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Supporting and responding to behavior: Evidence-based classroom strategies for teachers

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This technical assistance document was adapted from the PBIS Technical Brief on Classroom PBIS Strategies written by: Brandi Simonsen, Jennifer Freeman,
Steve Goodman, Barbara Mitchell, Jessica Swain-Bradway, Brigid Flannery, George Sugai, Heather George, and Bob Putman, 2015.
Additional assistance was provided to the Office of Special Education Programs by Brandi Simonsen and Jenifer Freeman. Special thanks to Allison Blakely,
Ambra Green, and Jennifer Rink, OSEP interns who also contributed to the development of this document.
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Purpose and Description
What is the purpose of this document?
The purpose of this document is to summarize evidence-based, positive, proactive, and responsive classroom behavior intervention and support strategies for
teachers. These strategies should be used classroom-wide, intensified for support small-group instruction, or amplified further for individual students. These
strategies can help teachers capitalize on instructional time and decrease disruptions, which is crucial as schools are held to greater academic and social
accountability measures for all students.
What needs to be in place before I can expect these strategies to work?
The effectiveness of these classroom strategies are maximized when: (a) the strategies are implemented within a school-wide multi-tiered behavioral
framework, such as school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS; see www.pbis.org); (b) classroom and school-wide expectations and
systems are directly linked; (c) classroom strategies are merged with effective instructional design, curriculum, and delivery; and (d) classroom-based data
are used to guide decision making. The following school- and classroom-level supports should be in place to optimize the fidelity and benefits of
implementation.
School-level supports
A multi-tiered framework, including strategies for identifying and teaching
expectations, acknowledging appropriate behavior, and responding to
inappropriate behavior
The school-wide framework is guided by school-wide discipline data
Appropriate supports for staff are provided, including leadership teaming,
supporting policy, coaching, and implementation monitoring
Classroom-level supports
Classroom system for teaching expectations, providing acknowledgments,
and managing rule violations linked to the school-wide framework
Classroom management decisions are based on classroom behavioral data
Effective instructional strategies implemented to the greatest extent
possible
Curriculum is matched to student need and supporting data
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What are the principles that guide the use of these strategies in the classroom?
The purpose of the guiding principles is to define the characteristics and cultural features that drive the use of these classroom strategies within a multi-tiered
framework. The guiding principles help establish the fundamental norms, rules, and ethics that are essential to the success of these classroom strategies
within a multi-tiered framework. These seven principles are the foundational values that drive the success of these classroom strategies and are important to
keep in mind when developing contextually appropriate adaptations of the strategies suggested in this document.
Professional Business-like, objective, neutral, impartial, and unbiased
Cultural Considerate of individual’s learning history and experience s (e.g., family, community, peer group)
Informed Data-based, response-to-intervention
Fidelity-Based Implementation accuracy is monitored and adjusted as needed
Educational The quality of design and delivery of instruction is considered
Instructive Expected behaviors are explicitly taught, modeled, monitored, and reinforced
Preventive Environment arranged to encourage previously taught social skills and discourage anticipated behavior errors
User Guide
What is included in this guide?
There are three main parts to this guide on classroom PBIS strategies.
1. Interactive map with corresponding tables, tools, and tips. The interactive map provides the links to the document with the
content to support the implementation of the essential features of these classroom strategies.
2. Self-assessment and decision-making chart. These tools are intended to help guide the user to the parts of the document that
will be most useful.
3. Scenarios. Two scenarios are provided to extend learning and provide concrete examples of how to use classroom PBIS strategies
and many of the tools suggested in this document in consortium.
A short summary and references are provided at the conclusion of the document.
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What is not included in this guide?
This guide should not be considered a replacement for more comprehensive trainings and does not provide the depth of knowledge/research about each
topic. Although many of the strategies suggested in this document can be used for individual students, more support likely will be needed from a behavior
specialist or school psychologist for teachers who work with students with more intensive support needs.
This document also does not include strategies for addressing violent or unlawful student conduct.
Where do I start?
The interactive map provides an organizational layout of the document and some basic definitions of terms that may be helpful to know prior to taking the
self-assessment. Teachers should begin with the self-assessment to gauge current classroom management practices. The self-assessment is designed to help
teachers know where to focus their attention (e.g., foundations, practices, data systems). After teachers take the self-assessment, the interactive map will
direct them to content that will be most useful. The decision-making flow chart should be used to help guide teachers in making decisions about making
adjustments within their classrooms.
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Interactive Map of Core Features
Classroom Interventions and Supports
Foundations (Table 1)
1.1 Settings
The physical layout osf the
classroom is designed to be
effective
1.2 Routines
Predictable classroom
routines are developed and
taught
1.3 Expectations
Three to five classroom rules
are clearly posted, defined,
and explicitly taught
Practices (Table 2)
Prevention
2.1 Supervision
Provide reminders
(prompts), and actively
scan, move, and interact
with students
2.2 Opportunity
Provide high rates and
varied opportunities for all
students to respond
2.3 Acknowledgment
Using specific praise and
other strategies, let
students know when they
meet classroom
expectations
2.4 Prompts and
Precorrections
Provide reminders, before
a behavior is expected,
that clearly describe the
expectation
Response
2.5 Error Corrections
Use brief, contingent, and
specific statements when
misbehavior occurs
2.6 Other Strategies
Use other strategies that
preempt escalation,
minimize inadvertent
reward of the problem
behavior, create a
learning opportunity for
emphasizing desired
behavior, and maintain
optimal instructional time
2.7 Additional Tools
More tips for teachers
Data Systems (Table 3)
3.1 Counting
Record how often or how
many times a behavior
occurs (also called
frequency)
3.2 Timing
Record how long a behavior
lasts (also called duration).
3.3 Sampling
Estimate how often a
behavior occurs during part
of an interval, the entire
interval, or at the end of an
interval
3.4 ABC Cards, Incident
Reports, or Office
Discipline Referrals
Record information about
the events that occurred
before, during, and after a
behavior incident
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Self-Assessment
Teachers should start with the first statement on the self-assessment. When unsure of an answer, teachers should go to the part of the interactive map
indicated and read more about the practice.
Classroom Interventions and Supports Self-Assessment Yes No
1. The classroom is physically designed to meet the needs of all students.
If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 1.1 on the interactive map.
2. Classroom routines are developed, taught, and predictable.
If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 1.2 on the interactive map.
3. Three to five positive classroom expectations are posted, defined, and explicitly taught.
If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 1.3 on the interactive map.
4. Prompts and active supervision practices are used proactively.
If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 2.1 on the interactive map.
5. Opportunities to respond are varied and are provided at high rates.
If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 2.2 on the interactive map.
6. Specific praise and other strategies are used to acknowledge behavior.
If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 2.3 on the interactive map.
7. Reminders are consistently given before a behavior might occur.
If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 2.4 on the interactive map.
8. The responses to misbehaviors in the classroom are appropriate and systematic.
If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with 2.5 on the interactive map.
9. Data systems are used to collect information about classroom behavior.
If yes, continue with self-assessment. If no, begin with Table 3 on the interactive map.
If yes on all, celebrate successes! Continually monitor, and make adjustments as needed.
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Decision-Making Chart
The decision-making chart will help guide teachers regarding implementation of best practices in preventing and responding to behaviors in the classroom.
7 | Page
Table 1. Matrix of Foundations for Classroom Interventions and Supports
1.1 SETTINGS
EFFECTIVELY DESIGN THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CLASSROOM
Description
and Critical Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary
Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
Secondary
Examples
How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?
