (Byram, 1997). A remarkable limitation of Hymes' (1972) communicative competence according to Byram (1997) is its focus on how speakers of an additional language can "model themselves according to native/first speakers of a 'foreign' language" (Byram, 1997, p. 8). Byram (1997) notes that the focus needs to be on the understanding of communication as a human interaction not just the exchange of information and to take into account speakers' sense of the world and their cultural identities. ...
Thesis
p class="MsoNormal">The continuous increase in individuals’ movement across boundaries and international student mobility has heightened the need to consider the importance of intercultural development. The ability of people to build a sense of global and intercultural citizenship is becoming increasingly crucial (Byram et al, 2017; Killick, 2012, 2013) and there is a growing attention to this topic. Meanwhile, English as a lingua franca is a growing research field and is developing as a paradigm that can provide a comprehensive analysis of how individuals negotiate and represent their identities in sites of intercultural communication through English as a lingua franca which feature high linguistic diversity and use (Hua, 2015; Jenkins, 2007). There has been however, a dearth of empirical evidence of intercultural citizenship awareness and its development amongst students in international mobility. In particular, the action orientation (Byram, 2008b), which involves taking opportunities to cooperate with other from different social and cultural groupings (Porto & Byram, 2015) to achieve shared goals with a global dimension, was less investigated. In addition, there is insufficient examination of the linguistic practices, which bring students to develop a sense of intercultural citizenship. While a growing body of research focused on global citizenship learning including the context of study abroad, the linguistic domain is still superficially addressed thus opening possibilities for the maintenance of rigid social “categorizations and idealized standards” (Moran Panero, 2018, p. 563). There has also been a lack of studies, which sought to explore the negotiation and co-construction of linguistic norms and resources being it English, other languages, or other semiotic resources (Canagarajah, 2018). My research sought to uncover the experiences, development and challenges related to global citizenship as Algerian students pursue their education abroad, specifically in UK universities. In particular, the study endeavoured to bring into light students’ perspectives and experiences as regards the role of language (s) in their intercultural experiences, community engagement and action in multicultural/multilingual environment. This is to reveal any potential synergies between ELF understanding of language and how it relates to issues of culture, identity, community, and global citizenship, based on students’ experiences and needs. An exploratory qualitative research approach was used in the study to fulfil its objectives. My participants were 12 Algerian international students enrolled in Pre-sessional PhD and PhD programmes in in the UK with varying lengths of study. The fieldwork to collect in depth data from these participants took place over 8 months. This approach involved the adoption of three rounds of interviews, three modes of diary entries, audio, written and online blogs, interactions observation all of which was conducted both in-person and online in this method. The analysis procedure, which involved thematic analysis and NVivo coding, resulted in the identification and development of three overarching themes. The findings revealed that there are opportunities to experience intercultural contact and cooperation related to global citizenship. However, most of these opportunities were facilitated by the extracurricular activities organized by universities, societies, and the wider community, international and transnational organizations, groups and projects. As part of their studies overseas, students claimed to have taken intercultural communication classes, but none of them reported having received preparation expressly for global citizenship. Students indicated that their intercultural preparation prior to their travel focused mainly on culture as a national homogeneous attribute and that such preparation predominantly at instrumental purposes. The analysis of this theme also revealed that there are issues of representation, access and power asymmetries that feature those opportunities of experiencing community engagement and cooperation abroad. Second, the findings demonstrated that most students developed advanced intercultural awareness, attitudes, and a supranational identification. While the stage of action taking was more prevalent among students with longer stays abroad, this stage was also disregarded in students’ education. The development of these skills also entailed resistance and contention with some of the values and practice when it conflicted with students’ beliefs, traditions and particularly notions of development and representation issues in global citizenship education. Finally, examination of the role of language revealed mixed views and varied experiences among students. Some of them assigned English the role of connecting students with people from other cultures and groups, which fits in denationalized English and ELF. However, when the construct of native speaker governed the interaction process, it was an impediment to their encounters and engagement with the communities abroad. Students also valued multilingual and questioned the dominance of English considering its globality (Morán Panero, 2018) as an eminence that has to be contested by emphasizing the value of other languages to achieve equality and inclusion embedded in the concept of global citizenship. Furthermore, students have shown great flexibility, agency, and skills of negotiating multilingual resources and English use by relying on contextual use and emergent linguistic practices. The latter allowed them to meaningfully enact their sense of global citizenship. </p
... Pragmatic competence is one of them. ISSN 1925-0703 E-ISSN 1925 The concept of pragmatic competence was derived from Chomsky's dichotomy (Canale & Swain, 1980;Hymes, 1972). In opposition to theoretical linguists' focus on abstract knowledge, Hymes (1972) put forward the concept of communicative competence, which involved the sociocultural factors in the process of language learning. ...
... ISSN 1925-0703 E-ISSN 1925 The concept of pragmatic competence was derived from Chomsky's dichotomy (Canale & Swain, 1980;Hymes, 1972). In opposition to theoretical linguists' focus on abstract knowledge, Hymes (1972) put forward the concept of communicative competence, which involved the sociocultural factors in the process of language learning. Enlightened by Hyme's idea, many scholars (Canale & Swain, 1980;Widdowson, 1989) proceeded with the study of the meaning and components of communicative competence, during which pragmatic competence gradually obtained their attention. ...
Article
In this era of globalization, pragmatic competence plays a vital role in cross-cultural communication. The objective of this study is to investigate whether location is a key factor influencing Chinese EFL undergraduates’ pragmatic competence in English letter writing by comparing urban and suburban universities. This study adopted a descriptive research design. The samples of the study were 450 Chinese college students, with 225 from a university located in an urban city (Guangzhou) and another 225 from a university located in a suburban city (Yiyang). All the participants in this study took an English letter writing test and their writings were analyzed from the perspectives of choice of vocabulary, grammar, syntax and organization. The findings from quantitative data indicated that the overall pragmatic competence of the students from an urban university was better than that of the students from a suburban university. Specifically, there was a significant difference in the overall pragmatic competence, choice of vocabulary, grammar, syntax between an urban university and a suburban university, whereas there was no significant difference in organization. Pedagogically, the findings suggest that pragmatic competence and learning environment should be taken into consideration and lecturers could adopt flexible and feasible approaches applicable to students living in different parts of the world.
... However, explorations of studies within the variationist orientation in ESL writing seem very limited and assumed to be less important. Basically, it is evident that Chomsky (1965), Hymes (1972), Gumperz and Cook-Gumperz (1982), Leech (1983) and Muhammad (2017) extensively expressed their views on learners' difficulties towards producing accurate grammatical, communicative, strategic and proficient language features. This, which they affirm, often depends on certain sociological factors. ...
