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. Lutaenko K.A., Xu F. A catalogue of types of bivalve mollusks in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Qingdao). Bulletin of the Russian Far East Malacological Society, 2008, v. 12, pp. 42-70. [in English]

Authors:
  • A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences (formerly, A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology)

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42
Бюллетень Дальневосточн ого T he B ul let in of the Russian
малакологического общества Far East Malacological Society
2008, вып. 12, с. 42–70 2008, vol. 12, pp. 42–70
A catalogue of types of bivalve mollusks
in the Marine Biological Museum,
Chinese Academy of Sciences (Qingdao)
K.A. Lutaenko, Xu Fengshan
A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690041, Russia
Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
e-mail: lutaenko@mail.primorye.ru
A listing of 51 nominal names of marine bivalve mollusks belonging to 24 families described from
Chinese waters with data and comments on their types deposited in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese
Academy of Sciences (Qingdao) is given. Original drawings (if any) are provided as well photographs of
types for 21 species.
Каталог типов двустворчатых моллюсков,
хранящихся в Морском биологическом музее
Китайской академии наук (Циндао)
К.А. Лутаенко, Сюй Феньшань
Институт биологии моря им. А.В. Жирмунского ДВО РАН,
Владивосток 690041, Россия
Институт океанологии КАН, Циндао 266071, Китайская Народная Республика
e-mail: lutaenko@mail.primorye.ru
Приведен список 51 номинального названия морских двустворчатых моллюсков (24 семейства),
описанных из прибрежных вод Китая, с данными и комментариями по типовому материалу, который
хранится в Морском биологическом музее Китайской академии наук . Циндао). Даны оригиналь-
ные рисунки описанных видов, а также фотографии типов для 21 вида.
Chinese contribution to the study of
marine bivalves is well known, and it was
reviewed and summarized by Zhuang
[1992], and partly by P. Valentich-Scott
[2003]. Taxonomic studies in China
started later than in western countries,
and the period between the 1950s–1990s,
after liberation of the country, was the
time of intensive sampling and research
on taxonomy, biology, ecology and fishe-
ries of bivalves from the Xisha Islands
and Tonkin (Beibu) Gulf in the south to
the Yalu River mouth in the north. Col-
lected material is mostly housed in the
Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy
of Sciences (Academia Sinica), Qingdao.
Chinese malacologists published several
important taxonomic monographs in the
series «Fauna Sinica» such as those on
the Pteriina [Wang, 2002], Protobran-
43
chia and Anomalodesmata [Xu, 1999],
Mytiloida [Wang, 1997], and Veneridae
[Zhuang, 2001] as well as a number of
papers in magazines and collected scien-
tific papers of research institutions. One
important contribution to the Chinese mol-
luscan fauna, a study on Tellinoidea, was
made by the famous Russian malacologist
O.A. Scarlato [1965]. Two catalogues of
bivalve mollusks of the Chinese seas were
published in the 1990s [Bernard et al., 1993;
Xu, 1997]. Finally, a taxonomic review of
the Chinese molluscan fauna, «Seashells
of China», including 605 species of Bival-
via illustrated in color was published in
English [Qi, 2004]. Another color book
appeared earlier [Wang et al., 1988].
A very important latest contribution is
«An Illustrated Bivalvia Mollusca Fauna
of China Seas» [Xu, Zhang, 2008]. There
are a number of regional guide-books on
bivalves of China.
To date, Chinese malacologists have
described more than 50 species of marine
Bivalvia as new to science. Most of origi-
nal descriptions contained drawings and
rarely photographs. A majority of types of
these new species are currently stored in
the Marine Biological Museum, Institute
of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sci-
ences. We undertook a compilation of the
catalogue of all isolated types deposited in
a special repository in the above museum.
In the course of this work, we met some
difficulties related to the status of types
and the translation of original labels from
Chinese into English. Illustrations to the
catalogue include both drawings taken
from original publications and photo-
graphs. The museum numbers of the type
material were taken from original descrip-
tions, but we provide also the registration
numbers from labels which are often dif-
ferent. Measurements of shells are given
as they appear in the original descriptions;
in this case, we provide a reference to
publications; otherwise we give our own
measurements.
Abbreviations:
MBM CAS Marine Biological
Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
IOCAS, Qingdao
IOCAS Institute of Oceanology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao
Class Bivalvia
Subclass Protobranchia Pelseneer, 1889
Order Nuculoida Dall, 1889
Superfamily Nuculoidea Gray, 1824
Family Nuculidae Gray, 1824
Nucula faba
Xu, 1999
Text-fig. 2B
Original description: Xu,
1999, p. 39 (Chinese), p. 225 (English),
fig. 22 (as Nucula (Leionucula)).
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 37951, dimensions: length 9.0 mm,
height 6.5 mm, width 5.4 mm [after Xu,
1999]; collected from the East China Sea,
29º30 N, 122º15 E, depth 13 m, July 13,
1950; 1 paratype no. 37952; collected from
Bohai Gulf, 38º06 N, 118º12 E, depth
13 m, July 25, 1959.
Superfamily Nuculanoidea
H. Adams et A. Adams, 1858
Catalogue of the type specimens of bivalve mollusks
in the MBM CAS, Qingdao
44
Family Nuculanidae
H. Adams et A. Adams, 1858
Nuculana sinensis
Xu, 1984
Text-fig. 2A
Original description: Xu,
1984, p. 169 (Chinese), p. 177 (English),
fig. 3 (as Nuculana (Sinoleda)).
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. X79B-40 (no. 30942 in label),
dimensions: length 6.2 mm, height
2.7 mm, width 1.2 mm [after Xu, 1984];
collected in the South China Sea, 18º30 N,
107º00 E, depth 60 m; 1 paratype no.
V542A-19.
Nuculana forticostata
Xu, 1991
Text-fig. 8C
Original description: Xu,
1991, p. 83 (Chinese), p. 84 (English),
fig. 2.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. SSAV14-5 (no. 30935 in label),
dimensions: length 4.2 mm, height 2.1 mm
[after Xu, 1991]; collected from Nansha
Islands, 6º52 N, 115º55 E, depth 185 m,
muddy sandy bottom, July 29, 1988. Xu
[1991] also mentioned that paratype
no. SSAV19-3 is deposited in the South
China Sea Institute of Oceanology,
Guangzhou.