Non-
Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support
and Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
Design classroom to
facilitate the most typical
instructional activities (e.g.,
small groups, whole group,
learning centers)
Arrange furniture to allow
for smooth teacher and
student movement
Assure instructional
materials are neat, orderly,
and ready for use
Post materials that support
critical content and learning
strategies (e.g., word walls,
steps for the writing
process, mathematical
formulas)
Design classroom layout
according to the type of
activity taking place:
Tables for centers
Separate desk for
independent work
Circle area for group
instruction
Consider teacher versus
student access to materials
Use assigned seats and
areas
Be sure all students can be
seen
Design classroom layout
according to the type of
activity taking place:
Circle for discussion
Forward facing for group
instruction
Use assigned seats
Be sure all students can be
seen
Consider options for storage
of students’ personal items
(e.g., backpacks, notebooks
for other classes)
Equipment and materials are
damaged, unsafe, and/or
not in sufficient working
condition or not accessible
to all students
Disorderly, messy, unclean,
and/or visually unappealing
environment
Some students and/or parts
of the room not visible to
teacher
Congestion in high-traffic
areas (e.g., coat closet,
pencil sharpener, teacher
desk)
Inappropriately sized
furniture
Teachers can prevent many
instances of problem
behavior and minimize
disruptions by strategically
planning the arrangement of
the physical environment1
1 Wong & Wong, 2009
Arranging classroom
environment to deliver
instruction in a way that
promotes learning2
2 Archer & Hughes, 2011
Video:
http://louisville.edu/education/ab
ri/primarylevel/structure/group
Book:
Structuring Your Classroom for
Academic Success3
3 Paine, Radicchi, Rosellini, Deutchman, & Darch, 1983
8 | Page
1.2 ROUTINES
DEVELOP AND TEACH PREDICTABLE CLASSROOM ROUTINES
Description
and Critical Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary
Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
Secondary
Examples
How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?
Non-
Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support
and Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
Establish predictable
patterns and activities
Promote smooth operation
of classroom
Outline the steps for
completing specific
activities
Teach routines and
procedures directly
Practice regularly
Recognize students when
they successfully follow
classroom routines and
procedures
Create routines and
procedures for the most
problematic areas or times
Promote self-managed or
student-guided schedules
and routines
Establish routines and
procedures for:
Arrival and dismissal
Transitions between
activities
Accessing help
What to do after work is
completed
Example arrival routines:
Hang up coat and
backpack
Put notes and homework
in the “In” basket
Sharpen two pencils
Go to desk and begin the
warm-up activities listed
on the board
If you finish early, read a
book
Consider routines and
procedures for:
Turning in work
Handing out materials
Making up missed work
What to do after work is
completed
Example class period
routines:
Warm-up activity for
students
Review of previous
content
Instruction for new
material
Guided or independent
practice opportunities
Wrap-up activities
Assuming students will
automatically know your
routines and procedures
without instruction and
feedback
Omitting tasks that students
are regularly expected to
complete
Missing opportunities to
provide: (a) visual and/or
auditory reminders to
students about your routines
and procedures (e.g., signs,
posters, pictures, hand
signals, certain music
playing, timers) and/or (b)
feedback about student
performance
Establishing classroom
routines and procedures
early in the school year
increases structure and
predictability for students;
when clear routines are in
place and consistently used,
students are more likely to
be engaged with school and
learning and less likely to
demonstrate problem
behavior4
4 Kern & Clemens, 2007
Student learning is
enhanced by teachers’
developing basic classroom
structure (e.g., routines and
procedures)5
5 Soar & Soar, 1979
Podcast: http://pbismissouri.org/a
rchives/1252
Video: https://www.teachingchan
nel.org/videos/create-a-safe-
classroom
9 | Page
1.3 EXPECTATIONS
POST, DEFINE, AND TEACH THREE TO FIVE POSITIVE CLASSROOM EXPECTATIONS
Description and Critical
Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary
Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?
Non-
Examples
Secondary
Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support
and Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
If in a school implementing
a multi-tiered behavioral
framework, such as school-
wide PBIS, adopt the three
to five positive school-wide
expectations as classroom
expectations
Expectations should be
observable, measurable,
positively stated,
understandable, and always
applicable
Teach expectations using
examples and non-examples
and with opportunities to
practice and receive
feedback
Involve students in defining
expectations within
classroom routines
(especially at the secondary
level)
Obtain student commitment
to support expectations
Post:
Prominently in the
classroom
Example: Be safe, Be
respectful, Be ready, Be
responsible
Define for each classroom
setting or routine:
Being safe means hands
and feet to self during
transitions
Being safe means using
all classroom materials
correctly
Teach:
Develop engaging
lessons to teach the
expectations
Regularly refer to
expectations when
interacting with students
(during prompts, specific
praise, and error
corrections)
Post:
Prominently in the
classroom
Example: Be respectful,
Be responsible, Be a
good citizen, Be ready to
learn
Define for each classroom
setting or routine:
Being respectful means
using inclusive language
Being responsible means
having all materials
ready at the start of
class
Teach:
Develop engaging
lessons to teach the
expectations
Regularly refer to
expectations when
interacting with students
Assuming students will
already know your
expectations
Having more than five
expectations
Listing only behaviors you
do
not
want from students
(e.g., no cell phones, no
talking, no gum, no hitting)
Creating expectations that
you are not willing to
consistently enforce
Selecting expectations that
are inappropriate for
developmental or age level
Choosing expectations that
do not sufficiently cover all
situations
Ignoring school-wide
expectations
A dependable system of
rules and procedures
provides structure for
students and helps them to
be engaged with
instructional tasks6
6 Brophy, 2004
Teaching rules and routines
to students at the beginning
of the year and enforcing
them consistently across
time increases student
academic achievement and
task engagement7
7 Evertson & Emmer, 1982; Johnson, Stoner, & Green, 1996
Case Study:
http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.ed
u/wp-
content/uploads/2013/07/ICS-
003.pdf
Podcast: http://pbismissouri.org
/archives/1243
Videos:
http://louisville.edu/education/a
bri/primarylevel/expectations/gr
oup
10 | Page
Table 2. Matrix of Practices for Classroom Interventions and Supports
2.1 SUPERVISION
USE ACTIVE SUPERVISION AND PROXIMITY
Practice Description and
Critical Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
Secondary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?
Non-Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support and
Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
A process for monitoring the
classroom, or any school setting,
that incorporates moving,
scanning, and interacting
frequently with students8
8 DePry & Sugai, 2002
Includes:
Scanning:
visual sweep of
entire space
Moving:
continuous
movement, proximity
Interacting:
verbal
communication in a
respectful manner, any
precorrections, non-
contingent attention, specific
verbal feedback
While students are working
independently in centers,
scan and move around the
classroom, checking in with
students
While working with a small
group of students, frequently
look up and quickly scan the
classroom to be sure other
students are still on track
During transitions between
activities, move among the
students to provide
proximity; scan continuously
to prevent problems, and
provide frequent feedback as
students successfully
complete the transition
While monitoring students,
move around the area,
interact with students, and
observe behaviors of
individuals and the group;
scan the entire area as you
move around all corners of
the area
Briefly interact with
students: ask how they are
doing, comment, or inquire
about their interests; show
genuine interest in their
responses (This is an
opportunity to connect
briefly with a number of
students)
Sitting or standing where
you cannot see the entire
room or space, such as
with your back to the group
or behind your desk
Walking the same,
predictable route the entire
period of time, such as
walking the rows of desks
in the same manner every
period
Stopping and talking with a
student or students for
several minutes
Interacting with the same
student or groups of
students every day
Combining prompts or
precorrection with active
supervision is effective across
a variety of classroom and
non-classroom settings 9
9 Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Lee, 1997; DePry & Sugai, 2002; Lewis, Colvin, & Sugai, 2000
Module: http://pbismissouri.org/arc
hives/1304
Video: http://louisville.edu/educati
on/abri/primarylevel/supervision/gr
oup
IRIS Ed
(secondary): https://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=rCqIzeU-0hQ
11 | Page
2.2 OPPORTUNITY
PROVIDE HIGH RATES AND VARIED OPPORTUNITIES TO RESPOND
Description and Critical
Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary
Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
Secondary
Examples
How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?