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This study investigates on the level of discourse-pragmatic skills for English as a second language (ESL) writing of Nigerian undergraduates. The method it adopts is mixed-method design within the explanatory framework of the QUAN-Qual model. The instruments used are descriptive ESL writing and focus group interview questions. In scripting the descriptive ESL writing, a total of 402 undergraduate participated through stratified purposive sampling. Quantitatively, an independent samples t-test was carried out. The results indicate that females require putting more efforts towards improving their discourse-pragmatic skills in ESL writing, as they achieved a higher means score for the language errors committed compared to the males. Moreover, the t-test value significantly demonstrated that the females lack pragma-linguistic skills in processing mechanical and sentence structures, which made them commit more errors at an overall level. Qualitatively, a focus group interview was held randomly with twelve (12) participants out of the 402 undergraduates through maximum variation purposive sampling. The results of the interview sessions reveal novelties of three core-themes: i) culture-specific, ii) learning feasibility, and iii) academic discourse. Equally, these core-themes were enhanced and supported with six minor-themes to further justify the sequence of factors that facilitate Nigerian undergraduate commitment of language errors in ESL writing particularly the females: i) language policies, ii) instructor-roles, iii) infrastructures, iv) school fees, v) ethnic relativism, and vi) upbringing. Therefore, this study reveals strong pedagogical implications on how best to develop Nigerian ESL learners' capability in English writing.
... This was also apparent in the majority of the classroom observations of all four instructors' classes. The class environment was conducive to promoting collaboration and communication and was based on a communicative approach (Hymes, 1972) which focuses on the target culture norms and teaching students how to greet, invite and request information. The topics mainly focused on comparing holidays, traditions and customs and cultural norms. ...
... However, explorations of studies within the variationist orientation in ESL writing seem very limited and assumed to be less important. Basically, it is evident that Chomsky (1965), Hymes (1972), Gumperz and Cook-Gumperz (1982), Leech (1983) and Muhammad (2017) extensively expressed their views on learners' difficulties towards producing accurate grammatical, communicative, strategic and proficient language features. This, which they affirm, often depends on certain sociological factors. ...
Article
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In such types of multilingual and multicultural societies as that of Nigeria, the prospect of judging who outsmarts who between male and female learners still pinches the interest of most researchers. To tap into such potential, this study aims to identify the level of significance difference in the discourse processes of Nigerian male and female undergraduate English writing. The study also aims to identify the artistic factors challenging their competence in processing English writing. It employed the explanatory sequential type of mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative). Passing by this research pattern, findings from the quantitative phase reveals a statistical variation; as the males significantly achieved higher means compared to the means score attained by the females. The males were more statistically skilled than the females in the discourse processes of cohesion and coherence, descriptive words and vocabulary. In this same connection, the results of the thematic analysis utilised for the qualitative section reveal Nigerian female undergraduates were less skilled in English writing due to socio-cultural and digital-technological factors. Therefore, the pedagogical implications call for the establishment of strategic rules that would mandate an average undergraduate to partake in academic writing clubs and the organisation of cooperative lessons as some of the best ways to enhance their English writing skills.
... Similarly, rather than deep knowledge of a specific culture, language users need open-mindedness, respect, and the ability to respond adaptively during interaction with speakers from varied cultural backgrounds (Kramsch, 1993, McKay, 2001. This perspective on culture aligns with perspectives that view culture as an essential part of language competence (Hymes, 1972). Language users' cultural proficiency contributes to their sociolinguistic competence (Bachman & Palmer, 1996;Canale & Swain, 1980) and their sociocultural competence (Celce-Murcia, Dornyei & Thurrell, 1995). ...
... Chomsky 1969) és a kommunikatív kompetencia (a nyelvhasználati tudás, lásd Hymes 1972) fogalmával összefüggésben szokás értelmezni (Coupland 2007a: 103). A kommunikatív kompetenciához tartozik a nyelv társas használata, a beszédhelyzethez ill beszéd létrehozásának képessége, illetve a beszél tudatossága a társadalmi szabályokat és nyelvhasználati normákat illet en (Hymes 1972;Duranti 1997). A beszél k nyelvhasználatát befolyásolja, hogy milyen válto-zatok érhet k el számukra, illetve hogy mennyire hitelesen képesek használni és értelmezni az adott nyelvi változatokat (Preston 1996). ...
... These make up the field of L2 pragmatics (Bardovi-Harlig, 2013;Taguchi and Roever, 2017). From this perspective, L2 pragmatics is concerned with examining the association between L2 structure and its use by focusing on how these two abilities are learned and how they cooperate (Hymes, 1972). The results of investigations conducted in China reveal that EFL learners' pragmatic competence is not satisfactory (Liu, 2004;Xiao et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Successful interaction in the target language requires L2 learners to use and understand the grammatically correct language. At the same time, the language used is expected to produce socioculturally appropriate utterances that it refers to their Pragmatic competence. The latter entails acquiring pragmatic competence, which has proved to be very challenging for L2 learners. This is because they gain limited exposure to the use of language for real communication in an authentic social setting. Moreover, instruction has been found to influence the functional abilities in L2 as it equips the learners with the ability to produce and comprehend L2 in different situations. Focusing on the research conducted on the role of explicit and implicit instruction on L2 pragmatic competence, this study aimed to give a summative description of the empirical studies carried out on teaching pragmatics. The investigation ends up with a conclusion, instructional implications, and suggestions for future research.
... This qualitative study (Cresswell, 2014) draws upon ethnography of communication, with its two techniques of participant-observation and semi-structured interview (Hymes, 1974). Ethnography of communication is highly recommended for (im)politeness research (cf: Markez-Reiter, 2021, for a recent argument). ...
Article
Evaluations of polite, impolite and over-polite linguistic and nonlinguistic behaviors depend largely on the socio-cultural attributes of a society and the individuals' schemata, which are rooted in the communicators' previous experiences. In intercultural settings, communication represents a complicated picture due to the participants' different socio-cultural backgrounds and their unshared cultural schemata. Adopting the discursive approach to (im)politeness and employing ethnographic methods, this study identifies some significant sources of (im)politeness-related miscommunication between 10 Malaysian university lecturers/professors and 15 Iranian students. The findings suggest that different socio-cultural behaviors as well as some aspects of professional practices are the sources of misunderstanding and have potential for either impolite or over-polite judgments. Findings are discussed in light of the practical and theoretical implications for intercultural politeness and impoliteness.