Family Malletiidae
H. Adams et A. Adams, 1858
Neilo bisculpta
Xu, 1991
Text-fig. 1B; Plate 1, figs. A, B
Original description: Xu,
1991, p. 82 (Chinese), p. 84 (English),
fig. 1.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. SSBIII9-23 (no. 30938 in label),
dimensions: length 14.5 mm, height
9.6 mm, width 5.1 mm [after Xu, 1991];
collected from Nansha Islands, 5º22 N,
112º05 E, muddy and sandy bottom, depth
136 m, April 30, 1986; Xu [1991] also
mentioned that paratype no. SSBV26-28 is
deposited in the South China Sea Institute
of Oceanology, Guangzhou; another para-
type (?) no. 30937 is in the MBM CAS.
Family Tindariidae
Verrill et Bush, 1897
Tindaria jinxingae
Xu, 1990
Text-fig. 2C
Original description: Xu,
1990, p. 561 (Chinese), p. 562 (English),
fig. 1.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. V569 B-8 (no. 30943 in label),
dimensions: length 4.5 mm, height
3.8 mm, width 2.4 mm [after Xu, 1990];
collected from the East China Sea,
26º20 N, 125º00 E, mud, depth 550 m,
June 10, 1978.
Subclass Pteriomorphia Beurlen, 1944
Order Mytiloida Ferussac, 1822
Superfamily Mytiloidea
Rafinesque, 1815
Family Mytilidae Rafinesque, 1815
Crenella sinica
Wang et Qi, 1984
Original description: Wang,
Qi, 1984, p. 227 (Chinese), p. 241 (Eng-
lish), pl. 1, fig. 11.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. C90B-44a (no. 32854 in label),
dimensions: length 5.6 mm, height
4.5 mm, width 3.4 mm [after Wang,
Qi, 1984]; collected from Yellow Sea,
33º30 N, 123º E, December 6, 1959; there
are three lots of paratypes in the collection
45
Fig. 1. Original illustrations of bivalve mollusks described from Chinese seas. A Cryptopecten complanus
Wang, 1983 [Wang, 1983a, fig. 1]; B Neilo bisculpta Xu, 1991 [Xu, 1991, fig. 1]; C, D Semipallium
xishaensis Wang, 1985 [Wang, 1985, fig. 4]; E Pteria admirabilis Wang, 2002 [Wang, 2002, fig. 54];
FPteria bulliformis Wang, 2002 [Wang, 2002, fig. 55].
46
Fig. 2. Original illustrations of bivalve mollusks described from Chinese seas. A Nuculana sinensis Xu,
1984 [Xu, 1984, fig.3]; BNucula faba Xu, 1999 [Xu, 1999, fig.22]; CTindaria jinxingae Xu, 1990 [Xu,
1990, fig.1]; D Gouldia subtrigona Zhuang, 1964 [Zhuang, 1964, pl. 3, fig.6]; E Gouldia micronodulosa
Zhuang, 1964 [Zhuang, 1964, pl. 3, fig. 4]; FAbra sinica Xu, 1996 [Xu, 1996, fig. 1]; GCalyptogena
nanshaensis Xu et Shen, 1991 [Xu, Shen, 1991, fig. 1].
47
of the MBM CAS with nos. 32915, 32914,
and «32854» (same as holotype) (in total,
13 specimens); Wang and Qi [1984]
enumerated three lots of paratypes with
nos. C71B-43b, C12A-15c and C189-18d,
all collected from Yellow Sea.
Lithophaga lepteces
Wang, 1997
Text-fig. 7C–E
Original description: Wang,
1997, p. 162 (Chinese), p. 240 (English),
fig. 68 (as Lithophaga (Labis)).
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M84-073 (no. 32272 in label),
dimensions: length 20.7 mm, height
6.7 mm, width 6.6 mm [after Wang, 1997];
collected in Fujian, Dongshan, April 15,
1984; Wang [1997] also mentioned 1 para-
type no. M84-074 but we did not find it in
the collection.
Septifer pulcher
Wang, 1983
Text-fig. 7G, H
Original description: Wang,
1983c, p. 214 (Chinese), p. 220, pl. 1,
fig. 4.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M11581, dimensions: length
6.0 mm, height 4.4 mm, width 4.3 mm
[after Wang, 1983c]; collected from Zhao-
shudao, Xisha Islands, South China Sea,
April 7, 1975; Wang [1093c] also men-
tioned paratype no. M11582 from Hua-
guangjiao, Xisha Islands but we did not
find it in the collection.
Septifer xishaensis
Wang, 1983
Text-fig. 7A–B
Original description: Wang,
1983c, p. 215 (Chinese), p. 221 (Eng-
lish), pl. 1, figs. 1, 2 (in the English text as
«S. xisnaensis»).
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M11583, dimensions: length
4.8 mm, height 4.0 mm, width 3.6 mm
[after Wang, 1983c]; collected from
Zhongjiandao, Xisha Islands, South China
Sea, April 17, 1975.
Order Ostreoida Ferussac, 1822
Superfamily Pectinoidea Wilkes, 1810
Family Pectinidae Wilkes, 1810
Semipallium xishaensis
Wang, 1985
Text-fig. 1C, D; Plate 1, figs. C–F
Original description: Wang,
1985, p. 504 (Chinese), p. 506 (English).
fig. 4 (as Semipallium (Excellichlamys)).
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M25777, dimensions: length
20.5 mm, height 21.0 mm, width 7.4 mm
[after Wang, 1985]; collected from the
intertidal zone, Jinqing Isl., Xisha Islands,
South China Sea, May 1, 1958.
Ctenamussium sinensis
Wang, 1980
Original description: Wang,
1980, p. 259 (Chinese), p. 261 (English),
pl. 1, figs. 1–3.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. V570B-52 (no. 9 in label), dimen-
sions: length 11.92 mm, height 10.6 mm,
width 2.2 mm [after Wang, 1980]; collected
from East China Sea, 26º30 N, 124º00 E,
depth 138 m, sand, June 11, 1978; 1 para-
type no. 10 (in label). Wang [1980] enu-
merated 4 paratypes under nos. V563B-14,
V554B-35, V485B-48, V557B-42 which
are deposited in the author’s collection.
Bractechlamys elegans
Wang, 1983
Text-fig. 8A, B
Original description: Wang,
1983b, p. 532 (Chinese), p. 533 (English),
pl. 1, figs. 1–4.
