ArticlePDF Available

Insects in fish diets

Authors:
  • Association Française de Zootechnie
  • Univ. Hohenheim/Univ. Nanjing/Univ. Gansu/Univ. Ulanbator

Abstract and Figures

Implications • Since the 1990s, the rising demand for fish products has been met by aquaculture rather than by capture fishery. • Fish meal is the main component of many fish diets due to its outstanding nutritional value. As this reliance on fish meal is under question for environmental, societal, and economic reasons, alternative feed sources are required. • Insects are rich in protein, energy, and lipids, and, unlike plant ingredients, are poor in fiber and anti-nutritional factors. Black soldier fly larvae, maggot meal, mealworm larvae, adult Orthoptera (locusts, grasshoppers, and crickets), and silkworm pupae have been investigated for their nutritional attributes, ease of rearing, and biomass production. While not as ideal as fish meal, they may be used to replace part of it in fish diets, usually less than 25 to 30% though greater rates are possible. Addition of synthetic amino acids could further enhance protein quality of insects. • Further research on the nutritional value of insects for fish is needed. Industrial-scale processes for the production of insectbased fish diets have to be developed, taking into account their impact on the environment, food safety, and society.
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
Key words: alternative feeds, aquaculture, sh, sh feeds, insects
Introduction
There has been a major shift to diets with increased consumption of ani-
mal products, including sh. Indeed, people have never consumed so much
sh or depended so greatly on the sector for their well-being as today: in 2012,
sh provided 17% of the world population’s intake of animal protein. As cap-
ture shery production has been relatively stable at about 90 million tonnes
since the 1990s, the rising demand for shery products has been met by a fast-
growing aquaculture industry, which set an all-time high record at 67 million
tonnes in 2012, providing 50% of the sh used for human consumption (FAO,
2014). Fish feeds, notably those of salmonids and marine sh, are usually
based on sh meal and sh oil obtained from pelagic species captured for this
purpose (Médale et al., 2013). Fish meal is a highly regarded source of protein
with an excellent composition of essential amino acids, while sh oil provides
long-chain omega-3 fatty acids favored for their health benets (Olsen and
Hasan, 2012). However, this reliance on wild sh capture for sh farming is
under question. Not only sh meal and sh oil may contain contaminants such
as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, but consumers are now interested
in sustainability metrics such as the ratio of wild shery inputs to farmed sh
outputs (Naylor et al., 2009). Also, the volatility and rise of sh meal prices
is a matter of concern for sh farmers (Olsen and Hasan, 2012). Furthermore,
while aquaculture’s share of sh meal and sh oil consumption has been in-
creasing, reaching 88% by 2007 (Tacon and Metian, 2008), the production of
sh meal decreased between 1994 and 2012 and is now about 5 to 6 million
tonnes (Médale et al., 2013; FAO, 2014). As a consequence, there has been
an ongoing search for alternative sources of protein that would allow aquacul-
ture to remain economically and environmentally sustainable (Barroso et al.,
2014). Non-animal proteins derived from legume and/or oil seeds or cereal
gluten are now introduced in sh diets (Médale et al., 2013), but plant sources
have limitations, such as palatability issues, presence of anti-nutritional sub-
stances, low concentrations of sulfur amino acids, and high proportions of
ber and non-starch polysaccharides (Sanchez-Muros et al., 2014).
In the recent years, insects have received wide attention as a potential
source of protein both for humans and livestock. Insects grow and repro-
duce easily, have high feed conversion efciency, and can be reared on bio-
wastes (van Huis et al., 2013; Makkar et al., 2014). One kilogram of insect
biomass can be produced from on average 2 kg of feed biomass (Collavo et
al., 2005). This article presents the current status on the insects that are the
best candidates as sh feed ingredients in partial or complete substitution
for sh meal, with regard to their nutritional attributes, ease of rearing, and
biomass production: larvae or pupae of Diptera black soldier y (Hermetia
illucens) and house y (Musca domestica); larvae of mealworm [Tenebrio
molitor (Coleoptera)]; adult Orthoptera from the Acrididae (locusts and
grasshoppers), Gryllidae (crickets), and Tettigoniidae (katydids) families;
and pupae of silkworm [Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera)]. Many sh species
consume insects in the wild: omnivorous species prey on insects found on
the bottom of water bodies whereas juvenile stages of carnivorous species
eat insects before switching to sh-based diets (Riddick et al., 2013).
Insect Composition
Protein and lipids
The main chemical constituents of insects are presented in Table 1.
The crude protein (CP) content of insects is high and varies from 42 to
63%, a range comparable to that of soybean meal but slightly less than
that of sh meal. Diptera larvae (black soldier y and housey) and meal-
worm larvae contain less protein than adult Orthoptera (locusts and crick-
ets) and silkworm pupae.
Insects often accumulate fat, especially during their immature stages
(Manzano-Agugliaro et al., 2012). The lipid content of non-defatted insects
is highly variable and varies from 8.5 (adult locust) to 36% (mealworm
larvae). However, variability in lipid concentration is high even within the
same species; for instance, oil values as high as 30% have been reported for
locusts because it is inuenced by the stage of development and by the diet
Insects in fish diets
G. Tran,† V. Heuzé,† and H.P.S. Makkar*
† Association Française de Zootechnie, Paris, France
*Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Animal Production and Health Division, Rome, Italy
© Tran, Heuzé, and Makkar
doi:10.2527/af.2015-0018
Implications
Since the 1990s, the rising demand for sh products has been met
by aquaculture rather than by capture shery.
Fish meal is the main component of many sh diets due to its
outstanding nutritional value. As this reliance on sh meal is
under question for environmental, societal, and economic rea-
sons, alternative feed sources are required.
Insects are rich in protein, energy, and lipids, and, unlike plant in-
gredients, are poor in ber and anti-nutritional factors. Black sol-
dier y larvae, maggot meal, mealworm larvae, adult Orthoptera
(locusts, grasshoppers, and crickets), and silkworm pupae have
been investigated for their nutritional attributes, ease of rearing,
and biomass production. While not as ideal as sh meal, they
may be used to replace part of it in sh diets, usually less than 25
to 30% though greater rates are possible. Addition of synthetic
amino acids could further enhance protein quality of insects.
Further research on the nutritional value of insects for sh is
needed. Industrial-scale processes for the production of insect-
based sh diets have to be developed, taking into account their
impact on the environment, food safety, and society.
Apr. 2015, Vol. 5, No. 2 37
Published March 30, 2015
(Barroso et al., 2014). The defatted meal, being richer in CP than soybean
meal and sh meal, could nd a place as a protein-rich resource in sh diets.
Carbohydrates
Insects contain relatively low levels of carbohydrates compared with
plants, typically less than 20% (Barroso et al., 2014). The carbohydrate most
commonly encountered by sh in the wild is probably chitin, a polymer of
glucosamine found in the exoskeleton of arthropods (Lindsay et al., 1984).
However, the amount of chitin in insects is variable because it depends on the
species and development stage and also on the method of analysis. Very high
[>10% of the dry matter (DM)] as well as very low values (<100 mg/kg DM)
have been reported (Finke, 2007). The ability of sh to digest chitin is also a
matter of debate. Chitinase activity has been observed in several sh species,
and benets of incorporating chitin into marine sh diets have been reported,
but it is generally agreed that chitin is one of the factors limiting the use of
insects in sh feeds (Ng et al., 2001; Sanchez-Muros et al., 2014).
Amino acids
The amino acid proles of various insects are given in Table 2. Com-
pared with sh meal, the CP of Orthoptera and mealworms tend to con-
tain less lysine while Diptera and silkworms are relatively rich in lysine.