... Επικοινωνιακή προσέγγιση και διδασκαλία της γλώσσας Η παραδοχή ότι η παραδοσιακή διδασκαλία αδυνατούσε να καλύψει τις σύνθετες ανάγκες των μαθητών/τριών οδήγησε, υπό το βάρος και των εξελίξεων στο χώρο της γλωσσολογίας και άλλων ανθρωπιστικών και κοινωνικών επιστημών, στον επαναπροσδιορισμό της αντίληψης που επικρατούσε παλαιότερα για τη γλωσσική διδασκαλία. Προκειμένου για την Πρωτοβάθμια Εκπαίδευση, ζητούμενο αποτελεί η καλλιέργεια των επικοινωνιακών (Hymes, 1972) και κριτικών -βάσει του νεότερου Π.Σ. του Νέου Σχολείου (Ντίνας & Γώτη, 2016; ΠΣ, 2011: 5)-δεξιοτήτων των μαθητών/τριών, η καταλληλότητα και αποτελεσματικότητα στη χρήση της γλώσσας (ΔΕΠΠΣ, 2003: 17) και η απόκτηση κριτικής γλωσσικής επίγνωσης (Fairclough, 1992). ...
Article
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Στόχος της ποιοτικής έρευνας είναι η εξέταση του ρόλου της γλωσσικής ιδεολογίας στη διαμόρφωση δεδομένων διδακτικών πρακτικών με σημείο αναφοράς κυρίαρχες αντιλήψεις και στάσεις απέναντι στο γλωσσικό λάθος. Διαφαίνεται πως η διαδικασία της διόρθωσης των λαθών των μαθητών/τριών, που κρίνεται επιβεβλημένη μέσα στο υφιστάμενο εκπαιδευτικό σύστημα, είναι συνδεδεμένη με ιδεολογικές παραμέτρους που σχετίζονται κατά βάση με την έννοια της γλωσσικής αλλαγής. Με τη βοήθεια της μεθόδου του ερωτηματολογίου έτσι και της συλλογικής συνέντευξης, είκοσι τρεις εκπαιδευτικοί του τομέα της ειδικής αγωγής διατυπώνουν, στο πλαίσιο επιμορφωτικής συνάντησης στο ΠΤΔΕ του Πανεπιστημίου Αιγαίου, την άποψή τους για τις δυσκολίες δημιουργικής αξιοποίησης του γλωσσικού λάθους στο πλαίσιο της επικοινωνιακής προσέγγισης, καθώς και για τη συνεισφορά εν γένει της γλωσσολογικής γνώσης στην αναθεώρηση παραδοσιακών αντιλήψεων για τη γλώσσα και τη διδασκαλία της στην πρωτοβάθμια εκπαίδευση.
... Sthapit (2000) opines developing communicative competence is the main objective of language teaching and learning. The term 'competence' is " a bundle of cognitively controlled abilities or skills in some particular domain, it implies both knowledge and the ability and deposition to solve problem in that domain" (Lehmann, 2007, p. 2).To Dell Hymes (1971), communicative competence is the totality of linguistic competence and the contxtual use of language. In simple sense, communicative competence is the totality of pronunciation,vocabulary, grammar, and speaking skills of a language. ...
Thesis
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This research study entitled Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in English Language Teaching and Learning (ELTAL): A Multiple Case Study of the Institutional Schools in Nepal is an attempt to explore the integration of ICTs in ELTAL activities in the context of secondary school education in Nepal. The main objective was to analyze the teachers’ and students’ use of ICTs in their teaching and learning of English language skills (ELS); and in accessing information and collaborative learning in their ELTAL. The study also attempted to explore the opportunities and challenges that occur in their integration of ICTs in ELTAL. This study adopted constructivism as the research paradigm, qualitative design, and multiple case study strategy. Triangulation of data and methods was adopted incorporating both qualitative and quantitative data collected using observation, interview, FGD, questionnaire, and document review research methods. Inductive thematic analysis, and descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the information and data. Likewise, within-case analysis, cross-case analysis, and pattern-matching were adopted as analytic techniques to draw conclusions. The conclusion of the study was that ICTs supported the teachers and students in ELS teaching and learning, accessing learning resources, and carrying out collaborative activities in their ELTAL. ICTs were used by the teachers to make themselves updated, and to prepare and present their lesson. Likewise, ICT tools were useful for the students to increase the amount of exposure to English, to access learning resources, and to make their information sharing easier and faster while conducting even the distributed collaborative activities. However, they were not confident about using ELS-specific websites, the students’ access to information was more teacher dominant, and the collaborative activities focused the students’ communicative skills rather than their higher order thinking skills. The teachers were not satisfied with the advantages of ICTs they could take, and none of the students found ICTs ' extremely useful' so as to use them 'always' in their ELTAL activities due to the main challenging factors‒ poor ICT infrastructure, and inadequate technological-pedagogical knowledge. This study has been expected to contribute in developing some insights of the stakeholders in their integration of ICTs in ELTAL.
... Before discussion of the characteristics of the communicative approach, the evolution of definitions for language skills and competence seems appropriate to mention. The term "communicative competence" was first used by Hymes (1972), a sociolinguist interested in the social and cultural dimensions of language. In his understanding, language is not only knowledge of a language but also ability to use it for communication. ...
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Results from the European Survey on Language Competences (ESLC) show that regular exposure to a foreign language for many Polish pupils is limited to language classes at school. in this light, the authors of this article took a closer look at the Polish ESLC findings. With a discussion on current theoretical approaches, good practice in foreign language teaching and national core curriculum requirements, the paper presents an analysis of student responses to a questionnaire about English lessons at lower secondary school.
... In another study, Abedin (2012) considered the practice of CLT as a disguised 'grammar-translation method' (GTM). The core concept in CLT is 'communicative competence', a term Hymes (1971) used to refer to one's ability to use language in a social context. But the scenario is that the primary students have little scopes to use the English language in their EFL classrooms. ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... M. Celce-Murcia (1991: 6) navaja, da je komunikacijski pristop izšel iz dela antropoloških (Hymes, 1972) in firthovskih jezikoslovcev (Halliday, 1973), ki na jezik gledajo predvsem kot na sistem za komunikacijo. Predpostavlja se, da je cilj jezikovnega pouka učenčeva zmožnost sporazumevanja v cilj-nem jeziku. ...
... More precisely, language acquisition is claimed to involve the activation of an innate, arguably genetic, linguistic faculty that is distinct from other cognitive faculties and that determines in part, but is not determined by, how language is used in context. In reaction to this structuralist position, Hymes (1972) argues that knowledge of language is basically knowledge to use appropriate expressions to achieve communicative goals and, more than that, this knowledge cannot develop outside the context of a speech community. ...