48
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M11585 (no. 7517-054 in
label), dimensions: length 11.5 mm,
height 12.4 mm, width 3.6 mm [after
Wang, 1983b]; collected from South
China Sea, intertidal zone of Yülin,
Hainan Isl., April 14, 1975; 3 paratypes
no. M11586 (no. 57-480 in label), collec-
ted from the intertidal zone of Xisha Isl.,
April 28, 1957.
Cryptopecten complanus
Wang, 1983
Text-fig. 1A; Plate 1, figs. F–J
Original description: Wang,
1983a, p. 402 (Chinese), p. 405 (English),
fig. 1.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M11072, dimensions: length
14.8 mm, height 14.0 mm, width 4.0 mm
[after Wang, 1983a]; collected from East
China Sea, 31º5 N, 128º E (sic), depth
147 m, sand, May 30, 1978; 1 paratype
no. M11073, collected from East China
Sea, 27º5 N, 126º E (sic), depth 131 m,
sand, July 5, 1976.
Propeamussium stella
Wang, 1984
Original description: Wang,
1984, p. 600 (Chinese), p. 602 (English),
pl. 1, figs. 11–14 (as Propeamussium (Pro-
peamussium)).
Types and comments: Holo-
type (?) no. M25778, dimensions: length
17.0 mm, height 17.0 mm, width 2.8 mm
[after Wang, 1984]; collected from South
China Sea, 19º N (sic), 112.5º E, depth
290 m, sand, April 19, 1959; 3 paratypes (?)
no. M25779, collected from South China
Sea, 19º N, 112.5º E, depth 290 m, April 6,
1960. Unfortunately, there are two speci-
mens in one jar with indication «holotype»,
and they might be regarded as syntypes in
future; Wang [1984] mentioned only one
paratype under no. M25779 but the jar
contains 3 specimens.
Propeamussium gracilis
Wang, 1984
Original description: Wang,
1984, p. 601 (Chinese), p. 603 (English),
pl. 1, figs. 5–10 (as Propeamussium (Par-
vamussium)).
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M25775, dimensions: length
6.8 mm, height 7.4 mm, width 1.6 mm [after
Wang, 1984]; collected from South China
Sea, 19º30 N, 113º E (sic), depth 210 m,
April 5, 1960; 3 (?) paratypes (3 valves,
but two may represent a complete shell)
no. M25776, collected from South China
Sea, depth 242 m (Wang [1984] mentioned
1 specimen under this no.). Wang [l.c.] also
mentioned 1 paratype under no. M25777
but we did not find it in the collection.
Subclass Heterodonta Neumayr, 1884
Order Veneroida H. et A. Adams, 1856
Superfamily Glossoidea Gray, 1847
Family Vesicomyidae
Dall et Simpson, 1901
Calyptogena nanshaensis
Xu et Shen, 1991
Text-fig. 2G; Plate 3, figs. M–P
Original description: Xu,
Shen, 1991, p. 164 (Chinese), p. 165 (Eng-
lish), fig. 1.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. SSBII11-10 (no. 30934 in label),
dimensions: length 66.4 mm, height
42.0 mm, width 26.6 mm [after Xu, Shen,
1991]; collected from Nansha Islands,
6º04 N, 113º37 E, depth 2626 m, June 5,
1985.
Superfamily Veneroidea
Rafinesque, 1815
Family Veneridae Rafinesque, 1815
49
Dosinia truncata Zhuang, 1964
Plate 2, figs I–L
Original description: Zhu-
ang, 1964, p. 63 (Chinese), p. 104 (English),
pl. 2, figs. 11, 12 (as Dosinia (Phacosoma)).
Types and comments: 2 para-
types no. M07336; collected from (?) South
China Sea, Hainan Isl. (one of them is illu-
strated here). Holotype no. M07337 was
deposited in the IOCAS [Zhuang, 1964]
but now in the author’s collection.
Gouldia micronodulosa
Zhuang, 1964
Text-fig. 2E
Original description: Zhu-
ang, 1964, p. 72 (Chinese), p. 104 (Eng-
lish), pl. 3, fig. 4.
Types and comments: 1 para-
type no. M07340, dimensions: length
7.2 mm, height 6.1 mm, width 3.5 mm;
collected from South China Sea, off the
coast of Swatow. Holotype no. M07338
was deposited in the IOCAS [Zhuang,
1964] but now in the author’s collection.
Gouldia subtrigona
Zhuang, 1964
Text-fig. 2D
Original description: Zhu-
ang, 1964, p. 73 (Chinese), p. 105 (Eng-
lish), pl. 3, fig. 6.
Types and comments: 9 pos-
sible paratypes no. 34056 (not mentioned
in the original description: [Zhuang,
1964]). Holotype no. M07339 was depo-
sited in the IOCAS [Zhuang, 1964] but
now in the author’s collection.
Periglypta compressa
Zhuang, 1964
Plate 2, figs. A–H
Original description: Zhu-
ang, 1964, p. 78 (Chinese), p. 105 (Eng-
lish), pl. 10, figs. 6–8.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M07335, dimensions: length
77.34 mm, height 62.26 mm, width
42.16 mm [after Zhuang, 1964]; 1 paratype
no. M07333; holotype and paratype col-
lected from South China Sea, Hainan Isl.,
Hsinying, Sanya.
Superfamily Tellinoidea
Blainville, 1814
Family Tellinidae Blainville, 1814
Pseudarcopagia minuta
Scarlato, 1965
Original description: Scar-
lato, 1965, p. 72 (Chinese), p. 113 (Rus-
sian), pl. 6, fig. 9.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 11182, dimensions: length 7 mm,
height 5.6 mm, width 3.7 mm [after Scar-
lato, 1965]; collected from South China
Sea, Hainan Isl., Haikou. Scarlato [1965]
mentioned that holotype is the only speci-
men present in the collection but he did not
provide museum number.
Fabulina tsichungyeni
Scarlato, 1965
Plate 3, figs. I–L
Original description: Scar-
lato, 1965, p. 84 (Chinese), p. 114 (Rus-
sian), pl. 11, fig. 8.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 11182, dimensions: length
18.3 mm, height 11.3 mm, width 5 mm
[after Scarlato, 1965]; collected from South
China Sea, Hainan Isl., Sintsun, 1958;
5 paratypes no. 11258, collected from the
same locality, July 9, 1957 (one of them
is figured here). Scarlato [1965] did not
provide museum number for holotype but
there is indication «type» and «illustrated
specimen» on the box, and measurements
of the shell are identical as given by Scar-
lato [1965].