Sulfur amino acids (in percent CP) tend to be less in insects than in sh
meal, except for silkworms. Threonine levels are roughly comparable but
are greater for silkworms. Tryptophan levels are generally less, except for
silkworms and housey maggot meal. For optimum growth, and depend-
ing on the specic requirement of the sh species, supplementation with
synthetic amino acids could therefore be recommended. Compared with
soybean meal, silkworms and Diptera have a globally better amino acid
prole and could be better substitutes of sh meal than soybean meal.
Minerals
Ash contents of insects are generally low, except for black soldier y lar-
vae, for which values greater than 15% have been reported. Black soldier y
larvae are rich in calcium (7.6% DM), but other insects have very low calcium
levels, and calcium supplementation would be required. Calcium fortica-
tion of the rearing substrate can increase the calcium level in larvae meals
(Table 1). Calcium:phosphorus ratios in insects vary from 0.2 to 1.2 (except
for black soldier y larvae, which have a ratio of 8.4) and are thus less than the
optimal values recommended for sh (1.1–1.4) (Chavez-Sanchez et al., 2000;
Kumar et al., 2012). In some insects (e.g., housey maggot meal and Mormon
cricket), phosphorus levels are particularly high (1.0 to 1.6%).
Fatty acid composition
The fatty acid proles of various insects are given in Table 3. Concen-
trations of unsaturated fatty acids are high in mealworm, house cricket, and
housey maggot meals (60–70%), and lowest in black soldier y larvae
(19–37%) due to high levels of saturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid (18:2n-6)
concentration is much greater than that of a-linolenic acid (APA , 18:3n-3), as
in many plant oils (including soybean and sunower). Compared with sh oil,
terrestrial insects contain greater quantities of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids
and negligible amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosa-
hexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). This lack of EPA and DHA is a limiting factor
to the use of terrestrial insects in marine sh, which require these fatty acids but
have limited abilities to synthetize them. Salmonids can synthetize EPA and
DHA from APA, but dietary supply is more efcient (Médale et al., 2013; San-
chez-Muros et al., 2014). Aquatic insects, on the other hand, contain signicant
amounts of EPA and have been proposed as source of feed for freshwater sh
(Sanchez-Muros et al., 2014). For instance, the lipids of freshwater insects that
are part of the natural diet of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) contain more
than 15% EPA (Bell et al., 1994). It has been shown that the lipid concentration
Table 1. Main chemical constituents in insect meals vis-à-vis fishmeal and soymeal (adapted from Makkar et al., 2014).
Constituents
Black soldier
y larvae
Housey
maggot meal
Mealworm
Locust
meal
House
cricket
Mormon
cricket
Silkworm
pupae meal
Silkworm pupae
meal (defatted)
Fishmeal
Soymeal
DM, %
Crude protein 42.1 (56.9)* 50.4 (62.1) 52.8 (82.6) 57.3 (62.6) 63.3 (76.5) 59.8 (69.0) 60.7 (81.7) 75.6 70.6 51.8
Lipids 26.0 18.9 36.1 8.5 17.3 13.3 25.7 4.7 9.9 2.0
Calcium 7.56 0.47 0.27 0.13 1.01 0.20 0.38 0.40 4.34 0.39
Phosphorus 0.90 1.60 0.78 0.11 0.79 1.04 0.60 0.87 2.79 0.69
Ca:P ratio 8.4 0.29 0.35 1.18 1.28 0.19 0.63 0.46 1.56 0.57
*Values in parentheses are calculated values of the defatted meals.
Black soldier y.
Lenny Worthington
38 Animal Frontiers
and the lipid prole of insects are highly dependent on the diet and that they
can be modied by changing the composition of the substrate (Sanchez-Muros
et al., 2014). For instance, changing the substrate from cow manure to a 50:50
mix of cow manure and sh offal increased the level of omega-3 fatty acids in
the black soldier y larvae from 0.2% to 2% (total fatty acids basis) and total
lipid concentration from 20 to 31% (DM basis) (St-Hilaire et al., 2007b).
Utilization of Insects in Fish Feeding
Black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens)
Several experiments have shown that black soldier y larvae could
partially or fully substitute for sh meal in sh diets. However, additional
trials as well as economic analysis are necessary because reduced perfor-
mance has been observed in some cases and the type of rearing substrate
and the processing method affect their utilization by sh.
Channel catsh (Ictalurus punctatus). Chopped soldier y larvae
grown on hen manure fed to channel catsh alone or in combination with
commercial diets resulted in similar performance (body weight and total
length) as with the control diets. The sh aroma and texture were acceptable
to the consumer. Young catsh refused whole larvae but consumed chopped
ones (Bondari and Sheppard, 1981). Replacement of 10% sh meal with
10% dried soldier y larvae resulted in slower growth over a 15-wk period
for subadult channel catsh grown in cages but not in sh grown in tanks. In
tank-grown sh, feeding 100% larvae did not provide sufcient DM or CP
intake for good growth. Chopping of the larvae was not recommended, as
Table 2. Amino acid composition (g/16 g nitrogen) of insect meals versus FAO reference dietary protein requirement
values, soybean meal and fish meal (adapted from Makkar et al., 2014).
Amino acids
Black soldier
y larvae
Housey
maggot meal
Mealworm
Locust
meal
House
cricket
Mormon
cricket
Silkworm
pupae meal
Silkworm pupae
meal (defatted)
Fishmeal
Soymeal
FAO Reference
protein1
Essential
Methionine 2.1 2.2 1.5 2.3 1.4 1.4 3.5 3.0 2.7 1.32 2.502
Cystine 0.1 0.7 0.8 1.1 0.8 0.1 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.38
Valine 8.2 4.0 6.0 4.0 5.1 6.0 5.5 4.9 4.9 4.50 3.50
Isoleucine 5.1 3.2 4.6 4.0 4.4 4.8 5.1 3.9 4.2 4.16 2.80
Leucine 7.9 5.4 8.6 5.8 9.8 8.0 7.5 5.8 7.2 7.58 6.60
Phenylalanine 5.2 4.6 4.0 3.4 3.0 2.5 5.2 4.4 3.9 5.16 6.303
Tyrosine 6.9 4.7 7.4 3.3 5.2 5.2 5.9 5.5 3.1 3.35
Histidine 3.0 2.4 3.4 3.0 2.3 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.4 3.06 1.90
Lysine 6.6 6.1 5.4 4.7 5.4 5.9 7.0 6.1 7.5 6.18 5.80
Threonine 3.7 3.5 4.0 3.5 3.6 4.2 5.1 4.8 4.1 3.78 3.40
Tryptophan 0.5 1.5 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.9 1.4 1.0 1.36 1.10
Non-essential
Serine 3.1 3.6 7.0 5.0 4.6 4.9 5.0 4.5 3.9 5.18 -
Arginine 5.6 4.6 4.8 5.6 6.1 5.3 5.6 5.1 6.2 7.64 -
Glutamic acid 10.9 11.7 11.3 15.4 10.4 11.7 13.9 8.3 12.6 19.92 -
Aspartic acid 11.0 7.5 7.5 9.4 7.7 8.8 10.4 7.8 9.1 14.14 -
Proline 6.6 3.3 6.8 2.9 5.6 6.2 5.2 -4.2 5.99 -
Glycine 5.7 4.2 4.9 4.8 5.2 5.9 4.8 3.7 6.4 4.52 -
Alanine 7.7 5.8 7.3 4.6 8.8 9.5 5.8 4.4 6.3 4.54 -
1Reference for the 2-5 year old child.
2Methionine plus cystine.
3Phenylalanine plus tyrosine.
Blue tilapia feeding.
Brian Smith
Apr. 2015, Vol. 5, No. 2 39
it improved weight gain and increased feed consumption but resulted in re-
duced feed efciency and greater feed waste (Bondari and Sheppard, 1987).