Article
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This paper is an exploratory qualitative study of the acquisition of Moroccan Arabic by four illegal transit migrants in Rabat. These migrants come from Senegal, Congo, Cameroon and Ghana. They speak different mother tongues but three of them speak French as a second language while the Ghanaian speaks English. The paper tries to focus on the micro level of individual experiences as well as on the meso level of migrant organizations and the macro level of language ideologies. The informants have been found to draw on various linguistic and nonlinguistic resources to achieve understanding of the multilingual sociolinguistic situation of the host society and to try to establish communication with its members.
... PCK, together with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, CEFR (Council of Europe, 2001), on language learning, teaching and assessment, were indispensable in approaching and analysing the whole language educational area focused upon in the questionnaire, in particular the question of teachers' target language use. Theories about communicative competence and its role in action oriented language learning, teaching and assessment (Hymes, 1972;Canale & Swain, 1980;Larsen-Freeman, 2000) were of obvious importance, separately within different domains, but also as expressed and operationalised, for example, in the CEFR and its accompanying Companion Volume (Council of Europe, 2020), and in the Swedish national curriculum and language syllabuses (Skolverket, 2011), the latter affecting, in an obvious way, language teachers' daily practices. ...
Chapter
The overarching aim of this book is to offer researchers and students insight into some currently discussed issues at the Swedish as well as the international research frontline of Language Education in a selection of up-to-date work. Another aim is to provide teachers, teacher educators and policy-makers with input from research within the interconnected disciplines of Applied Linguistics, Language Education and Second Language Acquisition. The volume includes five examples of topical research on language education and the authors are internationally renowned scholars. The chapters are based on a selection of talks presented at the 1st ELE Conference (‘Exploring Language Education’), which was held at Stockholm University in 2018. Employing a broad thematic scope, the volume reflects the variety of perspectives on language education brought together at the conference by authors working in diverse areas of the field and in different parts of the world. With the first ELE conference the organizers wished to call attention to the intersection of the global and the local, in terms of linguistic and cultural diversity, which may inform both research questions and language education practices. Issues related to multilingualism, Global Englishes, and experienced tensions between research and practice are examples of generally shared issues that were brought up by many speakers. The chapters of the book represent this variety of themes and illustrate how different regions and communities are contingent on local prerequisites and circumstances, leading to a number of particular challenges and assets when it comes to language education. The chapters represent different parts of the broad array of research directions that can be discerned under the large umbrella of Language Education, zooming in on the Western context, specifically Sweden, Canada and the United States. Two of the plenary speakers from the conference, Nina Spada and John Levis contribute in the volume. In Spada’s text different ways to bridge the gap between research and practice in language education are discussed, an issue highly relevant to all of those interested in collaborative research between researchers and teachers. The second chapter, written by Levis, presents current research on phonology and the importance of pronunciation in second or foreign language communication. These two are followed by three chapters reporting on empirical studies. Amanda Brown and colleagues present their work on translanguaging in the English L2 classroom, giving an extensive overview of ideological stances from the last decades on the use of mother tongues vs. target language only in the language classroom. Liss Kerstin Sylvén reports on a recent study on very young Swedish learners of English, their exposure of English before school age and outside school and the role that this exposure plays for the development of English language proficiency. Finally, Gudrun Erickson and colleagues, present a questionnaire answered by a large number of modern language teachers in Sweden. The study explores the teachers’ answers on questions about their professional satisfaction, their use of the target language in the classroom, and the curricular status of foreign languages studied after English. Despite many critical points raised by these teachers, the survey reveals that they would not change profession, were they given the chance. The book ends with an Afterword by Stellan Sundh, University of Uppsala.
... Over time, there has been a shift from a focus on learner variables to a sociocultural approach to investigating second language acquisition (Hymes 1972;Bremer et al. 1996;Breen 2001;Barton and Pitt 2003;Cooke and Simpson 2008;Kramsch 2008;Burns and Roberts 2010), where variables in the contexts learners interact in are foregrounded (Bremer et al. 1996;Norton 2000;Baynham 2006;Flowerdew and Miller 2008;Dörnyei 2009;Norton 2010) rather than the emphasis being on the learner. For example, researchers have looked at variables related to opportunities to interact rather than just language aptitude. ...
... The role of language within social settings is particularly important. While Pratt discusses how different languages carry different representations of power, the sociolinguist Hymes (1971) thinks about how children across contexts may not have access to equal sociolinguistic resources and language acquisition. This is particularly true for the case of child language brokers who carry different migration histories and take on roles which are considered to be adult ones. ...
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This paper aims to explore young people’s perspectives of a real-life scenario of child language brokering in a healthcare setting (the doctor’s office), when the topic of discussion is sensitive and potentially conflictual. Child Language brokers are migrant young people who translate and interpret for family members, peers and the local community. Often the spaces in which children broker (e.g., healthcare, banks), referred to here as a ‘contact zone’, are dominated by adults in positions of authority and unequal power differentials. The language broker and those for whom they are brokering may be in a less powerful position because of their migration status and/or age status. Existing research has focused mainly from the view of adults and young people’s perspectives on the practice are underexplored. We draw the existing literature to explore how brokers understand the wider societal context and the strategies they employ to manage conflict. Findings are presented from 29 individual qualitative vignette-based interviews with language brokers (aged 13–16) in the United Kingdom which were qualitatively analysed. Findings show how these children play a vital role in protecting those for whom they broker, often navigating sophisticated social interactions and tactics (such as delay and selective modification). Equally, they carry a weight of responsibility trying to manage complicated, perhaps morally questionable, situations. By asking brokers to reflect on a real-life healthcare scenario, we are advancing understanding of migrant youth brokers and the families they support in their day to day lives.
... From a methodological perspective, we consider the focus on what Dell Hathaway Hymes (1972) called "speech event" and "literacy event" (Bloome et al., 2005;Heath 1983) important. For these reasons, we recommend the visual questionnaire as a literacy event, which is exploited by both researchers and teachers as a material researching technique, but also as a teaching proposal. ...
Chapter
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According to Jochum (2005), the concept of citizenship is perceived through three dominant theoretical approaches that distinguish between a) a situation attributable to the state, b) an identity, and c) a practice that is determined by rights and obligations and is shaped by a common public culture. Following this three-dimensional theoretical scheme as well as postmodern pedagogical practices, we investigate the perception and social competence of preschool pupils in terms of the value of citizenship in the prefecture of Florina in Greece (2016-2017). The research questions that constitute this presentation refer to the recognition of citizenship as: a) the ability to recognize social values in visual material, b) the ability to recognize political values. The case study was chosen as a research method for collecting the material. For the classification, analysis and processing of the multimodal material, the mixed approach as quantitative and qualitative classroom discourse analysis has been chosen. The innovative aspect of this research are the visual questionnaire and the oral school material (mainly by the infants) as well as by the pupils of preschool education, which has been selected for the first time in a national case study.