50
Family Semelidae Stoliczka, 1870
Abra sinica Xu, 1996
Text-fig. 2F
Original description: Xu,
1996, p. 200 (Chinese), p. 201 (English),
fig. 1.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 11-1003 (no. 37960 in label),
dimensions: length 8.0 mm, height 6.0 mm,
width 2.4 mm; collected from Changji-
ang [Yangtze] River estuary, 31º30 N,
122º40 E, fine sandy bottom, depth
28 m, July 12, 1986; 1 paratype no. 10-982
(37961 in label), collected from Changji-
ang [Yangtze] River estuary, 32º00 N,
122º45 E, fine sandy bottom, depth 32 m,
June 30, 1986.
Superfamily Solenoidea Lamarck, 1809
Family Solenidae Lamarck, 1809
Solen canaliculatus
Tchang et Hwang, 1964
Text-fig. 3A; Plate 3, figs. A–D
O r i g in a l d e s c r ip t i o n : Tchang,
Hwang, 1964, p. 195 (Chinese), p. 205
(English), pl. 2, fig. 5.
Types and comments: There
are two lots: 1 specimen with soft parts
(shell is not open) no. 08484, and 1 speci-
men (empty shell) no. L49B-40 (marked
as paratype, illustrated here). Tchang et
Hwang [1964] did not provide museum
no. but indicated that holotype and para-
type specimens are deposited in the
IOCAS. We regard above two specimens
as syntypes. Type locality: «South and
East China Seas» [l.c.].
Solen arcuatus
Tchang et Hwang, 1964
Text-fig. 3C; Plate 3E–H
O r i g in a l d e s c r ip t i o n : Tchang,
Hwang, 1964, p. 197 (Chinese), p. 206
(English), pl. 2, fig. 2.
Types and comments: There
are two lots: two specimens in wet col-
lection no. 08483 and 1 specimen (empty
shell) no. 08465 (marked as paratype,
illustrated here). Tchang et Hwang [1964]
did not provide museum no. but indi-
cated that holotype and paratype speci-
mens are deposited in the IOCAS. We
regard above three specimens as syntypes.
Type locality: «Tsingtao, Lienyun port
(Jiangsu Province), Kanmen (Chekiang
Province)» [l.c.].
Superfamily Mactroidea
Lamarck, 1809
Family Mactridae Lamarck, 1809
Meropesta sinojaponica
Zhuang, 1983
Text-fig. 8D; Plate 4, figs. A–D
Original description: Zhu-
ang, 1983, p. 88 (Chinese), p. 90 (English),
fig. 1.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M25771, dimensions: length
59 mm, height 38 mm, width 26 mm [after
Zhuang, 1983]; collected from Yellow
Sea, Shandong Province, Qingdao; 1 para-
type no. M25772, collected from Fujian
Province, Longhai County.
Heterocardia elliptica
Zhuang, 1983
Text-fig. 8E
Original description: Zhu-
ang, 1983, p. 89 (Chinese), p. 91 (English),
fig. 2.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M25773, dimensions: length
46 mm, height 34 mm, width 17 mm [after
Zhuang, 1983]; collected from South
China Sea, Nanao Island.
Family Mesodesmatidae
Gray, 1840
51
Fig. 3. Original illustrations of bivalve mollusks described from Chinese seas. ASolen canaliculatus
Tchang et Hwang, 1964 [Tchang, Hwang, 1964, pl. 2, fig. 5]; BAsthenothaerus huanghaiensis Xu, 1989
[Xu, 1989, fig. 3]; C Solen arcuatus Tchang et Hwang, 1964 [Tchang, Hwang, 1964, pl. 2, fig.2]; D Thra-
cia ovata Xu, 1989 [Xu, 1989, fig. 2]; ETrigonothracia jinxingae Xu, 1980 [Xu, 1980, fig. 1]; FPandora
sinica Xu, 1992 [Xu, 1992c, fig. 1a]; G, HThracia hainanensis Xu, 1989 [Xu, 1989, fig. 1].
52
Monterosatus sinensis
Xu et Li, 2000
Text-fig. 8F
Original description: Xu,
Li, 2000, p. 384 (Chinese), p. 385 (Eng-
lish), fig. 1.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M30951, dimensions: length
10.2 mm, height 7.0 mm, width 3.8 mm
[after Xu, Li, 2000]; collected from the
South China Sea, Beibu Gulf (Gulf of
Tonkin), 20º45 N, 109º15 E, depth 21 m,
December 14, 1959.
Anapella retroconvexa
Zhuang, 1978
Original description: Zhu-
ang, 1978, p. 70 (Chinese), p. 73 (English),
pl. 1, figs. 7, 8.
Types and comments: Para-
type no. 11562, length 31.4 mm; collected
from Ya Xian. We did not find holotype
in the type collection, although Zhuang
[1978] stated that it is deposited in the
IOCAS; it originates from Naozhou Isl.
Order Myoida Goldfuss, 1820
Superfamily Myoidea
Lamarck, 1809
Family Myidae Lamarck, 1809
Tugonia huanghaiensis
Xu, 1987
Text-fig. 6E; Plate 5, figs A–D
Original description: Xu,
1987, p. 437 (Chinese), p. 441 (English),
fig. 1a.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 73M-030 (no. 30940 in label),
dimensions: length 19.8 mm, height
14.5 mm, width 12.2 mm [after Xu, 1987];
collected from Yellow Sea, Jiaozhou Bay,
intertidal zone, October 30, 1973; 1 para-
type no. 56M-101 (no 30939 in label),
dimensions: length 16.2 mm, height
11.5 mm, width 9.6 mm [after Xu, 1987],
collected from Jiangsu Province, Rudong,
intertidal zone, June 10, 1956.
Tugonia sinensis
Xu, 1987
Text-fig. 6D
Original description: Xu,
1987, p. 438 (Chinese), p. 441 (English),
fig. 1b.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 84M-185, dimensions: length
19.0 mm, height 13.0 mm, width 11.0 mm
[after Xu, 1987]; collected from Huian,
Fujian Province, intertidal zone, July 17,
1984.