A comparison between menhaden sh meal and black soldier y prepupae
meal showed that the latter could be advantageous up to an inclusion rate of
7.5% as a replacement for sh meal provided it was also supplemented with
soybean meal to obtain isoproteic diets (Newton et al., 2005).
Yellow catsh (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). In yellow catsh, 25%
replacement of sh meal by black soldier y larvae meal produced no
signicant difference in the growth index and immunity index compared
with the control group (Zhang et al., 2014).
Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus). Chopped soldier y larvae grown
on hen manure fed to blue tilapia catsh alone or in combination with
commercial diets resulted in similar performance (body weight and total
length) as with the control diets and in sh aroma and texture accept-
able to the consumer (Bondari and Sheppard, 1981). In a later experiment,
feeding dry black soldier y larvae as the sole component of the diet did
not provide sufcient DM or CP intake for good growth for tilapia grown
in tanks. However, chopping improved weight gain by 140% and feed ef-
ciency by 28% (Bondari and Sheppard, 1987).
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Black soldier y prepupae
meal reared on dairy cattle manure enriched with 25 to 50% trout offal
could be used to replace up to 50% of sh meal protein in trout diets for
8 wk without signicantly affecting sh growth or the sensory quality of
trout llets although a slight (but nonsignicant) reduction in growth was
observed (Sealey et al., 2011). In a 9-wk study, replacing 25% of the sh
meal protein in rainbow trout diets with black soldier y prepupae meal
reared on pig manure did not affect the weight gain and feed conversion
ratio (St-Hilaire et al., 2007a).
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A control diet containing 20% sh
meal was replaced by black soldier y larvae meal at 25, 50, or 100%
sh meal replacement, resulting in similar growth and sensory testing of
llets, greater feed conversion efciency, and an absence of histological
differences (Lock et al., 2014). However, these authors did caution that
the method of preparation of insect could impact performance.
Turbot (Psetta maxima). Juvenile turbots accepted diets containing
33% defatted black y soldier larvae meal (as a replacement of sh meal)
without signicantly affecting feed intake and feed conversion. However,
specic growth rate was less at all of the inclusion rates. Greater inclusion
rates decreased the acceptance of the diet, resulting in reduced feed intake
and growth performance. The presence of chitin might have reduced feed
intake and nutrient availability and therefore reduced growth performance
and nutrient utilization (Kroeckel et al., 2012).
Housey maggot meal and housey pupae meal (Musca domes-
tica). The use of housey maggots as supplements in sh diets has been
mostly studied in Nigeria for tilapia and catsh species.
African catsh (Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus longilis, and
hybrids). There have been numerous experiments in Nigeria on the use of
housey maggots in the diets of African catsh, mostly Clarias gariepinus,
Heterobranchus longilis, and hybrids. The results are generally positive,
but the inclusion of maggot meal should be limited to 25 to 30% because
performance tends to decrease when greater inclusion rates are used (Fa-
sakin et al., 2003; Idowu et al., 2003; Madu and Ufodike, 2003; Sogbesan
et al., 2006; Aniebo et al., 2009; Adewolu et al., 2010; Ossey et al., 2012).
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia fed a 4:1 mixture of
wheat bran and live maggots had a better growth performance, specic
growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and survival than sh fed only wheat
bran (Ebenso and Udo, 2003). When maggot meal was included at 15 to
68% in the diet replacing sh meal, best performance and survival were
obtained at 25% inclusion (34% substitution of sh meal), with no ad-
verse effects on the hematology and homeostasis. However, sources of n-6
and n-3 fatty acids should be included in the diet to enhance the fatty acid
prole in sh (Ogunji et al., 2007; Ogunji et al., 2008a,b).
Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor)
African catsh (Clarias gariepinus). Fresh and dried mealworms
have been found to be an acceptable alternate protein source for the Afri-
can catsh. Replacing 40% of sh meal with mealworm meal in isopro-
teic diets resulted in growth performance and feed utilization efciency
similar to that obtained with the control diet, and performance was still
similar at 80% substitution. Catsh fed solely on live mealworms had a
slight depression in growth performance, but sh fed live mealworms in
the morning and commercial catsh pellets in the afternoon grew as good
Table 3. Fatty acid composition of insect lipids (adapted from Makkar et al., 2014).
Constituents in (% fatty acids) Black soldier y larvae1Housey maggot meal Mealworm House cricket Fish oil2
Saturated fatty acids (%)
Lauric, 12:0 21.4 [49.3] (42.6) -0.5 -
Myristic, 14:0 2.9 [6.8] (6.9) 5.5 4.0 0.7 3.7-7.6
Palmitic, 16:0 16.1 [10.5] (11.1) 31.1 21.1 23.4 10.2-20.9
Stearic, 18:0 5.7 [2.78] (1.3) 3.4 2.7 9.8 1.1-4.7
Monosaturated fatty acids (%)
Palmitoleic, 16:1n-7 [3.5] 13.4 4.0 1.3 8.7-12.5
Oleic, 18: 1n-9 32.1 [11.8] (12.3) 24.8 37.7 23.8 11.4-18.6
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (%)
Linoleic, 18:2n-6 4.5 [3.7] (3.6) 19.8 27.4 38.0 1.1-1.3
Linolenic, 18:3n-3 0.19 [0.08] (0.74) 2.0 1.2 1.2 0.3-0.8
Eicosapentaenoic (EPA), 20:5n-3 0.03 [0] (1.66) - - - 3.7-16.9
Docosahexaenoic (DHA), 22:6n-3 0.006 [0] (0.59) - - - 2-21.9
1Values using cow manure as substrate. Round parentheses are the values obtained on using 50% of cow manure and 50% of sh offal as substrate. Square parentheses are
values obtained on swine manure as substrate.
2Adapted from Sauvant et al., 2004.
40 Animal Frontiers
as or better than sh fed the commercial diet. Live and dried mealworms
were found to be highly palatable. Catsh fed mealworm-based diets had
signicantly more lipids in their carcass (Ng et al., 2001).
Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). In gilthead sea bream juveniles
fed diets containing mealworm meal replacing 25 or 50% of sh meal
protein, 25% substitution did not affect weight gain and nal weight nega-
tively, while 50% substitution induced growth reduction and less specic
growth rate, feed conversion efciency, and protein efciency ratio. The
whole body proximate composition was unchanged (Piccolo et al., 2014).
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Mealworm added to a diet
(containing 45% CP) at levels of 25 and 50% by weight (as a replacement
of sh meal) showed that it could be included at up to 50% without reduc-
ing growth performance (Gasco et al., 2014a).
European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In European sea bass,
including up to 25% of mealworm meal in isoproteic diets as a replace-
ment of sh meal had no adverse effects on weight gain. Inclusion at 50%
reduced growth, specic growth rate, and feed consumption ratio slightly
but not protein efciency ratio, feed consumption, and body composition.
Mealworm inclusion inuenced the fatty acid composition of body lipids
(Gasco et al., 2014b).
Locust Meal, Locusts, Grasshoppers, and Crickets
African catsh (Clarias gariepinus). Desert locust meal (Schisto-
cerca gregaria) could replace up to 25% dietary protein in C. gariepi-
nus juveniles without signicant reduction in growth. Chitin may have
contributed to reduced performance when greater rates were used (Balo-
gun, 2011). Meal of adult variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus)
could replace up to 25% sh meal in the diets of C. gariepinus ngerlings
without any adverse effect on growth and nutrient utilization at the same
protein level in the diet. Greater inclusion rates decreased digestibility and
performance (Alegbeleye et al., 2012).