Non-Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support
and Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
A teacher behavior that requests
or solicits a student response
(e.g., asking a question,
presenting a demand)
Opportunities to respond include:
Individual or small-
group questioning:
Use a response pattern
to make sure that all
students are called on
Choral responding:
All students in a class
respond in unison to a
teacher question
Nonverbal responses:
Response cards, student
response systems,
guided notes
Individual or small-
group questioning:
Student names can be
on a seating chart, strips
of paper, or popsicle
sticks in a can or jar; as
questions are posed, a
student name is drawn
Choral responding:
Students read a morning
message out loud
together
Students recite letter
sounds together
Nonverbal responses:
Thumbs up if you agree
with the characters
choice in our story
Individual or small-
group questioning:
I just showed you how to
do #1; I am going to
start #2 second row; get
ready to help explain my
steps
Choral responding:
Write a sentence to
summarize the reading;
then share with your
peer partner before
sharing with me
Nonverbal responses:
Hands up if you got 25
for the answer
Get online and find two
real-life examples for
“saturation point”
A teacher states, “We
haven’t talked about this at
all, but you will summarize
the entire chapter for
homework. Work quietly for
45 minutes on this new
content, and I will collect
your papers at the end of
class.” (This is not
sufficiently prompted and
does not promote frequent
active engagement.)
A teacher provides a 20-
minute lesson without
asking any questions or
prompting any student
responses.
Increased rates of
opportunities to respond
support student on-task
behavior and correct
responses while decreasing
disruptive behavior10
10 Carnine, 1976; Heward, 2006; Skinner, Pappas & Davis, 2005; Sutherland, Alder, & Gunter, 2003; Sutherland & Wehby, 2001; West & Sloane, 1986
Teacher use of opportunities
to respond also improves
reading performance (e.g.,
increased percentage of
responses and fluency)11
11 Skinner, Belfior, Mace, Williams-Wilson, & Johns, 1997
and mathematics
performance (e.g., rate of
calculation, problems
completed, correct
responses)12
12 Carnine, 1976; Logan & Skinner, 1998; Skinner, Smith, & McLean, 1994
Module: http://pbismissouri.org/a
rchives/1306
Videos: http://louisville.edu/educ
ation/abri/primarylevel/otr/group
http://louisville.edu/education/ab
ri/primarylevel/practice/group
12 | Page
2.3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT
USE BEHAVIOR-SPECIFIC PRAISE
Description and Critical
Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
Secondary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?
Non-Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support and
Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
Verbal statement that names the
behavior explicitly and includes a
statement that shows approval
May be directed toward an
individual or group
Praise should be provided
soon after behavior,
understandable, meaningful,
and sincere
Deliver approximately five
praise statements for every
one corrective statement
Consider student
characteristics (age,
preferences) when delivering
behavior-specific praise, and
adjust accordingly (e.g.,
praise privately versus
publicly)
Following a transition where
students quietly listened to
instructions, “You did a great
job sitting quietly and
listening for what to do
next.”
During educator-directed
instruction, a student raises
her hand. The educator says,
“Thank you for raising your
hand.”
The educator walks over to a
student and whispers,
Thank you for coming into
the room quietly.”
“Blue Group, I really like the
way you all handed in your
projects on time. It was a
complicated project.”
Tamara, thank you for
being on time. That is the
fourth day in a row,
impressive.”
After pulling a chair up next
to Steve, the teacher states,
“I really appreciate how you
facilitated your group
discussion. There were a lot
of opinions, and you
managed them well.”
After reviewing a student’s
essay, the teacher writes,
“Nice organization. You’re
using the strategies we
discussed in your writing!”
“Great job! Super! Wow!”
(These are general, not
specific, praise statements.)
Brandi, I like how you
raised your hand.” (Two
minutes later)Brandi, that
was a nice response.” (This
is praising the same student
over and over again while
ignoring other students.)
A teacher says “Nice hand
raise.” After yelling at 20
students in a row for talking
out. (This is
not
maintaining
a five praises to one
correction ratio.)
Thank you for trying to act
like a human.” (This, at best,
is sarcasm,
not
genuine
praise.)
Contingent praise is
associated with increases in
a variety of behavioral and
academic skills13
13 Partin, Robertson, Maggin, Oliver, & Wehby, 2010
Behavior-specific praise has
an impact in both special
and general education
settings14
14 Ferguson & Houghton, 1992; Sutherland, Wehby, & Copeland, 2000
Reinforcement should
happen frequently and at a
minimal ratio of five praise
statements for every one
correction15
15 Broden, Bruce, Mitchell, Carter, & Hall, 1970; Craft, Alber, Heward, 1998; Wilcox, Newman, & Pitchford, 1988
Module:
http://pbismissouri.org/archives/1
300
Video:
http://louisville.edu/education/abr
i/primarylevel/praise/group
Other resources:
http://www.interventioncentral.or
g/behavioral-
interventions/motivation/teacher-
praise-efficient-tool-motivate-
students
13 | Page
2.3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT (CONTINUED)
USE OTHER STRATEGIES TO ACKNOWLEDGE STUDENT BEHAVIOR
Description and Critical
Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
Secondary Examples
How can I use this practice in my
secondary classroom?
Non-Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support and
Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
Behavior contracts:
Documenting an agreement
between a teacher and
student(s) about: (a) expected
behavior, (b) available supports
to encourage expected behavior,
(c) rewards earned contingent on
expected behavior, and (d)
consequences if expected
behavior does not occur (or if
undesired behavior does occur)
Group contingencies: All
students have the opportunity to
meet the same expectation and
earn the same reward; the award
may be delivered: (a) to all
students when one or a few
students meet the criterion
(
dependent
), to all students if
all students meet the criterion
(
inter-dependent
), or to each
student if the student meets the
criterion (
independent
)
Token Economies: Delivering a
token (e.g., pretend coin, poker
chip, points, tally mark, stamp)
contingent on appropriate
behavior that is exchangeable for
a back-up item or activity of
value to students
Behavior contracts: At the
beginning of the year, Mrs.
Gaines’s students sign a class
constitution; the document
specifies: (a) the expected
behavior (be safe, respectful,
and responsible), (b) supports
to be provided (reminders), (c)
rewards (earn Friday fun time),
and (d) consequences (try
again for next week)
Group contingencies: All
students will hand in homework
#2 by the due date; if we meet
this goal, next Friday we will
play State Bingo instead of
having a formal test review
Token economies: Thanks to
each student who worked
quietly on the mathematics task
for the past 10 minutesthat’s
responsible behavior! Each of
you earned a “star buck” to use
in the school-wide store
Behavior contracts: At the
beginning of each semester, Dr.
Gale has his students sign an
integrity pledge. It states that
students will complete their work
independently (expected
behavior), with teacher help
when needed (supports), to have
the potential of earning full points
on assignments (rewards). If
students do not maintain
integrity, they will lose points on
that assignment and in the
course.
Group contingencies: As a
class, we will generate five
questions that are examples of
“Synthesis.” If we can meet this
goal by 2:15, I will allow you to
sit where you would like (keeping
class expectations in mind) for
the last 20 minutes of the class
period.
Token economies: Alyiah, you
were very respectful when your
peer came in and asked for
space. You’ve earned 10 bonus
points toward your behavior goal.
Well done!
Behavior contracts: At Smith
Middle School, students sign a
contract stating that engaging in a
“zero tolerance offense” results in
losing all school-based privileges and
may result in being suspended or
expelled. They are not reminded of
this contract unless a violation occurs,
in which case they are typically
expelledeven if the violation was not
severe (e.g., bringing a dull plastic
knife in their lunch to cut an
apple). (This is not focused on
desired behavior and does rewards
or supports) not include
Group contingencies: Making the
goal unattainable (e.g., all students
will display perfect behavior all year),
using a reward you cannot deliver
(e.g., day off on Friday), or pointing
out to the entire group when a
student is detracting from group.