Family Corbulidae Lamarck, 1818
Potamocorbula rubromuscula
Zhuang et Cai, 1983
Text-fig. 5E; Plate 2, figs. M, N
Original description: Zhu-
ang, Cai, 1983, p. 66 (Chinese), p. 68
(English), fig. 14.
Types and comments: In type
collection, there are two boxes marked
as «holotype» (no. 3) and «paratypes»
(no. 4); however, the former one contains
two closed shells, and the latter one – five
specimens. Zhuang and Cai [1983] men-
tioned that holotype (type locality – South
China Sea, Shantow) is deposited in the
IOCAS, and the paratype (South China
Sea, Chaoyang) is in the Zhanjiang Fishe-
ries College, Guangdong Province. We
illustrate one specimen from the first box
which measurements are close to holo-
type [Zhuang, Cai, 1983] – length 21 mm,
height 13 mm, width 7 mm.
Superfamily Pholadoidea
Lamarck, 1809
Family Pholadidae Lamarck, 1809
53
Barnea elongata
Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960
Text-fig. 4F, G, H; Plate 4, figs. E–I
Original description: Tchang
et al., 1960, p. 68 (Chinese), p. 84 (French),
fig. 5 (as Barnea (Anchomasa)).
Types and comments: In
Chinese text, holotype and paratype were
mentioned without numbers. We found
two lots (2 specimens, complete shells)
under nos. 06982 (labelled as paratype)
and 06975 (possible paratype) which can
be regarded as syntypes.
Zirfaea minor
Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960
Text-fig. 4I, J
Original description: Tchang
et al., 1960, p. 71 (Chinese), p. 85 (French),
fig. 8.
Types and comments: We
found two lots: no. 09076 (1 specimen,
complete shell) and no. 09103 (4 speci-
mens, complete shells), but status of these
types is unclear (? syntypes).
Pholadidea dolichothyra
Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960
Text-fig. 4E
Original description: Tchang
et al., 1960, p. 72 (Chinese), p. 85 (French),
fig. 9 (as Pholadidea (Monoplax)).
Types and comments: There
are three lots – no. 14 (3 specimens, com-
plete shells), no. 11466 (2 specimens)
and 11467 (1 specimen, complete shell)
marked as paratypes or possible paratypes
(? syntypes). No numbers for types were
given in the original description.
Pholadidea acutithyra
Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960
Text-fig. 4A–C
Original description: Tchang
et al., 1960, p. 73 (Chinese), p. 85 (French),
fig. 10 (as Pholadidea (Monoplax)).
Types and comments: There
are three lots no. 09087 (2 specimens,
dry complete shells), no. 09085 (3 speci-
mens) and again no. «09087» (more than
20 specimens, wet) marked as paratypes or
possible paratypes (? syntypes). No num-
bers for types were given in the original
description.
Martesia pygmaea
Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960
Text-fig. 4D
Original description: Tchang
et al., 1960, p. 75 (Chinese), p. 86 (French),
fig. 13.
Types and comments: There
is one lot no. 09105 (1 specimen), pre-
sumably holotype. No numbers for types
were given in the original description.
Family Teredinidae Rafinesque, 1815
Teredo bitubula Li, 1965
Original description: Li,
1965, p. 3 (Chinese), p. 6 (French), pl. 2,
figs. 1a–e (as Teredo (Bitubuloteredo)).
Types and comments: 2 para-
type lots nos. M12023 and M12021; holo-
type no. M12019 [according to Li, 1965] is
not located in the type collection.
Teredo schizoderma
Li, 1965
Original description: Li,
1965, p. 4 (Chinese), p. 7 (English), pl. 2,
figs. 3a–d (as Teredo (Lyrodus)).
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. M12024; dimensions of shell:
length 3.6 mm, height 3.5 mm (for pal-
lets sizes, see Li, 1965); collected from
South China Sea, Hainan Isl., «Yahsien
Sanya»; paratypes 4 lots, nos. M12001,
M12004, M12005, M12006, same loca-
lity. Li [1965] also mentioned paratypes
lots nos. M12025-12097 but we did not
locate them.
54
Fig. 4. Original illustrations of bivalve mollusks described from Chinese seas. ACPholadidea acu-
tithyra Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960 [Tchang et al., 1960, fig. 10]; DMartesia pygmaea Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960
[Tchang et al., 1960, fig. 13]; EPholadidea dolichothyra Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960 [Tchang et al., 1960,
fig. 9]; FHBarnea elongata Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960 [Tchang et al., 1960, fig. 5]; I, JZirfaea minor
Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960 [Tchang et al., 1960, fig. 8].
55
Fig. 5. Original illustrations of bivalve mollusks described from Chinese seas. APeriploma multigrano-
sum Xu, 1999 [Xu, 1999, fig. 90]; BPeriploma beibuwanensis Xu, 1999 [Xu, 1999, fig. 92]; CPeri-
ploma nanshaensis Xu, 1999 [Xu, 1999, fig. 93]; D, F Poromya sinica Xu, 1999 [Xu, 1999, fig. 123];
EPotamocorbula rubromuscula Zhuang et Cai, 1983 [Zhuang, Cai, 1983, fig. 14]; G, H Pholadomya
sinica Xu, 1992 [Xu, 1992, fig. 1].
56
Subclass Anomalodesmata Dall, 1889
Order Pholadomyoida Newell, 1965
Superfamily Pholadomyoidea
Gray, 1847
Family Pholadomyidae Gray, 1847
Pholadomya sinica
Xu, 1992
Text-fig. 5G, H; Plate 5, figs. L, N, O, P
Original description: Xu,
1992b, p. 211 (Chinese), p. 213 (Eng-
lish), fig. 1 (as Pholadomya (Nippono-
panacca)).
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 30933, dimensions: length
12.0 mm, height 8.0 mm, width 6.0 mm
[after Xu, 1992b]; collected from the East
China Sea, Okinawa Trough by Zheng
Tiemin.
Superfamily Pandoroidea
Rafinesque, 1815
Family Pandoridae Rafinesque, 1815
Pandora sinica Xu, 1992
Text-fig. 3F
Original description: Xu,
1992c, p. 285 (Chinese), p. 287 (English),
fig. 1 (as Pandora (Frenamya)).
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 30949, dimensions: length
12.0 mm, height 5.2 mm [after Xu, 1992c];
collected from China coast, 31º15 N,
122º40 E, depth 43 m, August 9, 1985;
1 paratype no. 30950, dimensions: length
11.5 mm, height 5.2 mm [after Xu, 1992c];
collected from China coast, 30º45 N,
122º45 E, depth 27 m, November 21,
1985.