Walking catsh (Clarias batrachus). Several studies have investi-
gated the effects of feeding dried Indian grasshoppers (Poekilocerus pic-
tus) on the histological and physiological parameters of walking catsh. A
91-d feeding of dried grasshoppers had no adverse effect on hematologi-
cal parameters but resulted in a little shrinkage in the gills as well as a
reduction in ovarian steroidogenesis, which may reduce fertility (Johri et
al., 2010; Johri et al., 2011a,b).
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Migratory locust meal (Locusta
migratoria) could replace sh meal up to 25% in isoproteic diets of Nile
tilapia ngerlings without an adverse effect on the nutrient digestibility,
growth performance, and hematological parameters (Abanikannda, 2012;
Emehinaiye, 2012).
Silkworm Pupae Meal (Bombyx mori)
Carps. In the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), it was possible to re-
place 100% of sh meal protein with non-defatted silkworm pupae meal
with no adverse effect on growth and feed conversion (Rahman et al.,
1996; Nandeesha et al., 1990). Silkworm pupae meal could be safely used
up to 50% in the diet without adversely affecting growth and esh quality
(Nandeesha et al., 2000). In a comparison between silkworm pupae meal
and alfalfa or mulberry leaf meals, feed conversion efciency, nutrient di-
gestibility, and nutrient retention were better for diets based on silkworm
meal than for diets based on plant leaf meals (Swamy and Devaraj, 1994).
In a polyculture system based on Indian carp (Catla catla), mrigal
carp (Cirrhinus mrigala), rohu (Labeo rohita), and silver carp (Hypoph-
thalmychthys molitrix), fermented silkworm pupae silage (replacing sh
meal) included in formulated diets gave better survival rate, feed conver-
sion ratio, and specic growth rate than untreated fresh silkworm pupae
paste or sh meal (Rangacharyulu et al., 2003). In rohu, non-defatted silk-
worm pupae and defatted silkworm pupae resulted in signicantly greater
protein digestibility values than sh meal (Hossain et al., 1997).
Silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus). In silver barb ngerlings,
highest growth performance was observed with a diet where silkworm
pupae meal replaced 38% of total dietary protein (Mahata et al., 1994).
Mahseer (Tor khudree). Mahseer ngerlings fed a diet containing
50% defatted silkworm pupae at 5% of body weight had a better growth
and survival than ngerlings fed no or reduced amounts of silkworm pu-
pae (Shyama and Keshavanath, 1993).
Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Mozambique tila-
pias could utilize the protein of both defatted and non-defatted silkworm meal
with a high apparent protein digestibility of 85 to 86% (Hossain et al., 1992).
Larvae of the black soldier y. Mealworms.
Dennis Kress Peter Halasz
Apr. 2015, Vol. 5, No. 2 41
Asian stinging catsh (Heteropneustes fossilis). Silkworm pupae meal
could replace sh meal at up to 75% protein substitution in Asian stinging
catsh diets without adverse effect on growth (Hossain et al., 1993).
Walking catsh (Clarias batrachus). Non-defatted silkworm pupae
meal was found to be a suitable sh meal substitute in diets for walking
catsh. Digestibility of the CP in silkworm meal was found to be similar
to that in sh meal (Borthakur and Sarma, 1998a). Walking catsh n-
gerlings fed silkworm meal had slightly lower specic growth rate and
poorer feed conversion ratio (2.81 vs. 2.45) than ngerlings fed on sh
meal (Borthakur and Sarma, 1998b).
Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). Chum salmon fry fed over 6-wk
diets supplemented with 5% silkworm pupae meal at the expense of sh
meal did not show improvement in growth rate and protein content although
silkworm supplementation enhanced feed efciency (Akiyama et al., 1984).
Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). In Japanese sea bass, the
energy digestibility (73%) of non-defatted silkworm pupae meal was less
than that of poultry by-product meal, feather meal, blood meal, and soy-
bean meal but comparable to that of meat and bone meal. Crude protein
digestibility (85%) was also less than that of poultry by-product meal,
blood meal, and soybean meal but was comparable with that of feather
meal and greater than that of meat and bone meal (Ji et al., 2010).
Conclusion
The insect species presented in this review have potential for use as a
source of protein in the diets of farmed sh. Insects are valuable ingredi-
ents rich in protein, lipids, and energy. Numerous trials with carnivorous,
omnivorous, and herbivorous sh have demonstrated that insects can be
successfully included in sh diets as a substitute for sh meal although
there have been more studies on omnivorous species than on carnivorous
ones. Most trials recommend replacement rates less than 25 to 30%. In
some cases, greater rates and even total substitution have been found tech-
nically or economically feasible.
Use of insects for the feeding of farmed sh faces several challenges
from a nutritional perspective. One is the composition of insects and thus
their nutritional value, which is highly dependent on the species, stage of
development, and substrate used to feed the insects. Protein, lipid, and min-
eral composition are all highly variable, even within a taxon at the same
development stage. For instance, the lipid concentration reported in the lit-
erature ranges from 15 to 35% for black soldier y larvae and from 9 to 26%
for housey maggots (DM basis). Such a wide variation is a challenge when
formulating feeds at an industrial scale although recent developments in on-
line estimation of chemical composition using near infrared spectroscopy
(NIRS) could theoretically assist the industry in addressing this challenge.
Another caveat is that none of the species reviewed here can be considered
as a perfect substitute to sh meal. Diptera larvae are most similar to sh
meal in terms of amino acid composition and protein digestibility, but all
insects reviewed in this paper except silkworm pupae have lesser concentra-
tions of sulfur amino acids than sh meal. The absence of EPA and DHA
in the fatty acid prole of insects is also a limitation to their inclusion in
marine sh diets. Depending on the insect and sh species, supplementation
with other sources of amino acids or fatty acids will therefore be required
for optimal growth and sh quality. It is also possible to change insect com-
position through manipulation of their diets.
Before insects can be used for the industrial production of sh feed,
research and development are needed in the following areas.
1. The feasibility of scaling up insect production into an economically
viable business able to provide insects in industrial quantities
needs to be investigated beyond experimental or pilot units. This
includes the development of cost-effective insect diets and the
engineering of specic infrastructures, including the automation
of rearing to reduce labor costs. For insects to be competitive
with the traditional protein sources, they must have distinctive
advantages in terms of nutritional value and price and should be
available year-round in well-dened and consistent qualities.
2. Further work is required on the nutritional value of insects
for sh feeding, and particularly for carnivorous sh: factors
inuencing the chemical composition as well as nutrient and
energy bioavailability; dietary manipulation of the proles of
amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals; processes (such as defatting
and pelleting); palatability and feeding preferences of sh; and
adaptation of sh to insect-based diets.
Grasshopper. Silkworms.
Stefanlend Fastily
42 Animal Frontiers
3. Because one of the main benets of insects is their ability to turn
biowastes into valuable organic matter, sanitation procedures need
to be dened for the safe use of substrate to obtain insects that are
free of diseases and undesirable substances.
4. There is a need to develop a regulatory framework and legislations
for use of insects as animal feed and to improve risk assessment
methodologies.
5. Studies on the impact of feeding insects on the safety, quality, and
social acceptance of shery products obtained on feeding insects
should be conducted.
6. Life cycle assessments of insect production compared with that of
other feed protein production such as sh meal and oilseed meals
should be conducted.
Literature Cited
Abanikannda, M.F. 2012. Nutrient digestibility and haematology of Nile tilapia
(Oreochromis niloticus) fed with varying levels of locust (Locusta migratoria)
meal. Bachelor of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of
Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, July 2012.
Adewolu, M.A., N.B. Ikenweiwe, and S.M. Mulero. 2010. Evaluation of an animal
protein mixture as a replacement for shmeal in practical diets for ngerlings of
Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Israeli J. Aquacult. Bamidgeh. 62:237–244.
Akiyama, T., T. Murai, Y. Hirasawa, and T. Nose. 1984. Supplementation of various
meals to sh diet for chum salmon fry. Aquaculture 37:217–222.