Using rewards to encourage
students to engage in behaviors
that are not in their best interest
(this is bribing)
Token economies: Providing
points or tokens without specific
praise or to the same students or
groups of students or providing
tokens or points without
demonstrated behaviors
When implemented
appropriately, behavior
contracts,16
16 Drabman, Spitalnik, & OLeary, 1973; Kelley & Stokes, 1984; White-Blackburn, Semb, & Semb, 1977; Williams & Anandam, 1973
group
contingencies,17
17 Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf, 1969; Hansen & Lignugaris-Kraft, 2005; Yarborough, Skinner, Lee, & Lemmons, 2004
and token
economies18
18 Jones & Kazdin, 1975; Main & Munro, 1977; McCullagh & Vaal, 1975
result in increases in
desired behavior
Modules:
http://
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/
module/bi1/
http://
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/
module/bi2/
http://pbismissouri.org/
archives/1300
Case studies:
https://
iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/wp-
content/uploads/
pdf_case_studies/
ics_encappbeh.pdf
Other resources:
http://www.interventioncentral.or
g/behavioral-
interventions/rewards/jackpot-
ideas-classroom-rewards
14 | Page
2.4 PROMPTS AND PRECORRECTIONS
MAKE THE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR IRRELEVANT WITH ANTICIPATION AND REMINDERS
Description and Critical
Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
Secondary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?
Non-Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support and
Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
Reminders that are provided
before
a behavior is expected that
describes
what
is expected:
Preventative: take place
before the behavior response
occurs
Understandable: the prompt
must be understood by the
student
Observable: the student
must distinguish when the
prompt is present
Specific and explicit:
describe the expected
behavior (and link to the
appropriate expectation)
Teach and emphasize self-
delivered (or self-managed)
prompts
Before students begin
seatwork, provide a
reminder about how to
access help and materials, if
needed
Before the class transitions,
a teacher states, “Remember
to show respect during a
transition by staying to the
right and allowing personal
space”
Pointing to table as student
enters room (to remind
where to sit)
A student looks at a picture
sequence prompting
effective hand washing and
successfully washes hands
prior to snack or lunch
Pointing to a sign on the
board to indicate expectation
of a silent noise level prior to
beginning independent work
time
Review of group activity
participation rubric prior to
the start of group work
Sign above the homework
basket with a checklist of “to
dos” for handing in
homework
A student checks her
planner, which includes
visual prompts to write down
assigned work and bring
relevant materials home to
promote homework
completion
While teaching a lesson, a
student calls out, and the
educator states, “Instead of
calling out, I would like you
to raise your hand” (This is
an error correctionit came
after
the behavior)
Prior to asking students to
complete a task, the
educator states, “Do a good
job,” or gives a thumb’s up
signal (This is not specific
enough to prompt a
particular behavior)
Providing only the “nos”
(e.g., No running, No
talking) instead of describing
the desired behavior or
failing to link to expectations
Delivering prompts and pre-
corrections for appropriate
behavior results in increases
in improved behavior19
19 Arceneaux & Murdock, 1997; Faul, Stepensky, & Simonsen, 2012; Flood, Wilder, Flood, & Masuda, 2002; Wilder & Atwell, 2006
Use prompts during
transitions to new routines
and for routines that are
difficult for students to
master20
20 Alberto & Troutman, 2013
Videos:
http://louisville.edu/education/abr
i/primarylevel/prompting/group
http://louisville.edu/education/abr
i/primarylevel/modeling/group
15 | Page
2.5 ERROR CORRECTION
USE BRIEF, CONTINGENT, AND SPECIFIC ERROR CORRECTIONS TO RESPOND TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
Description and Critical
Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
Secondary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?
Non-Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support and
Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
An informative statement,
typically provided by the
teacher, that is given when
an undesired behavior
occurs, states the observed
behavior, and tells the
student exactly what the
student should do in the
future
Delivered in a brief, concise,
calm, and respectful
manner, typically in private
Pair with specific contingent
praise after the student
engages in appropriate
behavior
Disengage at end of error
correction and redirection
avoid “power struggles”
After a student calls out in
class the teacher responds,
“Please raise your hand
before calling out your
answer”
After students are talking
too loudly during group
work, the teacher responds,
“Please use a quieter
whisper voice while working
with your partner”
After a student is out of his
or her seat inappropriately,
the teacher responds,
“Please stop walking around
the room and return to your
seat to finish your work”
When a student has not
started working within
one minute, “Jason,
please begin your writing
assignment” (Later) “Nice
job being responsible,
Jason, you have begun
your assignment”
After student is playing
with lab equipment
inappropriately, the
teacher responds, “Please
stop playing with lab
equipment, and keep it on
the table” (Later) “Thank
you for being safe with
the lab equipment
Shouting “No!” (This is
not
calm, neutral, or specific)
A five-minute conversation
about what the student
was thinking (This is
not
brief)
A teacher loudly tells a
student that he is not
being responsible (This is
not
calm or private)
After providing an error
correction, a student
denies engaging in the
behavior; the teacher
repeats the correction in
an escalated tone and
continues to debate the
studenteach exchange
escalates until shouting
ensues (This is a power
struggle)
Error corrections that are direct,
immediate, and end with the
student displaying the correct
response are highly effective in
decreasing undesired behaviors
(errors) and increasing future
success rates21
21 Abramowitz, OLeary, & Futtersak, 1988; Acker & OLeary, 1988; Baker, 1992; Barbetta, Heward, Bradley, & Miller, 1994; Brush & Camp, 1998; Kalla, Downes, & vann de Broek,
2001; McAllister, Stachowiak, Baer, & Conderman, 1969; Singh, 1990; Singh & Singh, 1986; Winett & Vachon, 1974
Error correction
article: http://link.springer.com/articl
e/10.1007/BF02110516
Strategies to interrupt/avoid power
struggles:
http://www.interventioncentral.org/
behavioral-interventions/challenging-
students/dodging-power-struggle-
trap-ideas-teachers
Video:
http://louisville.edu/education/abri/pr
imarylevel/correction/group
16 | Page
2.6 USE OTHER STRATEGIES TO RESPOND TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
WHEN SELECTING STRATEGIES, RECALL THE PURPOSE OF EFFECTIVE CONSEQUENCES: (A) PREEMPT ESCALATION, (B) MINIMIZE INADVERTENT REWARD OF PROBLEM
BEHAVIOR, (C) CREATE LEARNING OPPORTUNITY FOR EMPHASIZING DESIRED BEHAVIOR, AND (D) MAINTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL TIME TO THE REMAINDER OF THE CLASS
Description and Critical
Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
Secondary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?
Non-Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support and
Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
Planned ignoring:
Systematically withholding
attention from a student when he
or she exhibits minor undesired
behavior that is maintained
(reinforced) by teacher attention
Planned ignoring:
During a whole-group activity,
James shouts the teachers name
to get her attention. The teacher
ignores the callouts and proceeds
with the activity
Planned ignoring:
During a lecture, Jen interrupts
the teacher and loudly asks her
question; the teacher ignores Jen
until she quietly raises her hand
Planned ignoring:
A student is loudly criticizing a
peer, resulting in other students
laughing at the targeted peer; the
teacher does nothing
(This is
not
minor and results in
peer attention)
Planned ignoring,22
22 Hall, Lund, & Jackson, 1968; Madsen, Becker, & Thomas, 1968; Yawkey, 1971
differential
reinforcement,23
23 Deitz, Repp, & Deitz, 1976; Didden, de Moor, & Bruyns, 1997; Repp, Deitz, & Deitz, 1976; Zwald & Gresham, 1982
response cost,24
24 Forman, 1980; Greene & Pratt, 1972; Trice & Parker, 1983
and time-out from
reinforcement25
25 Barton, Brulle, & Repp, 1987; Foxx & Shapiro, 1978; Ritschl, Mongrella, & Presbie, 1972
are all proven
strategies to reduce problem
behavior
Module:
http://pbismissouri.org/archives/1
302
Video:
http://louisville.edu/education/abr
i/primarylevel/correction
Podcast:
Part I:
http://vimeo.com/86149984
Part II:
http://vimeo.com/86155208
Other resources:
http://www.interventioncentral.or
g/behavioral-
interventions/challenging-
students/behavior-contracts
Differential reinforcement:
Systematically reinforcing:
Lower rates of problem
behavior (differential
reinforcement of low rates
of behavior [DRL])
Other behaviors (differential
reinforcement of other
behavior [DRO])
An alternative appropriate
behavior (differential
reinforcement of alternative
behavior [DRA])
A physically incompatible
appropriate behavior
(differential reinforcement of
incompatible behavior
[DRI])
Differential reinforcement:
In the same scenario above, the
teacher ignores James’s callouts,
models a previously taught
attention-getting skill (e.g., hand
raise), and immediately gives
attention (calls on and praises) to
James when he raises his hand:
“That’s how we show respect!