... This extends to communication and the meaningmaking process 1 at large. While more linear models of communication (e.g., Shannon and Weaver 1949) were mostly concerned with individual senders and receivers of messages, interactional approaches (Hymes 1972, Goffman 1974 recognize the importance of the situational context and cultural conventions, for instance as frames and scripts. However, they do not adequately acknowledge the importance of multimodality for the meaning-making process, and this issue has only been brought forth more recently in accounts such as Kress' (2010) social semiotic approach. ...
Chapter
https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/9783110726626-007/html
... Two decades have passed since Young (2000) described interactional competence (IC) as "a relatively new theory of spoken language use in face-to-face communication" (p.3). It was three decades before then that Hymes (1972) had used the term communicative competence to account for sociocultural variation in language use and acquisition, to challenge Chomsky's dichotomy between competence and performance, contending that grammar rules cannot exist alone and, therefore lack meaningfulness unless they are considered together with the rules for their functional use. Hymes' ideas were further developed by Canale and Swain (1980) into an applied linguistics theory which suggested that an individual's competence includes linguistic competence, discourse competence, pragmatic competence, and strategic competence. ...
Article
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This article describes the importance of including the construct of interactional competence in speaking assessments, drawing mainly from the literature in the field of language testing. The co-construction of meaning and the shared nature of the interaction are seen to be operationalised in an optimal manner using the role play task. The effect of the task is explored through the perspective of the LanguageCert International ESOL Speaking exams, which are used as examples to demonstrate the issues of scalability, discriminability, score separability issues, and the so-called interlocutor effect. Further research and technological innovations will assist in defining and scrutinising the aspects of interactional competence that can be reliably measured.
Thesis
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Η παρούσα έρευνα μελετά τις αντιλήψεις και τις κοινωνικές δεξιότητες των μαθητών/τριών της προσχολικής και πρώτης σχολικής ηλικίας στην πόλη της Φλώρινας, σε σχέση με την πρόσληψη της έννοιας της ιδιότητας του πολίτη. Συγκεκριμένα, η μελέτη επικεντρώνεται (α) στη δυνατότητα αναγνώρισης κοινωνικών- πολιτειακών αξιών σε οπτικό υλικό, (β) στη δυνατότητα αναγνώρισης πολιτικών αξιών, (γ) σε δεξιότητες ανάπτυξης/εκδήλωσης κοινωνικής-πολιτειακής δράσης, (δ) σε δεξιότητες ανάπτυξης/εκδήλωσης κοινής ομιλίας-δράσης, (ε) στη δυνατότητα αναγνώρισης συγκεκριμένων πολιτικών ηγετών/πολιτικής ιδιότητας και (στ) στη συσχέτιση όλων των παραπάνω με τις μεταβλητές του φύλου, της ηλικίας, της τάξης φοίτησης και της εθνικότητας των μαθητών/τριών. Οι λόγοι που οι συγκεκριμένες δεξιότητες μελετώνται στην παρούσα διατριβή είναι επειδή: (i) θεωρούνται απαραίτητες για την επιτυχή συμμετοχή των πολιτών σε συλλογικές δράσεις που αφορούν πολιτικά και κοινωνικά ζητήματα, (ii) παρέχουν γνώσεις στους πολίτες σχετικά με τα δικαιώματα και τις υποχρεώσεις που έχουν απέναντι στην κοινωνία, αλλά και τις αξίες που πρεσβεύει το πολίτευμα της δημοκρατίας και (iii) προάγουν τη συνεργασία ανάμεσα στα μέλη της κοινωνίας για την επίτευξη κοινών στόχων. Ακόμα, πολλές έρευνες (π.χ. Verba et al., 1995. Moely et al., 2002. Schur, 2003) επισημαίνουν ότι οι συγκεκριμένες δεξιότητες συνδέονται με υψηλότερα ποσοστά πολιτικής και κοινωνικής συμμετοχής των πολιτών και όπως είναι γνωστό, η δημοκρατία συνεπάγεται υψηλά επίπεδα συμμετοχής στη λήψη αποφάσεων. Ειδικότερα, (α) η αναγνώριση των κοινωνικών-πολιτειακών αξιών συνδέεται με τις πραγματικές και βαθύτερες ανάγκες της κοινωνίας και επιπλέον αποτελούν θεμελιώδες συστατικό για τη συνοχή και την πρόοδο των κοινωνιών, (β) η αναγνώριση των πολιτικών αξιών στο οπτικό υλικό συνδέεται με τους πολιτικούς θεσμούς, τις σχέσεις, τους οργανισμούς, τα δικαιώματα και τις υποχρεώσεις του πολίτη και το πολίτευμα της δημοκρατίας που πηγάζει και ασκείται από τον λαό, (γ) οι δεξιότητες ανάπτυξης/εκδήλωσης κοινωνικής-πολιτειακής δράσης και κοινής ομιλίας-δράσης θεωρούνται από τις σημαντικότερες δεξιότητες των ενεργών πολιτών, καθώς συνδέονται με τη δυνατότητα συνεργασίας με άλλα μέλη, το ομαδικό πνεύμα, την ενότητα και την κοινή δράση για την επίλυση προβλημάτων σε μια κοινωνία και (δ) η δυνατότητα αναγνώρισης συγκεκριμένων πολιτικών ηγετών/πολιτικής ιδιότητας, αφορά την αναγνώριση πολιτικών ζητημάτων -όπως ακριβώς και στην περίπτωση για τις πολιτικές αξίες. Ως ερευνητική στρατηγική επιλέχθηκε η μελέτη περίπτωσης, ενώ για τη συλλογή του υλικού κατασκευάστηκαν δύο οπτικά ερωτηματολόγια που βασίστηκαν στο Ευρωπαΐκό πρόγραμμα imago 2010 -«Μάθηση με εικόνες. Εναύσματα για την εργασία στην προσχολική ηλικία και στην ηλικία δημοτικού» του Πανεπιστημίου Gießen, του Πανεπιστημίου της Σόφιας και του Βόλου, καθώς και του Mozarteum στο Salzburg. Όσον αφορά την ανάλυση και επεξεργασία του πολυτροπικού υλικού εφαρμόστηκαν (α) η κοινωνικοσημειωτική και η ερμηνευτική μέθοδος, ως τεχνικές που ερμηνεύουν το οπτικό και γλωσσικό υλικό και υποστηρίζουν την έρευνα και την ανάλυση των παιδικών ιχνογραφημάτων και (β) η ποσοτική και ποιοτική ανάλυση περιεχομένου, ως αναλυτική τεχνική για τις απαντήσεις των μαθητών/τριών στη δομημένη συνέντευξη. Η ερευνητική διαδικασία έδειξε ότι οι μαθητές/τριες που συμμετείχαν στην έρευνα ανέπτυξαν ένα βαθμό οπτικού γραμματισμού όταν αναγνώρισαν τα σενάρια, τους ρόλους και τις ιδιότητες των εικονιζόμενων προσώπων μέσα από τα ποικίλα είδη εικόνων που τους προσφέρθηκαν και ταυτόχρονα οδηγήθηκαν σε προσωπικές μορφές κατανόησης, ερμηνείας και αξιολόγησης του κόσμου. Επιπλέον, έγινε η υπόθεση ότι τα παιδιά μέσω των ιχνογραφημάτων αποτύπωσαν τις αντιλήψεις τους για την ιδιότητα του πολίτη όπως τη βίωσαν και όπως την είδαν, δηλαδή, παρήγαγαν και αφηγήθηκαν μέσω των εικόνων ιστορίες, ανάλογα με τον τίτλο-θέμα που τους έδωσαν. Παράλληλα, το υλικό της έρευνας μπορεί να αξιοποιηθεί από/και για το παιδί, τον εκπαιδευτικό και τον/την ερευνητή/τρια ως υλικό πληροφόρησης για την πολιτική κοινωνικοποίηση του παιδιού, για τα στερεότυπα που συνειδητά ή ασυνείδητα έχει ενστερνιστεί ή όχι, ενώ συγχρόνως αποτελεί ερευνητική και διδακτική πρόταση για την ιδιότητα του πολίτη στην προσχολική και πρώτη σχολική ηλικία. Συνοψίζοντας, θα πρέπει να επισημανθεί ότι επιχειρείται μια πολυτροπική ανάλυση με τη μετατόπιση του ενδιαφέροντος από το ιχνογράφημα ως αντικείμενο και ως εργαλείο έρευνας στο ίδιο το παιδί - δημιουργό, στη διαδικασία της ιχνογράφησης και στις διαδικασίες που συντελούνται την ώρα της ιχνογράφησης, καθώς και στην εξέταση των πλαισίων επικοινωνίας και των σχέσεων με στόχο να ανιχνευθεί η επιρροή συγκεκριμένων διαδικασιών στα συναισθήματα και στις αντιλήψεις τους.