Alegbeleye, W.O., S.O. Obasa, O.O. Olude, K. Otubu, and W. Jimoh. 2012. Prelimi-
nary evaluation of the nutritive value of the variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus
variegatus L.) for African catsh Clarias gariepinus (Burchell. 1822) ngerlings.
Aquacult. Res. 43:412–420.
Aniebo, A.O., E.S. Erondu, and O.J. Owen. 2009. Replacement of sh meal with
maggot meal in African catsh (Clarias gariepinus) diets. Revista Cientica
UDO Agricola 9:666–671.
Balogun, B.I. 2011. Growth performance and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus
(Teugels) fed different dietary levels of soaked Bauhinia monandra (Linn.) seed
meal and sun-dried locust meal (Schistocerca gregaria). Ph.D., Dep. Biological
Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. June, 2011.
Barroso, F.G., C. de Haro, M.-J. Sanchez-Muros, E. Venegas, A. Martinez-Sanchez,
and C. Perez-Bañon. 2014. The potential of various insect species for use as food
for sh. Aquaculture 422/423:193–201.
Bell, J.G., C. Ghioni, and J.R. Sargent. 1994. Fatty acid compositions of 10 freshwa-
ter invertebrates which are natural food organisms of Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo
salar): A comparison with commercial diets. Aquaculture 128:301–313.
Bondari, K., and D.C. Sheppard. 1981. Soldier y larvae as feed in commercial sh
production. Aquaculture 24:103–109.
Bondari, K., and D.C. Sheppard. 1987. Soldier y, Hermetia illucens L., larvae as
feed for channel catsh, Ictalurus punctatus (Ranesque), and blue tilapia, Oreo-
chromis aureus (Steindachner). Aquacult. Fish. Manage. 18:209–220.
Borthakur, S., and K. Sarma. 1998a. Protein and fat digestibility of some non-con-
ventional sh meal replacers incorporated in the diets of sh Clarias batrachus
(Linn.). Environ. Ecol. 16:368–371.
Borthakur, S., and K. Sarma. 1998b. Effect of some non-conventional sh meal re-
placers on the growth, feed conversion and body composition of Clarias batra-
chus (Linn.) ngerlings. Environ. Ecol. 16:694–698.
Chavez-Sanchez, M.C., C.A. Martinez-Palacios, G. Martinez-Perez, and L.G. Ross.
2000. Phosphorus and calcium requirements in the diet of the American cichlid
Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther). Aquacult. Nutr. 6:1–9.
Collavo, A., R.H. Glew, Y.S. Huang, L.T. Chuang, R. Bosse, and M.G. Paoletti. 2005.
House cricket small-scale farming. In: M.G. Paoletti, editor, Ecological implica-
tions of mini livestock: Potential of insects, rodents, frogs and snails. Science
Publishers, Eneld, NH. p. 519–544.
Ebenso, I.E., and M.T. Udo. 2003. Effect of live maggot on growth of the Nile perch,
Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae) in South Eastern Nigeria. Global J. Agric. Sci.
2:72–73.
Emehinaiye, P.A. 2012. Growth performance of Oreochromis niloticus ngerlings
fed with varying levels of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) meal. Bachelor
of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Federal University of Agriculture,
Abeokuta, July, 2012.
FAO. 2014. The state of world sheries and aquaculture 2014. FAO, Rome.
Fasakin, E.A., A.M. Balogun, and O.O. Ajayi. 2003. Evaluation of full-fat and defat-
ted maggot meals in the feeding of clariid catsh Clarias gariepinus ngerlings.
Aquacult. Res. 34:733–738.
Finke, M.D. 2007. Estimate of chitin in raw whole insects. Zoo Biol. 26:105–115.
Gasco, L., M. Belforti, L. Rotolo, C. Lussiana, G. Parisi, G. Terova, A. Roncarati, and
F. Gai. 2014a. Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) as a potential ingredient in practical
diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In: Insects to Feed The World,
The Netherlands, 14–17 May 2014. p. 78.
Gasco, L., F. Gai, G. Piccolo, L. Rotolo, C. Lussiana, P. Molla, and S. Chatzifotis.
2014b. Substitution of sh meal by Tenebrio molitor meal in the diet of Dicen-
trarchus labrax juveniles. In: Insects to Feed The World, The Netherlands, 14–17
May 2014. p. 80.
Hossain, M.A., N. Nahar, M. Kamal, and M.N. Islam. 1992. Nutrient digestibility
coefcients of some plant and animal proteins for tilapia (Oreochromis mossam-
bicus). J. Aquacult. Trop. 7:257–265.
Hossain, M.A., M.N. Islam, and M.A. Alim. 1993. Evaluation of silkworm pupae
meal as dietary protein source for catsh (Heteropneustes fossilis Bloch). In: Fish
nutrition in Practice: 4th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding.
Biarritz, France, 24–27 June 1991. p. 785–791.
Hossain, M.A., N. Nahar, and M. Kamal. 1997. Nutrient digestibility coefcients of
some plant and animal proteins for rohu (Labeo rohita). Aquaculture 151:37–45.
Idowu, A.B., A.A.S. Amusan, and A.G. Oyediran. 2003. The response of Clarias
gariepinus ngerlings (Burchell 1822) to the diet containing housey maggot
(Musca domestica L). Nigerian J. Anim. Prod. 30:139–144.
Ji, W.X., Y. Wang, and J.Y. Tang. 2010. Apparent digestibility coefcients of selected
feed ingredients for Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) reared in sea wa-
ter. J. Fish. China. 34:101–107.
Johri, R., R. Singh, and P.K. Johri. 2010. Effect of different formulated plant and ani-
mal diet on hematology of Clarias batrachus Linn. under laboratory conditions.
Biochem. Cell. Arch. 10:283–291.
Johri, R., R. Singh, and P. K. Johri. 2011a. Studies on ovarian activity in formulated
feed treated Clarias batrachus Linn. J. Exp. Zool., India. 14:111–115.
Johri, R., R. Singh, and P. K. Johri. 2011b. Histopathological examination of the
gill, liver, kidney, stomach, intestine, testis and ovary of Clarias batrachus Linn.
during the feeding on different formulated feeds. J. Exp. Zool., India. 14:77–79.
Kroeckel, S., A.G.E. Harjes, I. Roth, H. Katz, S. Wuertz, A. Susenbeth, and C. Schulz.
2012. When a turbot catches a y: Evaluation of a pre-pupae meal of the black
soldier y (Hermetia illucens) as sh meal substitute- growth performance and chi-
tin degradation in juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima). Aquaculture 364/365:345–352.
Kumar, V., A.K. Sinh, H.P. Makkar, G. De Boeck, and K. Becker. 2012. Phytate and
phytase in sh nutrition. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 96:335–364.
Lindsay, G.J.H., M.J. Walton, J.W. Adron, T.C. Fletcher, C.Y. Cho, and C.B. Cowey.
1984. The growth of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) given diets containing chi-
tin and its relationship to chitinolytic enzymes and chitin digestibility. Aquacul-
ture 38:315–334.
Lock, E.J., T. Arsiwalla, and R. Waagbø. 2014. Insect meal: A promising source of
nutrients in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In: Insects to Feed The
World, The Netherlands, 14–17 May 2014. p. 74.
Madu, C.T., and E.B.C. Ufodike. 2003. Growth and survival of catsh (Clarias an-
guillaris) juveniles fed live tilapia and maggot as unconventional diets. J. Aquat.
Sci. 18:47–51.
Mahata, S.C., A.K.M. Bhuiyan, M. Zaher, M.A. Hossain, and M.R. Hasan. 1994.