Nice hand raise.” (DRA)
When providing instructions prior
to a transition, the teacher asks
students to hold a “bubble” in
their mouths (i.e., fill cheeks with
air), which is physically
incompatible with talking (DRI)
Differential reinforcement:
The teacher privately conferences
with a student and says, “I really
value your contributions, but we
need your peers to also have a
chance to participate in the
group. If you can reduce your
contributions to five or fewer, I’d
love to meet with you over lunch
to talk about the rest of your
ideas.” (DRL)
If we can make it through this
discussion without inappropriate
language, you can listen to music
during your independent work
time at the end of class (DRO)
Differential reinforcement:
The teacher reprimands students
each time they engage in
problem behavior and ignores
appropriate behavior
(This is the exact opposite of how
differential reinforcement should
be used)
17 | Page
2.6 USE OTHER STRATEGIES TO RESPOND TO PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
WHEN SELECTING STRATEGIES, RECALL THE PURPOSE OF EFFECTIVE CONSEQUENCES: (A) PREEMPT ESCALATION, (B) MINIMIZE INADVERTENT REWARD OF PROBLEM
BEHAVIOR, (C) CREATE LEARNING OPPORTUNITY FOR EMPHASIZING DESIRED BEHAVIOR, AND (D) MAINTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL TIME TO THE REMAINDER OF THE CLASS
Description and Critical
Features
What key strategies can I use
to support behavior in my
classroom?
Elementary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my elementary classroom?
Secondary Examples
How can I use this practice in
my secondary classroom?
Non-Examples
What should I avoid when I’m
implementing this practice?
Empirical Support and
Resources
What evidence supports this
practice, and where can I find
additional resources?
Response cost:
Removing something (e.g., token,
points) based upon a students
behavior in attempts to decrease
the behavior
Response cost:
When a student talks out, the
teacher pulls the student aside,
provides a quiet specific error
correction, and removes a marble
from his or her jar on the
teacher’s desk. The student is
then reminded how to resume
earning, and the teacher is
careful to award approximately
five marbles for every marble
removed.
Response cost:
When a student engages in
disrespectful language, the
teacher privately provides
feedback and removes a point
from the student’s point card.
The teacher is careful to provide
at least five points (and specific
praise) for every point removed
(and error correction delivered).
Response cost:
The teacher publicly flips a card
(from green to yellow to red) that
signals the student has lost
access to privileges. The teacher
loudly announces that the “card
flip” and, when asked why,
states, “you know what you did.”
(This does not provide feedback
about what the student did wrong
or how to get back on track. It is
also a public reprimand.)
Time-out from reinforcement:
Brief removal of: (a) something
preferred (e.g., activity, item) or
(b) the student from a preferred
environment based on undesired
behavior
Time-out from reinforcement:
A group of students begin
breaking the crayons they are
using on a worksheet. The
teacher collects the crayons and
provides pencils to complete the
task.
Time-out from reinforcement:
After a student knocks over a
chair in the cafeteria in
frustration, the teacher removes
the student from her normal
lunch table and reviews
expectations with the student
before allowing her to resume
activities.
Time-out from reinforcement:
The teacher sends the student
from a difficult class the student
does not like to in-school
suspension, which is facilitated by
a preferred adult and often
attended by preferred peers for
the remainder of the day.
(This is not brief, and the student
was not removed from a
reinforcing environmentthe
student was sent to a potentially
reinforcing environment.)
18 | Page
Table 3. Matrix of Data Systems for Classroom Interventions and Supports
3.1–3.4 DATA SYSTEMS
Data Collection Strategy
What key strategies can I use to collect
data on student behavior in my
classroom?
Tools and Resources for Data
Collection Method
How can I use this to efficiently track
student behavior in my classroom?
Conditions and Examples
For what types of behaviors will this
strategy be appropriate?
Non-Examples of Use
For what types of behaviors will this
strategy be inappropriate?
3.1 Counting behaviors:
Record or document
how
often
or how
many times a behavior occurs (
frequency
)
within a specified period of time; convert
to
rate
by dividing count by time (minutes
or hours) observed
Moving paper clips from one pocket
to the next
Keeping paper-and-pencil tally
Using a counter (like counter used for
golf)
App on smartphone or tablet
Behaviors that are discrete (clear
beginning and end), countable (low
enough frequency to count), and
consistent (each incident of behavior is
of similar duration)
Exam ples:
How often a student swears in class
How many talk-outs versus hand
raises occur during a lesson
Behaviors that are
not
discrete (unclear
when behavior begins or ends), countable
(occur too rapidly to count), or consistent
(e.g., behavior lasts for varying amounts
of time)
Non-examples:
How many times a student is off task
(likely
not
discrete or consistent)
How often a student is out of seat
(likely
not
consistent)
3.2 Timing:
Record or document
how
long
: (a) a
behavior lasts (
duration
from beginning to
end), (b) it takes for a behavior to start
following an antecedent (
latency
), or (c)
how much time elapses between
behaviors (
inter-response time
)
Timer or clock (and recording the
time with paper and pencil)
App on smartphone or tablet
Use of vibrating timer (e.g.,
MotivAiders®)
Behaviors that are discrete (clear
beginning and end) and directly
observed
Exam ples:
How long a student spends walking
around the classroom (duration of
out of seat)
How long it takes a student to begin
working after work is assigned
(latency to on task)
How long it takes a student start the
next problem after finishing the last
one (inter-response time)
Behaviors that are
not
discrete (clear
beginning and end) or directly observed
Non-examples:
How long it takes a student to say an
inappropriate four-letter word
(duration is
not
the most critical thing
to measure)
How long a student is off task (if the
behavior is
not
discrete; that is if the
behavior does
not
have a clear
beginning and end)
19 | Page
3.1–3.4 DATA SYSTEMS
Data Collection Strategy
What key strategies can I use to collect
data on student behavior in my
classroom?
Tools and Resources for Data
Collection Method
How can I use this strategy to
efficiently track student behavior in my
classroom?
Conditions and Examples
For what types of behaviors will this
strategy be appropriate?
Non-Examples of Use
For what types of behaviors will this
strategy be inappropriate?