Family Lyonsiidae P.-H. Fischer I, 1886
Sinolyonsia sinica Xu, 1992
Text-fig. 6G
Original description: Xu,
1992a, p. 153, fig. 1.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 30931, dimensions: length 2.0 mm,
height 1.6 mm [after Xu, 1992a]; collected
from Bohai Sea, Huanghe River delta,
fine sand, depth 29 m, by Zhang Zhinan;
1 paratype no. 30932, same locality.
Superfamily Thracioidea
Stoliczka, 1870
Family Thraciidae Stoliczka, 1870
Trigonothracia jinxingae
Xu, 1980
Text-fig. 3E; Plate 5, figs. E–H
Original description: Xu,
1980, p. 337 (Chinese), p. 339 (English),
fig. 1.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. F9A-2 (no. 25 in label), dimen-
sions: length 16.2 mm, height 11.0 mm,
width 6.8 mm [after Xu, 1980]; collected
in East China Sea, 30º15 N, 122º30 E,
muddy bottom, depth 25 m, October 22,
1959; 1 paratype no. V262A-6 (no. 26 in
label), broken shell, dimensions [after Xu,
1980]: length 14.5 mm, height 10.0 mm,
width 5.8 mm; collected in East China Sea,
32º30 N, 122º15 E, muddy bottom, depth
27 m, January 17, 1959.
Thracia hainanensis
Xu, 1989
Text-fig. 3G, H; Plate 5, figs. I, J, K, M
Original description: Xu,
1989, p. 33, fig. 1 (as Thracia (Thracia)).
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 55-843 (no. 30947 in label), dimen-
sions: length 41.0 mm, height 28.5 mm,
width 10.1 mm [after Xu, 1989]; collected
in South China Sea, Xinying, Hainan
Isl., coarse sandy bottom, intertidal zone,
May 26, 1956; 1 paratype no. 30948, same
locality.
57
Fig. 6. Original illustrations of bivalve mollusks described from Chinese seas. AC Laternula nanshaien-
sis Zhuang et Cai, 1982 [Zhuang, Cai, 1982, fig. 3]; D Tugonia sinensis Xu, 1987 [Xu, 1987, fig. 1b];
ETugonia huanghaiensis Xu, 1987 [Xu, 1987, fig.1a]; FCardiomya sinica Xu, 1980 [Xu, 1980, fig. 2];
GSinolyonsia sinica Xu, 1992 [Xu, 1992a, fig. 1].
58
Fig. 7. Original illustrations of bivalve mollusks described from Chinese seas. A, B Septifer xishaensis
Wang, 1983 [Wang, 1997, fig. 29]; CELithophaga lepteces Wang, 1997 [Wang, 1997, fig. 68a, b, c];
FHormomya sinensis Wang, 1983 [Wang, 1997, fig. 34]; G, HSeptifer pulcher Wang, 1983 [Wang,
1997, fig. 28].
59
Thracia ovata Xu, 1989
Text-fig. 3D
Original description: Xu,
1989, p. 34, fig. 2 (as Thracia (Crassith-
racia)).
Types and comments: Accor-
ding to Dr. Xu Fengshan, the holotype
specimen (no. V38A-6) was completely
broken and only label left; dimensions:
length 6.0 mm, height 4.4 mm [after Xu,
1989]; collected in the northern Huanghai
(Yellow) Sea, 38º40 N, 121º45 E, fine
sand, depth 46 m, October 17, 1958.
Asthenothaerus huanghaiensis
Xu, 1989
Text-fig. 3B
Original description: Xu,
1989, p. 35, fig. 3.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. V32A-5 (no 30945 in label),
dimensions: length 7.0 mm, height 5.0 mm,
width 3.0 mm [after Xu, 1989]; col-
lected in the northern Huanghai Sea,
37º52 N, 122º21 E, October 17, 1958;
1 paratype no. V32A-5 (no. 30946 in
label), same locality.
Family Laternulidae Hadley, 1918
Laternula nanhaiensis
Zhuang et Cai, 1982
Text-fig. 6A–C; Plate 6, figs. I–L
Original description: Zhu-
ang, Cai, 1982, p. 556 (Chinese), p. 561
(English), fig. 3.
Types and comments: Sta-
tus of the material is unclear: there are
two boxes with 2 specimens (one shell is
open and mantle line is outlined) (no. 1
in label) and 2 specimens (no. 2 in label)
marked as «holotype» and «paratypes»,
respectively. According to Zhuang
and Cai [1982, p. 561], holotype from
He pu (no. L80720) is deposited in the
IOCAS, and paratype from Zhanjiang
(no. L80721) is deposited in the Zhan-
jiang Fisheries College. The dimensions
for the open shell from the former box
are not coincided with that of indicated
by the authors (l.c.) for the holotype.
Until further clarification is made, we
regard material from the MBM CAS as
syntypes and illustrate one shell from the
first box.
Family Periplomatidae Dall, 1895
Periploma multigranosum
Xu, 1999
Text-fig. 5A; Plate 6, figs. D–G
Original description: Xu,
1999, p. 135 (Chinese), p. 226 (English),
fig. 90.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 37953, dimensions: length
15.0 mm, height 12.6 mm, width 5.8 mm
[after Xu, 1999]; collected from South
China Sea, 18º00 N, 111º30 E, muddy bot-
tom, depth 145 m, May 7, 1960; 1 paratype
no. 37954, collected from South China
Sea, 18º00 N, 111º00 E, muddy bottom,
depth 173 m, August 4, 1960.
Periploma beibuwanensis
Xu, 1999
Text-fig. 5B; Plate 6, figs. A, B, C, H
Original description: Xu,
1999, p. 137 (Chinese), p. 226 (English),
fig. 92.
Types and comments: Holotype
no. 37955, dimensions: length 30.3 mm,
height 22.3 mm, width 11.4 mm [after Xu,
1999]; collected from South China Sea,
Beibu Gulf [Gulf of Tonkin], 20º30 N,
109º30 E, depth 14 m, October 9, 1960;
1 paratype no. 37956, dimensions: length
23.2 mm, height 18.4 mm, width 9.4 mm
[after Xu, 1999]; collected from South
China Sea, Beibu Gulf [Gulf of Tonkin],
19º00 N, 105º45 E, depth 16 m, Decem-
ber 9, 1959.