Conference Paper
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In my opinion, the cruise is a tourist trip on the water, on board a large ship, where accommodation is provided, as well as other hotel-specific facilities (bar, cafe, terrace, etc.), which can start and end. either in the same port or in different ports and have pre-arranged stops. Therefore, the concept of cruise tourism is transposed into: accessibility, specificity, selectivity, innovation, uniqueness, etc., and the application of specific standards for all tourist services.
Chapter
The chapter begins with a review of foundational studies on how monolingual children develop emergent literacy, then moves to explore how children develop multiliteracy by learning to interpret symbols and icons in their immediate contexts. The research shows that children find ways to experience and construct meaning from their local scripts in each of their multiple languages. Studies presented in this chapter show that children can interpret symbols in several different scripts, and that they find strategies to navigate multiple languages and become competent speakers in their communities.
Article
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Code-meshing as a strategic linguistic practice has been considered a rarity in a high-stake writing practice (e.g. academic writing). Studies in composition scholarship have demonstrated that such a practice needs arduous intellectual endeavors and extra rhetorical efforts to be realized. That is, code-meshing requires an exceptionally high linguistic adeptness, language awareness, and rhetorical sensitivity in order to be performed effectively. As such, the products of code-meshing in scholarly writing are often seen as a marked form of textual realization. This article shows that while strenuous struggles are needed to practice code-meshing in academic writing (i.e. high-stake translingual practice), such a practice can be performed as mundane, ordinary, unremarkable, and relaxed activities (i.e. low-stake translingual practice) in linguistic landscapes or signage displayed in public places. Illustrations of the code-meshed texts in the latter case will be provided, and then examined to account for their ordinariness. In light of the vibrant low-stake translingual practice, I shall develop an important notion of grassroots performativity to suggest the everydayness of quotidian language practices enacted by multilingual language users in their own community.
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Методика наставе српског као страног језика представља релативно мла- ду научну дисциплину, чији даљи развој захтева даља важна теориј- ска и методолошка истраживања и разматрања. Монографија која се налази пред читаоцима представља покушај да се одговори на делић неразјашњених питања са којима се наставници српскога језика као страног свакодневно сусрећу. Настала је као резултат рада на докторској дисертацији Полифункционалност уџбеничког ком- плета за учење српског као страног језика (одбрањеној 29. априла 2021. године на Филозофском факултету Универзитета у Нишу) и требало би да допринесе сагледа- вању важности постојања квалитетног уџбеничког комплета у учењу језика, како са теоријске, тако и са практичне стране. Добро је познато да уџбенички комплет представља окосницу наставе срп- ског као страног језика и незаменљиво наставно средство од чијег квалитета зависи успешност наставе. Домаћи аутори већ више година истичу потребу стварања но- вих и квалитетнијих уџбеничких комплета који би у потпуности одговорили на за- хтеве савремене наставе српског језика као страног. Зато смо настојали да испитамо шта се подразумева под полифункционалношћу уџбеничког комплета, као и који (од актуелних) уџбеничких комплета испуњавају захтеве да се назову полифунк- ционалним. Наиме, са развојем центара за учење (српског као страног) у Београду, Новом Саду, Крагујевцу и Нишу појавила су се важна питања у вези са квалитетом уџбеничких комплета, те смо настојали да проверимо шта је стварно урађено у по- следњих тридесетак година на том пољу. Такође, до сада није било свеобухватних анализа и евалуација постојећих уџбеничких комплета, које засигурно представља- ју једини пут ка унапређењу њиховог квалитета.
Article
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Language is most effectively acquired through communication. In order to practice speaking skills, it is necessary to encourage students to communicate regardless of the method of teaching used by the teacher. Communication does not necessarily occur in class when teachers ask usual questions concerning information from text materials and students give typical answers which are grammatically correct and in full sentences. Communication in class occurs when a teacher initiates real, genuine conversation about the attitudes and opinions of the speakers. In spontaneous, everyday speech, speakers tend to use short, intermittent sentences, as well as various skills of interaction and conversation, such as false starts, parataxis, reformulations, hesitation devices and others. The aim of this paper is to investigate how much genuine communication happens using teacher-centered method, in comparison to pair and group work in two senior grade classes of primary school. We will first analyze the two teachers' teacher-centered classes example and try to determine the kind of communication that takes place there. Then we will compare the quality and quantity of communication, as well as the number of participants in it, with the results obtained with the same students in group tasks. The goal is to determine which method of work and the way in which it is performed encourages the development of students' communicative competence.