Evaluation of silkworm pupae as dietary protein source for Thai sharpunti Pun-
tius gonionotus. J. Aquacult. Trop. 9:77–85.
Makkar, H.P.S., G. Tran, V. Heuzé, and P. Ankers. 2014. Review: State-of-the-art on
use of insects as animal feed. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 197:1–33.
Manzano-Agugliaro, F., M.J. Sanchez-Muros, F.G. Barroso, A. Martínez-Sánchez, S.
Rojo, and C. Pérez-Bañón. 2012. Insects for biodiesel production. Renew. Sus-
tain. Energy Rev. 16:3744–3753.
Médale, F., R. Le Boucher, M. Dupont-Nivet, E. Quillet, J. Aubin, and S. Panserat.
2013. Des aliments à base de végétaux pour les poissons d’élevage. INRA Prod.
Anim. 26:303–316.
Apr. 2015, Vol. 5, No. 2 43
Nandeesha, M.C., G.K. Srikantha, P. Keshavanatha, T.J. Varghesea, N. Basavarajaa,
and S.K. Dasa. 1990. Effects of non-defatted silkworm-pupae in diets on the
growth of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Biol. Wastes 33:17–23.
Nandeesha, M.C., B. Gangadhara, T.J. Varghese, and P. Keshavanath. 2000. Growth
response and esh quality of common carp, Cyprinus carpio fed with high levels
of non-defatted silkworm pupae. Asian Fish. Sci. 13:235–242.
Naylor, R.L., R.W. Hardy, D.P. Bureau, A. Chiu, M. Elliott, A.P. Farrell, I. Forster,
D.M. Gatlin, R.J. Goldburg, K. Hua, and P.D. Nichols. 2009. Feeding aquaculture
in an era of nite resources. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:15103–15110.
Newton, L., C. Sheppard, D.W. Watson, G. Burtle, and R. Dove. 2005. Using the
black soldier y, Hermetia illucens, as a value-added tool for the management
of swine manure. Report for Mike Williams, Director of the Animal and Poul-
try Waste Management Center, North Carolina State University. http://www.
cals.ncsu.edu/waste_mgt/smitheld_projects/phase2report05/cd,web%20les/
A2.pdf . (Veried 3 Feb. 2015.)
Ng, W.K., F.L. Liew, L.P. Ang, and K.W. Wong. 2001. Potential of mealworm (Tene-
brio molitor) as an alternative protein source in practical diets for African catsh,
Clarias gariepinus. Aquacult. Res. 32(Suppl. 1):273–280.
Ogunji, J.O., J. Nimptsch, C. Wiegand, and C. Schulz. 2007. Evaluation of the inu-
ence of housey maggot meal (magmeal) diets on catalase, glutathione S-trans-
ferase and glycogen concentration in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus nger-
ling. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 147:942–947.
Ogunji, J.O., W. Kloas, M. Wirth, C. Schulz, and B. Rennert. 2008a. Housey mag-
got meal (magmeal) as a protein source for Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.). Asian
Fish. Sci. 21:319–331.
Ogunji, J.O., W. Kloas, M. Wirth, N. Neumann, and C. Pietsch. 2008b. Effect of
housey maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the performance, concentration of
plasma glucose, cortisol and blood characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus n-
gerlings. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 92:511–518.
Olsen, R.L., and M.R. Hasan. 2012. A limited supply of shmeal: Impact on future in-
creases in global aquaculture production. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 27:120–128.
Ossey, Y.B., A.R. Koumi, K.M. Kof, B.C. Atse, and L.P. Kouame. 2012. Use of
soybean, bovine brain and maggot as sources of dietary protein in larval Het-
erobranchuslongilis (Valenciennes, 1840). J. Anim. Plant Sci. 15:2099–2108.
Piccolo, G., S. Marono, L. Gasco, F. Iannaccone, F. Bovera, and A. Nizza. 2014. Use
of Tenebrio molitor larvae meal in diets for gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata ju-
veniles. In: Insects to Feed The World, The Netherlands, 14–17 May 2014. p. 76.
Rahman, M.A., M. Zaher, M.A. Mazid, M.Z. Haque, and S.C. Mahata. 1996. Re-
placement of costly sh meal by silkworm pupae in diet of mirror carp (Cyprinus
carpio L.). Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 39:64–67.
Rangacharyulu, P.V., S.S. Giri, B.N. Paul, K.P. Yashoda, R.J. Rao, N.S. Mahendrakar,
S.N. Mohanty, and P.K. Mukhopadhyay. 2003. Utilization of fermented silkworm
pupae silage in feed for carps. Bioresour. Technol. 86:29–32.
Riddick, E.W. 2013. Insect protein as a partial replacement for shmeal in the di-
ets of juvenile sh and crustaceans: Invertebrates and entomopathogens. In: J.A.
Morales-Ramos, M.G. Rojas, and D.I. Shapiro-Ilan, editors, Mass production of
benecial organisms. Elsevier Science, Burlington, MA. p. 565–582.
Sanchez-Muros, M.-J., F.G. Barroso, and F. Manzano-Agugliaro. 2014. Insect meal as
renewable source of food for animal feeding: A review. J. Clean. Prod. 65:16–27.
Sauvant, D., J.-M. Perez, and G. Tran. 2004. Tables INRA-AFZ de composition et
de valeur nutritive des matières premières destinées aux animaux d’élevage. 2nd
edition. INRA Editions, Versailles.
Sealey, W.M., T.G. Gaylord, F.T. Barrows, J.K. Tomberlin, M.A. McGuire, C. Ross,
and S. St-Hilaire. 2011. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss,
fed enriched black soldier y prepupae, Hermetia illucens. J. World Aquacult.
Soc. 42:34–45.
Shyama, S., and P. Keshavanath. 1993. Growth response of Tor khudree to silkworm
pupa incorporated diets. In: Fish Nutrition in Practice: 4th International Symposium
on Fish Nutrition and Feeding. Biarritz, France, 24–27 June 1991. p. 779–783.
Sogbesan, A.O., N. Ajuonu, B.O. Musa, and A.M. Adewole. 2006. Harvesting tech-
niques and evaluation of maggot meal as animal dietary protein source for Het-
eroclarias in outdoor concrete tanks. World J. Agric. Sci. 2:394–402.
St-Hilaire, S., C. Sheppard, J.K. Tomberlin, S. Irving, L. Newton, M.A. McGuire,
E.E. Mosley, R.W. Hardy, and W. Sealey, W. 2007a. Fly prepupae as a feedstuff
for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 38:59–67.
St-Hilaire, S., K. Cranll, M.A. McGuire, E.E. Mosley, J.K. Tomberlin, L. Newton,
W. Sealey, C. Sheppard, and S. Irving, S. 2007b. Fish offal recycling by the black
soldier y produces a foodstuff high in omega-3 fatty acids. J. World Aquacult.
Soc. 38:309–313.
Swamy, H.V.V., and K.V. Devaraj. 1994. Nutrient utilization by common carp (Cyp-
rinus carpio Linn) fed protein from leaf meal and silkworm pupae meal based
diets. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 11:67–71.
Tacon, A.G.J., and M. Metian. 2008. Global overview on the use of sh meal and sh
oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trends and future prospects. Aquacul-
ture 285:146–158.
van Huis, A., J. Van Itterbeeck, H. Klunder, E. Mertens, A. Halloran, G. Muir, and
P. Vantomme. 2013. Edible insects– Future prospects for food and feed security.
FAO Forestry Paper 171.
Zhang, J.B., L.Y. Zheng, P. Jin, D.N. Zhang, and Z.N. Yu. 2014. Fishmeal substituted
by production of chicken manure conversion with microorganisms and black sol-
dier y. In: Insects to Feed The World, The Netherlands, 14–17 May 2014. p. 153.