3.3 Sampling:
Estimating how
often
a behavior occurs by
recording whether it happened during part
of an interval (
partial interval
), during the
whole interval (
whole interval
), or at the
end of the interval (
momentary time
sampling
)
Shorter intervals lead to more precise
measurement
Partial interval is appropriate for shorter
and more frequent behaviors; whole
interval is appropriate for longer
behaviors; and momentary time sampling
facilitates multi-tasking (you record at the
end of the interval)
Create a table, with each box representing
a time interval (e.g., 30 seconds), and
decide how you will estimate (partial,
whole, momentary time sampling); use a
stopwatch or app to track each interval,
and record following your decision rule
Behaviors that are
not
discrete (unclear
when behavior begins or ends), countable
(occur too rapidly to count), or consistent
(e.g., behavior lasts for varying amounts
of time)
Exam ples:
An estimate of how often a student is
off task (percentage of intervals off
task)
An estimate of how often a student is
out of seat (percentage of intervals
out of seat)
Behaviors that are discrete (clear
beginning and end), countable (low
enough frequency to count), and
consistent (each incident of behavior is of
similar duration)
Non-examples:
How often a student swears in class
(you could count this)
How many talk-outs versus hand
raises occur during a lesson (you
could count this)
3.4 Antecedent-Behavior-
Consequence (ABC) cards, incident
reports, or office discipline referrals:
Record information about the events that
occurred before, during, or after a
behavioral incident
Paper-and-pencil notes on pre-populated
forms
Electronic data collection method (e.g.,
SWIS, Google Docs, other database tool)
Behaviors that are discrete (clear
beginning and end), countable (low
enough frequency to count), and both
behavior and context are
directly observed or assessed
Exam ples:
A tantrum (cluster of behaviors)
where staff saw what preceded and
followed
A fight among peers where the vice
principal was able to gather
information about what happened
before and after by interviewing
students
Behaviors that are
not
discrete (clear
beginning and end), countable (low
enough frequency to count), and/or both
behavior and context are
not
directly
observed
Non-examples:
How often a student swears (count)
How long a student pauses between
assignments (measure inter-response
time)
20 | Page
Additional Tools for Teachers
In addition to using the evidence-based strategies provided in the prior interactive map, self-assessment, and detailed
tables, teachers should apply the following strategy and consider the following guidelines when responding to students’
challenging behavior.
Responding to Behaviors in the Classroom
Make It FAST!
F
Functional
A
Accurate
S
Specific
T
Timely
Responding to behavior in a way
that tries to address the reason or
purpose why a student behaves
within specific situations will help
reduce the likelihood of the
behavior happening in the future
(see Practical FBA Training Manual
for more information)
As much as possible, an accurate
and consistent response is
essential to minimizing problem
behavior and increasing compliant
behaviors
It is best to be as specific as
possible when addressing student
behavior; using the student’s
name and the reason for the
response are examples of how
teachers can be specific
Responding to behavior
immediately after the behavior will
make the response more powerful
Types of Behavior and Common Responses
Appropriate or expected
behavior
Infrequent and non-disruptive
minor behaviors
Repeated and non-disruptive
minor behavior errors and/or
disruptive major behavior errors
Administrator-managed
behaviors
When a student does an
appropriate behavior, let the
student know by telling the
student what he or she did and
how that behavior aligns with the
related school-wide expectation
Be as specific as possible, and try
to always use the student’s name
Consider using praise with other
acknowledgment strategies
When a misbehavior occurs, try
to draw as little attention to the
behavior as possible
Give students reminders of what
is expected
Model what is expected
Reinforce what is expected by
using specific praise or other
acknowledgment strategies
Follow school procedures for
responding to rule violations and
individualized behavior support plans
Try your best to anticipate when
there might be problems, let
students know what you expect,
and take some time to practice
routines
Collect data to help establish
patterns about why behaviors are
occurring
Follow school procedures for
responding to rule violations
and individualized behavior
support plans
21 | Page
SCENARIOS
The following scenarios highlight how teachers may use these classroom strategies with the decision-making guide to support student behavior in their
classrooms. The first scenario is based in an elementary school. The second scenario is based in a high school.
Scenario 1. Mr. Jorgé’s Third-Grade Classroom
Foundations of Classroom Interventions and Supports
Mr. Jorgé invested time into carefully designing his classroom before any of his 25 third graders arrived in the fall. He carefully planned his routinesfrom where
students would place materials upon entering the room to where they would line up when getting ready to exitand ensured the physical layout facilitated
students engaging in routines. He also defined what it looked like for students to follow the school-wide expectations (Safety, Respect, and Responsibility), which
were agreed upon by the faculty and documented in a school-wide matrix, in the context of each of his classroom routines (using an expectations-within-routines
matrix). On the first day of school, Mr. Jorgé greeted students at the door, introduced himself, and invited students into their shared learning environment. He
spent the better part of the first day explicitly teaching the expectations within his classroom routines and establishing his classroom as a positive learning
environment. Throughout the day, he systematically recognized each student who followed the expectations with specific praise (e.g., “Julie, remembering to
bring your materials was really responsible. That’s a great way to start the year!”). He also wrote and invited students to sign a “Classroom Constitution” (also
known as a
behavior contract
).
Mr. Jorgé’s Classroom Constitution (
with strategies in parentheses
)
Members of our classroom community are respectful, responsible, and safe (
expectations
). Mr. Jorgé will support us by teaching us what
this looks like during activities (
explicit instruction
), providing daily reminders (
prompts
), and letting us know how we are doing (
specific
feedback
). If we are able to do this most of the time (during 80 percent of sampled opportunities when the mystery timer goes off) each
day, we will earn 10 minutes of quiet music time at the end of each day (
group contingency
). During this time, we can start on
homework, read a book, or do a quiet activity with a friend while listening to music. If we aren’t able to do this most of the time, we will
spend the 10 minutes reviewing our classroom expectations so that we can have a better day tomorrow.
Consistent implementation of positive and proactive practices
After the first day, Mr. Jorgé kept up his part of the Classroom Constitution. He greeted students every morning, provided reminders about expected behavior at
the beginning of each activity, ensured his lessons were engaging and included multiple opportunities for students to respond and participate, and gave students
specific feedback when they were doing well. He also found that most students were consistently demonstrating expected behavior.
Minor problem behaviors
Occasionally, a student would engage in minor problem behavior. For example, a student sometimes called out when Mr. Jorgé was teaching rather than
remembering to raise a quiet hand. Rather than getting upset, Mr. Jorgé remembered that this was just an error, much like a student saying that 2 + 2 = 5, and
he could simply correct it. For these minor problem behaviors, Mr. Jorgé let students know their behavior was not appropriate, reminded them what was
expected, and gave them an opportunity to practice and earn positive feedback (e.g., “Jeff, remember to raise your hand rather than call out. Let’s try that again.”
22 | Page
After Jeff quietly raises his hand, “Thanks for raising your hand. Now what did you want to share?”). For most students, this quick error correction helped them
get back on track and meet classroom expectations most of the time.
Many students engaging in more chronic or serious behavior
In early December, all students had missed more than a week of school due to an intense storm. They returned to school as winter break was approaching, and
many routines were disrupted due to these planned and unplanned schedule changes. Mr. Jorgé noticed that many of his students were engaging in consistent
disruptive behavior and his reminders were not sufficient. Therefore, he decided to enhance his classroom strategies. He retaught expected behavior, revisited his
Classroom Constitution, increased how often he provided reminders, and introduced a new incentive: Each student who was engaged in expected behavior when
the mystery timer went off (a kitchen timer Mr. Jorgé would set for 15 to 20 minutes) would earn a ticket, which they could use to purchase “gift cards” for
classroom privileges (e.g., homework pass, photocopying privileges, lunch with Mr. Jorgé in the classroom) at the end of the week. With these added supports,
the majority of students were again engaging in expected behavior.
Few students engaging in chronic or serious problem behavior26
Despite his intensified intervention approach, Mr. Jorgé noticed that one student, Rob, was starting to display intense levels of behavior. Rob was frequently out of
his seat, and he would often disrupt the learning of his peers by pushing their materials off of their desks when he walked by, calling his peers (and occasionally
Mr. Jorgé) names under his breath, and shouting out repeatedly when Mr. Jorgé was teaching. Mr. Jorgé collected some information. He noted whether Rob was
in or out of his seat at the end of each minute during the 20-minute writing lesson (when Mr. Jorgé had noticed that Rob’s behavior was the most problematic).
After documenting that Rob was out of his seat during 85 percent of observed intervals, taking notes on some of the concerning things Rob was saying, and
calculating that Rob was at risk for not meeting grade-level standards, Mr. Jorgé brought his concerns (and data) to the Student Assistance Team. The team
decided that Rob may need more comprehensive supports and contacted Rob’s parents to obtain consent for further evaluation. After getting parental consent, a
team (including the school’s behavioral expert, Rob’s dad, and Mr. Jorgé) was formed to support Rob’s evaluation and intervention. Mr. Jorgé provided information
to support the evaluation (e.g., interview responses, classroom data), and he worked with the team to develop and implement a plan to support Rob’s behavior.