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In modern conditions of general globalization and mobility within different work systems, but also due to the noticeable need for narrow specializations of knowledge, languages for specific purposes are becoming an increasingly relevant category. In this paper we focused on possible ways of testing the language for specific purposes. After a brief presentation of theoretical views on the languages for specific purposes, and pointing to different views of testing in this area, we tried to describe the impact that the complex topic of interaction between language knowledge and professional knowledge can have on testing, as well as the way the dual notion of authenticity is reflected through LSP testing. Our goal was to provide an overview of different views on LSP testing, to point out its specifics, and, above all, the complex issues and possible ways to solve them by combining several different perspectives. It was also pointed out that interdisciplinary research and cooperation of experts from various fields could make a great contribution to development in this area.
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Within the framework of Task-based Language Teaching / Learning, it is believed that since learners work to complete a task, they have abundant opportunity to interact. Such interaction is thought to facilitate language acquisition as learners have to work to understand each other and to express their own meaning. The research study reported herein was designed to investigate the effects of using task-based activities on reading comprehension skill among Iranian intermediate pre-university students. To this end, sixty male EFL participants from pre-university level in Hamedan were selected and assigned to two groups (experimental and control) on the basis of their performance on the Oxford Placement Test as pre-test. Then, the subjects in experimental group underwent practice on reading passages through using different kinds of task-based activities during a one-month period. During the treatment, the experimental group participants had the opportunity to produce output (use language) through negotiation based on doing task-based activities both orally and in written form. The control group did not produce but answered some cliché comprehension exercises (true/false, multiple-choice items). They received some placebo activities with no treatment. Both groups were exposed to the same passages but did different tasks. At the end of the experimental period, the subjects in the two groups were given the post-test of reading comprehension. The raw scores were submitted to a series of t-tests. The results showed that using task-based activities during treatment period contributed significantly to the performance on reading comprehension in experimental group. In addition, the experimental group showed significant difference in their general language proficiency. Further studies are needed to investigate the impact of other task-based criteria on reading comprehension skill as well as speaking, writing and also listening comprehension by changing the type of elicitation instruments, the time of experimental treatment and the subjects’ proficiency level.
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Background & Aims: Methodology as a critical factor plays a significant role in achieving the acceptable results in educational fields, particularly in the process of language teaching and learning in applied linguistics. Analyzing the teaching methodology from different perspectives such as satisfaction is also important. Accordingly, the purpose of present paper is to evaluate the satisfaction level the students of medicine about GTM and CLT methods in UMSU. Materials & Methods: To this end, a designed questionnaire was used among 35 students of medicine (17 males and 18 females) as a convenience sample ranging from 19 to 22 years to assess their beliefs about GTM and CLT. The quantitative and descriptive statistical methods were used to evaluate the students' satisfactions level toward GTM and CLT. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 17. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test was applied to evaluate the normal distribution of data in different variables (p> 0.05). In order to compare the mean scores of two methods, a paired t-test was used, respectively. Results: The findings indicated that there is a significant difference in students' perception between GTM and CLT method in the presentation of contents. Students had positive attitudes toward deductive and lectured-based learning, and they were satisfied with GTM. In other four remained options, no significant differences were observed. Conclusion: According to the results, it was revealed that although CLT method is confirmed and suggested by a large number of scholars to be an effective method in language teaching, its state of the practice is not in favor of learners in some cases, mainly among the students of medicine at UMSU.
Chapter
In the following chapter, Keleş and Yazan first briefly describe the historical background and tenets of the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Approach with its relevance to language coursebooks. Scrutinizing communicative classroom activities in the form of pair and group work, the authors move on to discuss communicative competence and authenticity in CLT-based coursebooks. Second, they examine two examples of coursebook activities from two global coursebooks – Speakout Elementary 2nd Edition (2015) and Headway Elementary 5th Edition (2019). Next, they provide alternative ways for language teachers to adapt ELT coursebooks to address their students’ communicative needs. Lastly, the authors offer a list of criteria for coursebook evaluation in accordance with the CLT.
Article
Introduction. The forced switching of universities to distance learning required a change in approaches, technologies and teaching methods. Learning a foreign language is impossible without the practice of oral communication: for the most part, it is in the process of it that the development of communicative competence takes place. We tried not only to bring the new-format learning closer to learning in the traditional format, but also, to a certain extent, to expand the educational potential for the formation of communicative competence through the maximum possible involvement of online learning resources and a well-designed methodological organization. The purpose of the article: to describe the pedagogical technology of the optimal use of online learning resources for the development of students' communicative competence, to evaluate its effectiveness. Materials and methods. The methodological basis of the study was a competence-based approach to teaching a foreign language. The work in the experimental group of students of Tula State University, studying in the section of Linguistics, was aimed at the optimal use of online learning resources for the development of students' communicative competence in its four components: language, speech, socio-cultural, motivational-reflexive. In the process of the study, methods of theoretical knowledge were used: analysis, synthesis, generalization, as well as methods of empirical knowledge: questioning, interviewing, the method of pedagogical observation, the method of expert evaluation, the method of mathematical data processing. Results of the study. At the end of the work carried out in the experimental group, an increase in the indicators of the formation of the components of communicative competence was recorded: in regard to the language component t-statistic = 8.3 (p < 0,001), the speech component t-statistic = 6.7 (p < 0,001), the socio-cultural component t-statistic = 5.4 (p < 0,001). Discussion and conclusion. The efficiency of the technology was proven through comparative diagnostics of the formation of the components of communicative competence among students before the start of the experimental work and at the end of it. In the distance format, there are opportunities for the effective implementation of the didactic principles of individualization, differentiation of learning. There are sources for increasing of students’ motivation to learn a foreign language, for activating their cognitive interest and developing skills of self-control, self-correction.