About the Authors
Valérie Heuzé joined AFZ in 2009. She
completed her engineering studies at
GemblouxAgroBioTech (formerly Fac-
ulté des Sciences Agronomiques de Gem-
bloux, Belgium) in 1992 as a specialist in
agronomy. Since then, she has occupied
different positions at AgroParistech, Re-
ims Management School as a lifelong
learning project manager and teacher. She
also worked as a private agricultural con-
sultant in France and Mali. Since 2009,
she has been in charge of the Feedipedia
programme, an online encyclopedia of
animal feed resources developed by INRA, CIRA, AFZ, and FAO.
Gilles Tran joined AFZ in 1989, after com-
pleting his engineering studies at AgroPar-
isTech as a specialist in animal produc-
tions. Since then, he has been in charge of
the French Feed Database, a national feed
information system. He has participated in
numerous public and private projects con-
cerning feed research and feed information
systems. In 2002–2004, he was in charge
of the co-ordination of the INRA / AFZ
Tables of composition and nutritional val-
ues of feed ingredients. Since 2009, he has
been in charge of the Feedipedia project,
an online encyclopedia of animal feed resources developed by INRA, CIRA,
AFZ, and FAO.
Correspondence: gilles.tran@zootechnie.fr.
Harinder P.S. Makkar has worked as an
animal production ofcer at FAO, Rome
since 2010. Before joining FAO, he was
Mercator Professor at the University of
Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. He has
published more than 250 research papers.
He obtained his Ph.D. from University
of Nottingham, UK and habilitation from
University of Hohenheim. He also worked
at the International Atomic Energy Agen-
cy, Vienna for 7 yr. He has been awarded
honorary professorships by Universities in
China and Mongolia and has been a fellow
of Commonwealth Association, UK; Humboldt Foundation, Germany; and
Japanese Society for the promotion of Science, Japan.
44 Animal Frontiers
... Lately, insects have gained substantial interest as a possible protein source for aquaculture purposes since as a more natural replacement for fish or vegetable meal (Van Huis, 2015;Van Huis et al., 2020). Insect meal, rich in essential amino acids and with a reduced anti-nutritional effect, could be used as a partial or total replacement for aquaculture feed formula (Henry et al., 2015;Liland et al., 2021;Spranghers et al., 2017;Tran et al., 2015). Black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) is among the most prominent raw material to be substituted for other primary protein sources (Weththasinghe et al., 2021b). ...
... The use of black soldier fly (BSF) meal is expected to transform the profitless by-product into a nutritious source of proteins and lipid in aquaculture feed (Devic et al., 2018;Meneguz et al., 2018;Spranghers et al., 2017). In particular, BSF has a relatively similar nutritional profile to fishmeal in terms of amino acids and fatty acids composition (Barroso et al., 2017;Belghit et al., 2019a;Fisher et al., 2020;Makkar et al., 2014;Tran et al., 2015). Several researchers have examined various inclusion levels of BSF in the feed of fish where the findings remain questionable in terms of the physiological effects in fish which zero behavioural effects were reported (Cardinaletti et al., 2019;Fawole et al., 2020;Lock et al., 2016). ...
Article
Fishmeal, as one of the main protein sources, has become scarce and expensive. This conventional protein source is no longer considered sustainable. As an alternative, black soldier fly (BSF) is a popular non-conventional protein source that has been tested in the formulation of aquafeed to replace fishmeal due to its nutritional value, reasonably low price, and large abundance. Nevertheless, evidence on the BSF supplementation varied among species. This meta-analysis examined the influence of replacing fishmeal with BSF on the performance of fish species by using 47 published papers targeting 23 different species. The results revealed that, overall, BSF inclusion had no significant effect on survival rate (SR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The magnitude effect on specific growth rate (SGR) and weight gain (WG) was species-dependent; it increased SGR and WG of omnivores but decreased (P<0.01) when fed to carnivores and herbivores. Meta-regression analysis indicated a negative linear relationship of FCR on carnivore (P<0.05; R ² =0.61) and omnivore (P<0.05; R2=0.15). In addition, principal component analysis confirmed that although most species showed an increasing trend in response to dietary BSF, FCR decreased on a few species (Anabas testudineus and Acipenser baerii) which belong to omnivores. In conclusion, BSF meal can be a partial substitute for fishmeal in the formulation of only some specific species no more than 30%. Special notice should be considered on carnivore and herbivore species because utilisation of BSF in species might compromise their performance.
... The use of insects as an ingredient for aquafeeds and as a potential substitute for FM is now widely acknowledged [23,62]. The natural amino acid profile and the protein content of H. illucens larvae is suited for most aquafeeds and continues to gain growing attention [63]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The replacement of fish meal and fish oil by insect-based ingredients in the formulation of marine aquafeeds can be an important step towards sustainability. To pursue this goal, the modulation of the lipid profile of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) has received great attention. While its nutritional profile can shift with diet, the ability to modulate its lipidome is yet to be understood. The present work provides an overview of the lipid modulation of H. illucens larvae through its diet, aiming to produce a more suitable ingredient for marine aquafeeds. Marine-based substrates significantly improve the lipid profile of H. illucens larvae, namely its omega-3 fatty acids profile. An improvement of approximately 40% can be achieved using fish discards. Substantial levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two essential fatty acids for marine fish and shrimp species, were recorded in H. illucens larvae fed on fish discards and coffee silverskin with Schyzochytrium sp. Unfortunately, these improvements are still deeply connected to marine-based bioresources, some still being too costly for use at an industrial scale (e.g., microalgae). New approaches using solutions from the biotechnology toolbox will be decisive to make H. illucens larvae a feasible alternative ingredient for marine aquafeeds without having to rely on marine bioresources.
... As the BSFs' primary source of amino acids, the protein composition of the substrate has an impact on their amino acid availability [132]. Overall, BSFs have a higher concentration of essential amino acids [133][134][135] and a better amino acid profile than soya bean meal and most traditional protein sources [136]. The amount of total protein found in the 5 th instar H. illucens feed on Cu 2+ contaminated kitchen waste or vegetable waste revealed no significant differences (Fig. 5). ...
Research
Full-text available
Environmental pollution sources including waste or metal accumulation, industrial and agricultural activities can be dangerous. Also, contaminated organic waste (COW) with metals especially, copper ions (Cu 2+), can cause toxicity to various ecosystem components, enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently cause oxidative stress. The biochemical effect of the COW was monitored by assessing the oxidative stress parameters (OSP) using hydrogen peroxides (H 2 O 2), protein carbonyls (PC), lipid peroxides (LP), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total antioxidant ability (TAA); β-esterase (β-EST); and total amount of protein (TAP) levels on the organic waste (kitchen and vegetable wastes); Hermetia illucens larvae; and larval excreta collected from 7-day post-treated kitchen and vegetables wastes with (1:10; g:mL) distilled water (DW) or 100 mg/mL Cu 2+. The OSP levels were significantly higher in the experimental samples from Cu 2+ groups than in the control one. Besides that, the OSP levels of H. illucens larvae feed on vegetable waste was significantly higher than those feed on kitchen waste except for β-EST, PC, and TPA. The best, cheap and easy parameters of antioxidants to ensure the entomoremediation ability are total antioxidant capacity. Impacts of accumulated and Cu 2+ contaminated organic waste on H. illucens larvae were discussed. Also, the ability of insects to produce more antioxidants than input or output sources was approved. The potential use of the OSP as a bioindicator method of the bioremediation ability of H. illucens was proposed.