26 See additional resources for Tier 2 or Tier 3 support:
o https://www.pbis.org/training/coach-and-trainer/fba-to-bsp
o http://www.pbis.org/common/cms/files/pbisresources/TrainerManual.pdf
o http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/fba/
23 | Page
Scenario 2. Dr. Rubert’s Ninth-Grade Science Class
Foundations of Classroom Interventions and Supports
Dr. Rubert had been teaching freshman science for 15 years when she first heard about the importance of a multi-tiered behavior framework to address behavior
in the same way her school had addressed academics. Although she had always emphasized safety in her lab, she recognized that she may have been more
reactive than proactive. Therefore, she decided to embrace this new approach and rethink her classroom. Before the start of her 16th school year, Dr. R (as her
students called her) revisited the physical design of her classroom and lab. She ensured materials were stored safely and the furniture allowed students to
efficiently transition from desks to lab tables and back again. She clearly reviewed her routines and posted reminders of key routines in important places in the
room. In addition to posting and teaching the school-wide expected behavior matrix, she further defined the same school-wide expectations (safety, respect, and
achievement) for her three main classroom routines in her classroom matrix (below).
Dr. R’s Rules
Lecture Lab Seatwork
Safety Keep body and materials to self
Ensure walkways are clear
Take note of safety instructions for lab
Use materials for their intended
purpose
Wear protective equipment
Use the safety procedures specified for
each lab
Keep body and materials to self
Ensure walkways are clear
Sit to maximize circulation (and
attention)
Respect Actively listen to lecture
Keep your eyes and ears focused on
Dr. R
Assign roles for each lab partner, and
clearly communicate plan and actions
Check in with lab partner regarding
progress and roles
Do your own work
Maintain a quiet work environment
Quietly raise your hand if you need the
teacher’s attention
Achievement Use guided notes to document critical
content
Highlight information to review for
homework
Complete lab work efficiently
Document your process and outcomes
Submit lab reports when due
Do your best work
Ask for help when needed
Ensure you take any unfinished work
home and turn in the next day
On the first day of the fall semester, Dr. R greeted her students at the door and began her first lecture of the year. She reminded students of the school-wide
expectations, showed a student-created video about how to demonstrate safety, respect, and achievement in the classroom (as all teachers were doing), and then
further described what the expectations looked like during her lectures. She involved students in a quick check, where she read scenarios and asked if students in
the scenario were meeting (or not meeting) each expectation. Then, she delivered the rest of her intro lecture and noted (using her electronic grade book app)
which students were displaying expected behavior and which students were not. She repeated this process the first time she introduced lab and seatwork and
periodically throughout the year.
24 | Page
Consistent implementation of positive and proactive practices
Each day, Dr. R greeted her students at the door, reminded them to get started on the activity listed on the interactive whiteboard, and provided any needed
reminders about expectations for each new lab activity. She worked to make sure her lectures were engaging and provided students with guided notes (outlines
or fill-in-the-blank notes) to ensure they stayed on task. She also designed any in-class seatwork or homework activities to include review problems interspersed
with slightly more challenging application exercises. In addition, she consistently gave students specific feedback when they were engaging in expected
appropriate behavior (e.g., “Thanks for handling those materials safely. I can see you are ready for more advanced labs.”).
Minor problem behaviors
Occasionally, students would engage in minor problem behaviors. For example, during a transition, a couple of students were using their fingers like hockey sticks
and plastic petri dishes as pucks on a lab table. She took a breath, resisting the urge to react with a harsh or loud tone, and instead reminded them how to use
materials safely. She had them show her where the dishes should be stored when not in use, and she thanked them for getting back on track so that she could
finish setting up their lab.
Many students engaging in more chronic or serious behavior
As spring approached, Dr. R was starting to introduce more advanced lab experiences. However, students’ schedules were frequently disrupted by various
activities (e.g., field trips, spring fling), and she was seeing increased rates of inappropriate behavior. For example, when she first introduced Bunsen burners, a
few students played with the burners (while they were turned off) as though they were light sabersplayfully clinking the burners together. Other students
laughed and made fun of Dr. R when she tried to gently correct them. She decided it was time to revisit expectations. She also decided to introduce a classroom
contingency regarding safe lab behavior. Specifically, she let students know that if they could be safe during all lab activities, they could do a “fun” lab at the end
of each two-week unit. If there was one instance of significantly unsafe behavior (i.e., something that could put someone at risk of injury), then all labs were
suspended until students could: (a) pass a safety quiz, (b) demonstrate safe operation of lab equipment, and (c) sign a contract committing to using all materials
safely. With the added review, ongoing reminders, and group contingency, students were back on track with appropriate behavior.
Few students engaging in chronic or serious problem behavior
Despite her best efforts at being proactive, one of Dr. R’s students was starting to concern her. Rachel was a student who seemed to keep to herself. When Dr. R
or a peer tried to approach her, Rachel would often stare blankly, make a rude comment, or turn and walk away. Initially, Dr. R just tried to give her space. But,
by October, she realized that Rachel’s behaviors were not improving. Although it was easy to ignore (Rachel never disrupted the class), after chatting with a
colleague in the languages department, Dr. R found out that Rachel was at risk of failing at least two of her courses. Dr. R also walked through the cafeteria and
saw Rachel sitting outside alone. Dr. R brought her concerns to the vice principal assigned to the 9th and 10th grades, and he pulled Rachel’s attendance and
academic records. It turned out that Rachel was chronically late to first period, had missed more than the “allowed” days, and was at risk for failing five (not just
two) classes. (However, she had earned a 4.0 prior to this semester and had received numerous positive comments from teachers in past school records about
her engaging personality.) Dr. R and the vice principal also reviewed the school-wide screening data and noted that Rachel was higher than average on measures
of internalizing behaviors. Given data supporting her initial concerns, Dr. R decided to refer Rachel to the intensive intervention team, who reviewed data for
Rachel, called her parents, talked with Rachel, and decided to proceed with conducting a functional behavioral assessment and developing an individualized
behavior intervention plan. The team also considered more intensive supports to be developed in collaboration with Rachel and her family using a wraparound
process. Dr. R continued to provide additional supports in class, but she was glad that she had noticed Rachel and that Rachel was getting the support she
needed.
25 | Page
SUMMARY OF CLASSROOM INTERVENTIONS AND SUPPORTS
These classroom strategies should be useful to
all educators
to achieve positive outcomes for
all
students
, including students who have various abilities, are from
diverse backgrounds, and who are educated in a range of settings. Although positive and preventative strategies are emphasized, some students may require
additional behavior supports. As such, a number of important assumptions must be considered:
Students and behaviors are not “bad.” Instead, students engage in behaviors that are inappropriate or problematic for a given context or culture.
Students engage in behaviors that “work” for them (i.e., result in desired outcomes or reinforcement).
Educators must act professionally; that is, use planned and established school and classroom procedures in manners that are calm, neutral, business like,
and contingent.
Academic and social behaviors are taught, changed, and strengthened by similar instructional strategies (i.e., model, prompt, monitor, and reinforce).
To reiterate, the classroom strategies and recommendations in this brief are supportive of, but
not sufficient
for addressing, students with intense needs or crisis
responses to dangerous situations. To take full advantage of these strategies, educators are encouraged to use data to guide their selection and implementation
of strategies, monitor implementation fidelity, and integrate academic and behavior supports into a comprehensive, school-wide multi-tiered framework.