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The current work approaches the relevance of introducing mitigation of directive speech acts, in order to develop the pragmatic competence in native English speaking students, when learning Spanish as a Second Language. The theorical framework analyzes three, highly face-threatening directive speech acts: requests, supplications and orders or commands. Likewise, this work has reviewed the mitigation strategies for those speech actsand their pragmatic resources (mitigating particles) suggested by the Curricular Plan of the Cervantes Institute for language proficiency level B2. In regards to their implementations in the classroom, this work includes a lesson plan based on the Task-Based Learning (TBL) approach that is rooted in the Communicative Language Teaching method. Through the student’s involvement on different communicative situations, and dynamics such as role-play and team building activities, they shall be able to imply elements from context, as well as interpret and perform the verbal courtesy in the production of formal and non-formal texts supported by authentic language materials arranged for their language proficiency level and needs. Keywords: ELE, Pragmatics, courtesy, mitigation, directive speech acts.
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Thesis
Using the sociological lens of the Bourdieusian thinking tools of habitus, field and capital, the aim of this thesis is to identify and view the personal and professional issues lecturers with English as an additional language encounter when moving into an English Medium of Instruction (EMI) context. With much research focussing on the language level needed to engage in EMI or on the comparability of the achievement of learning outcomes of EMI and non-EMI courses, there has been little attention given to the sociological effect of a change of language of instruction on lecturers, specifically in relation to their dispositions, or habitus, as educational professionals. To establish the effect of a change to EMI on lecturers’ habitus, I initially look at the relationship between lecturers and their sense of habitus and then investigate how the use of EMI affects that habitus. Adopting Bourdieu’s ‘constructivist structuralism’ and using interviews with lecturers across five first language groups, I show how language is only one element that needs to be considered alongside resourcing, pedagogical training, professional expectations, and a lecturer’s general working conditions. I also suggest potential issues of symbolic violence that arise when English is accepted as a legitimate language in HE, as well as areas where issues could be turned into professional and pedagogical opportunity. The significance of this study is that it informs our understanding of the sociological difficulties of adopting a new medium of instruction, beyond problems relating to language level. This thesis also raises concerns about the unquestioned growth of EMI and, where it is implemented, suggests possible changes to micro-level policy that may enable EMI strategy to be implemented in a way that supports lecturers and reduces discord between habitus and altered forms of capital.
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The purpose of the study is to elucidate the theoretical and methodological aspects of computer support organization for independent work in a foreign (German) language for future teachers of different subjects.The subject of the study is a methodological technique of organizing effective computer support for future teachers to work independently in a foreign (German) language.Objectives of the study: to state the goals of studying foreign languages in its broad and narrow sense, the requirements for the results of future teachers’ training in different subjects; to explore ways of organizing computer support for future teachers’ independent work; to determine the list and purpose of the basic and auxiliary structural elements of a typical e-learning Moodle course in a foreign language; to provide methodological recommendations for the organization of future teachers’ independent work in the content of a separate training module of the Moodle course “Foreign (German) Language”.The article summarizes the experience of organizing computer support for future teachers’ independent work and the substantive and methodological features of its implementation into the process of experimental introduction of the Moodle course “Foreign (German) Language” into the educational process carried out on the basis of Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University.
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Wyniki Europejskiego Badania Kompetencji Językowych (ESLC) pokazały, że w Polsce lekcja w szkole jest dla wielu uczniów jedyną okazją do regularnego kontaktu z językiem obcym. Autorzy niniejszego tekstu podjęli próbę przeanalizowania informacji dotyczących lekcji językowych, a zebranych wśród gimnazjalistów uczestniczących w badaniu ESLC. Celem artykułu jest omówienie danych kwestionariuszowych dotyczących lekcji języka w świetle aktualnego stanu wiedzy teoretycznej i praktycznej związanej z nauczaniem języków obcych oraz założeniami podstawy programowej. Podjęto również próbę odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy lekcja, której obraz wyłania się z odpowiedzi uczniów, pozwala na realizację podstawowego celu edukacji językowej, jakim jest komunikacja w języku obcym.
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Purpose Examining discourse after right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) can provide invaluable clinical data and insight into functional communication capabilities. Yet, clinicians preparing to enter the field may have limited experience eliciting and analyzing discourse for therapeutic purposes. The purpose of this work is to present a practical guide for the clinical use of the RHDBank protocol. Method Following a brief overview of the RHDBank protocol, elicitation guidelines and protocol administration considerations are offered. Measures that should be considered when analyzing RHDBank-elicited discourse are summarized. The RHDBank protocol is positioned as an accessible resource for discourse elicitation in the clinical setting, and examples for the clinical use of the protocol are provided. Conclusions Discourse production can be a key source of information regarding communication ability following RHD. The RHDBank provides a structured and scripted approach to the clinical elicitation of language and consideration of discourse production. Its immediate clinical utility will assist developing clinicians with the acquisition of a clinically relevant elicitation approach and more comprehensive view of the RHD communication impairments. Application of the protocol can aid in collective knowledge advancement that will promote a better understanding of RHD language production as a clinical entity with an array of possible characteristics.
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This article is a short review of a vital asset in language acquisition process. It addresses speaking as a language skill which is used to be disregarded for many years with traditional instructional approaches to language acquisition or learning. This article probes into the main two types of speaking which are speaking in terms of use and speaking in terms of usage. It also addresses the significance of speaking activities in improving learners’ language proficiency. To achieve this aim, the present paper is divided into seventh subsections. The first subsection provides an operational definition to speaking. The second subsection tackles two major types of speaking, namely speaking in terms of use and speaking in terms of usage. The third deals with the significance of adopting speaking activities in the classroom. The fourth probes into the various roles teachers play during speaking activities in the classroom. The fifth reviews the main components of communicative competence as cited by Canale and Swain (1980). The sixth explores the different conversational strategies speakers and students can resort to while speaking. The last subsection looks into the major speaking performances employed by teachers in their classrooms namely imitative, responsive, transactional and interpersonal, to name but few. The paper concludes with a sketchy sum up of what has been reviewed and addressed in this paper.
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Despite the importance of oral interaction and conversation in foreign language learning, there is a striking lack of studies regarding the everyday conversation of Japanese students in Spanish as a Foreign Language (SFL). As Japanese and Spanish are two languages with a remarkable linguistic distance, it is reasonable to suppose that the conversational style of Japanese learners of SFL will be different from the style of speakers of either Japanese or Spanish as a mother tongue, and it will differ across competence levels. In this paper, I present the first oral corpus created to research the conversational style of Japanese Learners of SFL with a methodology based on Conversation Analysis and Interactional Linguistics. First, I discuss the protocols for designing the corpus and the procedures for collecting the data. Second, I present two extracts as examples of the conversations included in the corpus. Finally, I analyze these two extracts. This preliminary analysis suggests that participants with a lower competence level may use a conversational style closer to Japanese, with more continuers or backchannels during the ongoing turn, while higher level participants produce fewer continuers and more overlapping talk at the end of the turns, a characteristic feature of conversation in Spanish.
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