60
Fig. 8. Original illustrations of bivalve mollusks described from Chinese seas. A, BBractechlamys ele-
gans Wang, 1983 [Wang, 1983b, pl. 1, figs. 1, 3]; CNuculana forticostata Xu, 1991 [Xu, 1991, fig. 2];
DMeropesta sinojaponica Zhuang, 1983 [Zhuang, 1983, fig. 1]; EHeterocardia elliptica Zhuang, 1983
[Zhuang, 1983, fig. 2]; FMonterosatus sinensis Xu et Li, 2000 [Xu, Li, 2000, fig. 1].
61
Periploma nanshaensis
Xu, 1999
Text-fig. 5C; Plate 4, figs. J–L
Original description: Xu,
1999, p. 138 (Chinese), p. 227 (English),
fig. 93.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. 37957, dimensions: length
18.4 mm, height 13.8 mm, width 7.7 mm
[after Xu, 1999]; collected from South
China Sea, 05º35 N, 114º51 E, depth
200 m, July 29, 1988.
Order Septibranchia Pelseneer, 1888
Superfamily Cuspidarioidea
Dall, 1886
Family Cuspidariidae
Dall, 1886
Cardiomya sinica
Xu, 1980
Text-fig. 6F; Plate 6, figs. M–P
Original description: Xu,
1980, p. 338 (Chinese), p. 339 (English),
fig. 2.
Types and comments: Holo-
type no. V557B-39 (no. 22 in label), dimen-
sions: length 14.0 mm, height 10.7 mm,
width 7.6 mm [after Xu, 1980]; collected
in East China Sea, 28º30 N, 125º00 E,
fine sandy bottom, depth 104 mm, Sep-
tember 21, 1976.
Below is given a list of species whose
types were said to be deposited in the MBM
CAS (as IOCAS) but we did not find them
in the type collection.
Amusium pleuronectes nanshaensis Wang
et Chen, 1991 (Pectinidae) – holotype
and 2 paratypes [Wang, Chen, 1991]
Hormomya sinensis Wang, 1983 – holo-
type [Wang, 1983c] (Text-fig. 7F)
Pteria admirabilis Wang, 2002 (Pteri-
idae) – holotype and paratype [Wang,
2002] (Text-fig. 1E)
Pteria bulliformis Wang, 2002 (Pte-
riidae) holotype [Wang, 2002]
(Text-fig. 1F)
Katelysia eugibba Zhuang, 1964 (Veneri-
dae) – holotype [Zhuang, 1964]
Poromya sinica Xu, 1999 (Poromyi-
dae) holotype and paratype [Xu,
1999] (Text-fig. 5D, F)
Teredo remiformis Li, 1965 (Teredinidae)
holotype (Li, 1965]
It is likely that types can be found in
future in the general collection.
In addition, Scarlato [1965] described
five species from Hainan Isl. without indi-
cation where types were deposited: Donax
(Chion) semigranosus tropicus Scarlato,
1965 (Donacidae), Sanguinolaria (Hai-
nania) tchangsii Scarlato, 1965 (Psam-
mobiidae), Abrina magna Scarlato, 1965
(Semelidae), Abrina hainanensis Scarlato,
1965 (Semelidae), Cadella delta haina-
nensis Scarlato, 1965 (Tellinidae). Most
likely, types of these species are in the
Zoological Instutute, Russian Academy of
Sciences (St.-Petersburg) but part of them
can be found in the general collection of
the MBM CAS.
List of species not found in the type collection
The authors are very grateful to
Prof., Academician Liu Rui-yu (J.Y. Liu)
for various support and encouragement.
Dr. Li Baoquan, Dr. Yu Haiyan, Prof.
Yang Hong-Sheng and Dr. Que Hua-
Yong, all from the IOCAS, were very
Acknowledgements
62
helpful in our work. This study was sup-
ported by grants from the APN no. 2005-
05-CMY and no. ARCP2007-12NMY.
Digital plates were prepared by Mr. Kon-
stantin S. Sundukov, and English text
was improved by Tatyana N. Koznova
to whom our special thanks.
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64
Explanation of the Plates
Plate 1
A, B Neilo bisculpta Xu, 1991: holotype, MBM CAS no. SSBIII9-23 (30938 in label),
length 14.5 mm; CF Semipallium xishaensis Wang, 1985: holotype, MBM CAS
no. 25777, length 20.5 mm; G, ICryptopecten complanus Wang, 1983: holotype,
MBM CAS no. M11072, length 14.8 mm; H, JCryptopecten complanus Wang, 1983:
paratype, MBM CAS no. M11073, length 10.8 mm; KNHeterocardia elliptica Zhuang,
1983: holotype, MBM CAS no. 25773, length 46 mm.
Plate 2
AD Periglypta compressa Zhuang, 1964: paratype, MBM CAS no. M07333, length
33.5 mm; EH Periglypta compressa Zhuang, 1964: holotype, MBM CAS no. M07335,
length 77.34 mm; IL Dosinia truncata Zhuang, 1964: paratype, MBM CAS no. M07336,
length 21.2 mm; M, NPotamocorbula rubromuscula Zhuang et Cai, 1983: syntype (?),
MBM CAS no. 3 (as indicated in label), length 20.9 mm.
Plate 3
ADSolen canaliculatus Tchang et Hwang, 1964: syntype (? – possible paratype),
MBM CAS L49B-40, length 25.4 mm; EH Solen arcuatus Tchang et Hwang, 1964:
syntype (? possible paratype), MBM CAS no. 08465, length 39.2 mm; IL Fabulina
tsichungyeni Scarlato, 1965: paratype, MBM CAS no. 11258, length 15.1 mm; MP
Calyptogena nanshaensis Xu et Shen, 1991: holotype, MBM CAS no. SSBII11-10 (30934
in label), length 66.4 mm.
Plate 4
AD Meropesta sinojaponica Zhuang, 1983: holotype, MBM CAS no. M25771, length
59 mm; EH Barnea elongata Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960: syntype (? – possible paratype),
MBM CAS no. 06982, length 46.1 mm; IBarnea elongata Tchang, Tsi et Li, 1960: syn-
type (? – possible paratype), MBM CAS no. 06975, length 55.3 mm; JLPeriploma
nanshaensis Xu, 1999: holotype, MBM CAS no. 37957, length 18.4 mm.