26 | Page
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... Classroom-based behavioral strategies to support students' engagement can be grouped into two categories: antecedent-based (i.e., a manipulation of events before the behavior) and consequence-based (i.e., a manipulation of events that occur after the behavior). Both antecedent-and consequence-based strategies are considered critical components of classroom behavior management and have led to improvements in the engagement of students with inattention or low engagement (e.g., Collier-Meek et al., 2019;DuPaul & Weyandt, 2006;DuPaul et al., 2011;Gaastra et al., 2016;Harrison et al., 2019;Sayeski & Brown, 2011;Simonsen et al., 2015). Based on the Office of Special Education Programs' technical assistance document on supporting and responding to student behavior (Simonsen et al., 2015), and other reviews for students with ADHD (e.g., DuPaul & Weyandt, 2006;DuPaul et al., 2011;Gaastra et al., 2016;Harrison et al., 2019;Zaheer et al., 2019) highly effective antecedent-based strategies include: establishing and teaching classroom expectations with explicit instruction, reviewing the class expectations, providing students frequent opportunities to respond to instruction, and pre-correcting behaviors that do not meet expectations. ...
... Both antecedent-and consequence-based strategies are considered critical components of classroom behavior management and have led to improvements in the engagement of students with inattention or low engagement (e.g., Collier-Meek et al., 2019;DuPaul & Weyandt, 2006;DuPaul et al., 2011;Gaastra et al., 2016;Harrison et al., 2019;Sayeski & Brown, 2011;Simonsen et al., 2015). Based on the Office of Special Education Programs' technical assistance document on supporting and responding to student behavior (Simonsen et al., 2015), and other reviews for students with ADHD (e.g., DuPaul & Weyandt, 2006;DuPaul et al., 2011;Gaastra et al., 2016;Harrison et al., 2019;Zaheer et al., 2019) highly effective antecedent-based strategies include: establishing and teaching classroom expectations with explicit instruction, reviewing the class expectations, providing students frequent opportunities to respond to instruction, and pre-correcting behaviors that do not meet expectations. Recommended highly effective consequence-based strategies include brief behavior-contingent error corrections, differential reinforcement (i.e., appropriate behaviors are reinforced with inappropriate behaviors ignored), and using behavior specific praise (DuPaul & Weyandt, 2006;DuPaul et al., 2011;Gaastra et al., 2016;Harrison et al., 2019;Simonsen et al., 2015). ...
... Based on the Office of Special Education Programs' technical assistance document on supporting and responding to student behavior (Simonsen et al., 2015), and other reviews for students with ADHD (e.g., DuPaul & Weyandt, 2006;DuPaul et al., 2011;Gaastra et al., 2016;Harrison et al., 2019;Zaheer et al., 2019) highly effective antecedent-based strategies include: establishing and teaching classroom expectations with explicit instruction, reviewing the class expectations, providing students frequent opportunities to respond to instruction, and pre-correcting behaviors that do not meet expectations. Recommended highly effective consequence-based strategies include brief behavior-contingent error corrections, differential reinforcement (i.e., appropriate behaviors are reinforced with inappropriate behaviors ignored), and using behavior specific praise (DuPaul & Weyandt, 2006;DuPaul et al., 2011;Gaastra et al., 2016;Harrison et al., 2019;Simonsen et al., 2015). In addition to consequence-based strategies stated by the Office of Special Education Programs (Simonsen et al., 2015), positive reinforcement can also include token economies, in which the tokens (e.g., stickers, points) are later exchanged for a tangible item or a desired activity (e.g., DuPaul & Weyandt, 2006;DuPaul et al., 2011). ...
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Students with co-occurring reading difficulties and inattention tend to respond to reading interventions less favorably than those with reading difficulties without inattention. However, there is limited research on how to increase student engagement during reading instruction for these students. To support the engagement of students with co-occurring reading difficulties and inattention during reading instruction, the present study embedded antecedent- and consequence-based behavioral supports into an evidence-based reading curriculum to answer the following research question: What are the effects of integrating behavior supports into a reading intervention on student engagement relative to a reading intervention without behavior supports for fourth-grade students with co-occurring reading difficulties and inattention? The study used an ABAB withdrawal design. Study effects were evaluated by the What Works Clearinghouse visual analysis indicators and nonoverlapping data effect sizes. Results suggested the presence of a functional relation and large effect sizes for two of the three students in the study. Social validity data indicated that intervention was important and acceptable. Study findings suggest that embedding behavior supports into an evidence-based reading curriculum during small group reading instruction can be a feasible method for schools to address student engagement during reading instruction.
... Behavior-specific praise (BSP) is a verbal statement that names the behavior explicitly and includes a statement that shows approval (with examples and nonexamples; Simonsen et al., 2015). ...
... Next, modules two through four presented operational definitions of each target PBM strategy as well as elementary and secondary examples as described in Simonsen et al. (2015). The purpose of these operational definitions was to increase participant clarity on what the strategy was, how to implement it, and how they may already use elements of it in their practice. ...
... PBM(Bambara et al., 2012;Robertson et al., 2020). The remaining three modules focused on the following PBM strategies in this order: OTR(Sutherland & Wehby, 2001), BSP(Reinke et al., 2014), and effective error correction (EEC;Simonsen et al., 2015). ...
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Proactive behavior management (PBM) has been shown to improve behavior in students with and without disabilities, yet teacher use of such strategies is often low. One barrier to the implementation of PBM is teacher beliefs that contradict a proactive approach to behavior management in favor of a punitive approach. The present study piloted a professional development program using “wise interventions” from social psychology to increase supportive beliefs and use of PBM in school personnel servicing children with disruptive classroom behavior with or at‐risk for disabilities. Twelve participants from a private special education program (SEP) and 10 participants from a public district met in small groups to review research, read testimonials, and engage in reflective writing about PBM. From before to after participation, SEP staff significantly increased their reported use of PBM and maintained these increases at 6‐month follow‐up. Public district participants also increased their reported use of PBM, however, this increase was not significant and declined 6 months later. A significant proportion of participants reported that the program changed how they think about behavior management. Implications for increasing teachers' supportive beliefs and use of PBM are discussed.
... Practicing teachers report posting students' names as a reactionary method of behavior management (Zuckerman, 2007), and as a method of acknowledgement (Flannery et al., 2009), but neither form has been systematically evaluated. Given the unfavorable associations between reactionary methods and disruptive behaviors (Pas et al., 2015), as well as educational initiatives prioritizing positive methods of acknowledgement (Simonsen et al., 2015), teachers in the current study were trained to post students' names in response to appropriately engaged behaviors. ...
... Writing students' names on the classroom whiteboard has been described as a reactionary method of behavior management (Canter, 1989), and although practicing teachers have reported posting students' names as a negative or positive consequence of acknowledgement (Flannery et al., 2009;Zuckerman, 2007), neither form has been previously evaluated systematically. The decision to test posted names as a method of acknowledgement was made given the unfavorable associations between reactionary methods and disruptive behaviors (Pas et al., 2015), and educational pushes to use positive consequences for behavior management instead of reactionary ones (Simonsen et al., 2015). ...
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Behavior‐specific praise (BSP) and other forms of positive feedback and public acknowledgment are underutilized in secondary classrooms. Surprisingly, few studies have evaluated the independent effects of BSP in these settings. Using a multiple baseline design with an embedded A/B/B + C condition sequence, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of BSP and BSP combined with public posting on the appropriately engaged and disruptive behaviors across 4 secondary classrooms. Results supported a functional relation between BSP alone and improvements in students' appropriately engaged and disruptive behaviors. Combining BSP with public posting, which involved writing students' names on the classroom whiteboard, further increased students' appropriately engaged behaviors but had mixed effects on students' disruptive behaviors. Practical implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
... Evidence-based classroom management (EBCM) strategies the effectiveness of which have been proven by at least three experimental studies published in peer-reviewed journals (Simonsen, Fairbanks, Bresch, Myers, & Sugai, 2008), include the following strategies: arranging the learning environment, determining the classroom rules, using various teaching methods to ensure the participation of all children, reinforcing positive behaviors and using the most appropriate methods for negative behaviors (Simonsen et al., 2008). The literature shows that teachers who use evidence-based strategies with fidelity manage their classrooms better, and accordingly, students' academic achievements increase and problem behaviors are prevented (Simonsen et al., 2008;Simonsen et al., 2015). ...
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