Plate 5
AD Tugonia huanghaiensis Xu, 1987: holotype, MBM CAS no. 030 (30940 in label),
length 19.8 mm; EH Trigonothracia jinxingae Xu, 1980: holotype, MBM CAS
no. F9A-2 (25 in label), length 16.2 mm; IK, M Thracia hainanensis Xu, 1989: holo-
type, MBM CAS no. 55-843 (30947 in label), length 41.0 mm; L, NP Pholadomya sinica
Xu, 1992: holotype, MBM CAS no. 30933, length 12.0 mm.
Plate 6
AC, HPeriploma beibuwanensis Xu, 1999: holotype, MBM CAS no. 37955, length
30.3 mm; DG Periploma multigranosum Xu, 1999: holotype, MBM CAS no. 37953,
length 15.0 mm; IL Laternula nanhaensis Zhuang at Cai, 1982: syntype, MBM CAS
(without no.), length 41.3 mm; MPCardiomya sinica Xu, 1980: holotype, MBM CAS
no. V557B-39 (22 in label), length 14.0 mm.
... Two catalogues of bivalve mollusks of the Chinese seas were published in the 1990s ( Bernard et al., 1993;Xu, 1997). Chinese malacologists also described many new species including those from the South China Sea; type material of these species was recently reviewed and illustrated ( Lutaenko, Xu, 2008). The most comprehensive Chinese monograph by Tchang Si et al. (1960) ( Fig. 1) on bivalves of the South China Sea is outdated, but recently two wellillustrated guidebooks on the entire Chinese fauna were published ( Qi, 2004;Xu, Zhang, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A history of molluscan research in the western South China Sea (Singapore, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand,Cambodia,Vietnam and China) is described with main references provided. The South China Sea has the most diverse bivalve fauna in the world from 1200–1500 species. Regional species richness of bivalve mollusks in the western sea area varies from 344, at Singapore in the south, to 822, southern mainland China in the north, more of an indication of sampling efforts and the state of knowledge of the fauna than real biodiversity gradients. Other biodiversity-rich areas include the Gulf of Thailand (594 species), Vietnam (815), Tonkin Gulf (368) and Hong Kong (299). The western part of the South China Sea is divided between two provinces: the truly tropical Indo-Polynesian Province, and the subtropical Sino- Japanese Province; the boundary point lies around Hong Kong. Biogeographical problems as related to Vietnamese bivalve fauna are highlighted, and the biogeographical zonation of the South China Sea based on concepts of western, Chinese, and Russian researchers is discussed. Problems in studying the region’s bivalve biodiversity include inflated synonymy, a lack of trained, regionally-based taxonomists, good voucher collections, and a lack of funding for taxonomy. Threats to molluscan biodiversity are also discussed. Photographs of 117 species of bivalves belonging to 28 families are provided.
... The Taiwan fauna was documented in numerous papers including a list and several books (Wu, 1980;Wu, Lee, 2005; and others). The Chinese authors described many new species including those from the South China Sea (Lutaenko, Xu, 2008). Of course, there are many papers on various groups of bivalves which include records from the South China Sea. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
PSSA - new managment tool of Vietnam marine biodiversity
... The Taiwan fauna was documented in numerous papers including a list and several books (Wu, 1980;Wu, Lee, 2005; and others). The Chinese authors described many new species including those from the South China Sea (Lutaenko, Xu, 2008). Of course, there are many papers on various groups of bivalves which include records from the South China Sea. ...
Article
Species,Thracia granubsa of the Family Thraciidae from the China Seas was first reported and described as new to science by Adams et Reeve (1850). No other species was found there for more than 100 years until the author (1980) in his studies on Chinese bivalvia, discovered the second new species,Trigonothracia jinxingae, described in this article. This paper deals with 6 species, three of which are new to science, collected from the littoral and sublittoral zones of the China Seas. Type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica, Qingdao.
Article
The present paper deals with 4 species of Family Lyonsiidae, collected from the China Seas: one new genus and new species,Sinolyonsia sinica gen. et sp. nov, one species,Lyonsia kawamurai recorded for the first time from the China Seas, and 2 speciesL. ventricosa Gould andAgriodesma navicula (Adams et Reeve) reported previously from the Yellow Sea by the author.
Preliminary study on the Protobranchia (Mollusca) from the China seas. III. Malletiidae and Tindariidae // Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica. V. 21, N 6. P. 559-562
  • F Xu
Xu F. 1990. Preliminary study on the Protobranchia (Mollusca) from the China seas. III. Malletiidae and Tindariidae // Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica. V. 21, N 6. P. 559-562. [In Chinese with English abstract].
A new species of Vesicomyidae from Nansha Islands waters // Papers on Marine Biology of Nansha Islands and Adjacent Seas
  • F Xu
  • S Shen
Xu F., Shen S. 1991. A new species of Vesicomyidae from Nansha Islands waters // Papers on Marine Biology of Nansha Islands and Adjacent Seas.
Pholadomya (Nipponopanacca) sinica, a new species of Pholadomyidae from the East China Sea // Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica
  • F Xu
Xu F. 1992b. Pholadomya (Nipponopanacca) sinica, a new species of Pholadomyidae from the East China Sea // Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica.
A new species, Pandora (Frenamya) sinica sp. nov., of pandorid (Bivalvia, Mollusca) from the China seas // Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica
  • F Xu
Xu F. 1992c. A new species, Pandora (Frenamya) sinica sp. nov., of pandorid (Bivalvia, Mollusca) from the China seas // Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica. V. 23, N 3. P. 285-287. [In Chinese with English abstract].
A new species of Semelidae (Bivalvia, Mollusca) from Changjiang River estuary // Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica
  • F Xu
Xu F. 1996. A new species of Semelidae (Bivalvia, Mollusca) from Changjiang River estuary // Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica. V. 27, N 2.
Bivalve Mollusca of China Seas
  • F Xu
Xu F. 1997. Bivalve Mollusca of China Seas. Beijing: Science Press. 333 p. [In Chinese].
Fauna Sinica. Phylum Mollusca. Class Bivalvia. Subclasses Protobranchia and Anomalodesmata
  • F Xu
Xu F. 1999. Fauna Sinica. Phylum Mollusca. Class Bivalvia. Subclasses Protobranchia and Anomalodesmata. Beijing: Science Press. 244 p. [In Chinese with English abstract].