... algae) and higher order consumers (e.g. fish) and provide energy, proteins, lipids or fats and other essential micronutrients that are required for fish growth (Tran et al., 2015). Micronutrient composition varies among different taxonomic groups of insects and changes to their community composition could alter the nutritional landscape available to consumers (Dwyer et al., 2017). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This review presents an overview of the dietary composition native fish diets in rivers and streams of NSW, Australia with an emphasis on macroinvertebrate taxa. This information will improve our understanding of the consequence of macroinvertebrate community changes on the food resources available for native fish within NSW. To ensure native fish populations are protected requires a range of environmental parameters to be considered, including adequate food resources. This review highlights that macroinvertebrates are a crucial part of the diet for many freshwater fish. Therefore, water management decisions that support macroinvertebrate communities play an important role in supporting food resources for fish species in NSW.
... The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens was thought as one of the most promising insect species for commercial production [14]. And black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) is abundant in proteins (approximately 42%) with relatively balanced amino acid profile and lipids especially those unsaturated fatty acids [15,16]. BSFL meal has been found to benefit for growth performance of juvenile carp Cyprinus carpio var. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated survival, growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, intestinal histology, and antioxidant enzyme activities of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), which were fed with five different diets, containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% fresh black soldier fly larvae (BSFL), respectively, to replace commercial feed at an equal wet weight. The cultured experiment was lasted for 45 days, and the results showed that survival rate (SR), final body weight (FBW), and weight gain (WG) were negatively related with the replacement rate of fresh BSFL in the diet, where the maximum value was found in the BSFL 25% group, while the minimum value appeared in the BSFL 100% group. When BSFL replacement level was equal to or above 75%, the SR, FBW and WG were significantly decreased. However, hepatosomatic index (HSI) was increased with the increasing BSFL replacement level, which was significantly higher in BSFL 75% and BSFL 100% groups than the other groups. No significant differences on hepatopancreatic amylase and lipase activities of the shrimp were observed among all the groups. However, compared with the control group, protease activity in hepatopancreatic of the shrimp was significantly higher when up to 25% of commercial feed was replaced. The histological structure of the intestine gradually changed pathologically, such as tissue disruption, with increasing proportion of fresh BSFL in the diets. A significant reduction in intestinal fold height was found in the BSFL 100% group, and a decreased thickness of intestinal muscular was also observed in all treatment groups. The serum SOD and GSH-PX activities of shrimp in all treatment groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. In conclusion, replacing commercial feed up to 50% with fresh BSFL could be feasible for L. vannamei farming when growth performances, digestive enzyme activities, intestinal histology, and antioxidant enzymes were being considered.
Article
Full-text available
The high cost of fish feed has affected the culturing of tilapias and sharptooth catfish in Africa. However, Africa is well endowed with terrestrial insects that can potentially replace fishmeal in the diets of fish. In this paper, the nutritional index, availability, and cost of selected insect meals are compared. The SOLVER function in Excel was used to formulate least-cost diets of Musca domestica, Gryllotalpa africana, Schistocerca gregaria, Macrotermes natalensis, and Gonimbrasia belina. The crude protein levels of all the insects were above 50% and met the requirements of both fish species. The essential amino acid index (EAAI) was highest in M. domestica (3.2613). Except for M. natalensis, all the insect meals met the fat requirements for tilapias and sharptooth catfish. The most available insects were S. gregaria and M. domestica. Feed value was highest in fishmeal (15.62) followed by M. domestica (15.52). A meta-analysis of the effects of replacing fishmeal with insect meal on growth performance of tilapias and sharptooth catfish was also carried out. The effect summary for the specific growth rate was significant whereas the effect summary for the food conversion ratio was not significant. The relationship between fishmeal replacement levels and response ratio showed wide scatter. It was thus not possible to determine the optimum replacement level. Musca domestica is recommended in the replacement of fishmeal.
Article
A 10‐week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary replacement of fish oil (FO) with black soldier fly larvae oil (BSFLO) and vegetable oils, namely moringa oil (MO), black cumin seed oil (BCSO) and flax seed oil (FSO) on growth and whole‐body fatty acid profile, digestive enzyme activity, haemato‐biochemical responses and muscle growth‐related gene expression of juvenile striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. Five isonitrogenous (313.34 g kg−1) and isolipidic (81.82 g kg−1) experimental diets were formulated. A total of 450 fingerlings (5.02 ± 0.1 g per fish) were randomly distributed into 15 tanks and fed thrice a day. The final weight gain was significantly improved in fish fed FO (45.7 ± 0.72 g/fish), BSFLO (45.53 ± 1.32 g/fish) and MO diet (47.2 ± 0.26 g/fish) when compared to BCSO (36.3 ± 1.05 g/fish) and FSO (35.83 ± 0.71g/ fish) diets. The lower value of daily weight gain was recorded in the FSO and BCSO treatments compared with other oils could be due to effects on stress resistance and immunosuppression in fish, whereas the whole‐body EPA and DHA content of fish fed with FSO and FO diets was substantially higher than fish fed with other experimental diets. However, the relative expression of Myo D and Myogenin was upregulated in fish fed with FO, BSFLO and MO diet than the BCSO and FSO diet. Present results indicate that the juveniles can be reared on diets in which FO has been replaced with BSFLO and MO, with no significant effects on fish performance.
Article
Full-text available
The rising cost and uncertain availability of fish meal supply have forced fish feed manufacturers to find inexpensive, abundant and readily available alternative protein sources as substitutes. This study aimed to investigate the potential of using field cricket meal (CM) from Gryllus bimaculatus as a source of main protein in fish feed for hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) The experimental diets were CM0, CM25, CM50, CM75 and CM100. Proximate analysis and amino acid analysis were carried out to analyze nutrient content in each treatment diet. Hybrid red tilapia juvenile were uniformly distributed at a stocking density of 25 juveniles per m³ in triplicate for each experimental tank. Fish were fed twice daily at the rate of 3% of total body weight for 98 days and weighted fortnightly. The result shows that cricket could be used to replace fish meal up to 50% without causing any significant effect on growth performance and feed utilization. Even though CM100 and CM75 shows significantly lower growth performance, the whole-body composition analysis of tilapia fed with CM100 had significantly increased percentage of protein and lipid compared to the CM0. This indicates that cricket meal has a great potential to be used as an alternative protein source to substitute fish meal in fish feed.
Chapter
Globally, the utilization of alternative protein sources in livestock feed has been extensively deliberated and established to be the best novel approach. Extensive research indicated that insects provide good opportunities as a sustainable, high quality, and low-cost component of animal feed. The use of insects in animal diet sounds to be the prospective opportunity leading to sustainability of animal feeds and meet the intensifying worldwide plea for livestock products. The value of these protein sources has, however, increased due to limited production, competition between humans and animals. The use of insects for feeding farmed animals represents a promising alternative because of the nutritional properties of insects and the possible environmental benefits, given the sustainability of this type of farming. Yet little has been documented about the nutrient composition of various insect meals, the impact of insect meal in the animal feed industry, safety, and attitude and willingness of farmers to accept insect-based animal feed and food. Therefore, this chapter seeks to document the potential utilization of insect meal as livestock feed.
Article
The present study evaluated the use of camelina (CO) and black soldier fly larvae (BSFLO) oils as replacements of fish oil (FO) in diets for juvenile Totoaba macdonaldi, and their effect on growth, proximate composition, fatty acid (FA) profile of tissues, and gene expression of bile salt-dependent (BSDL) and colipase-dependent (CDPL) pancreatic lipases. Four isoproteic (51% crude protein) and isolipidic (14% crude fat) diets were formulated based on a 2 × 2 factorial design with two lipid sources, CO and BSFLO, each tested at two levels of replacement of FO, 30 and 60%. A control diet containing 100% FO was included as a reference. Fish with an overall initial weight (mean ± standard deviation, S.D.) of 3.0 ± 0.1 g were stocked at a density of 100 fish m⁻³. Each diet was randomly assigned to five replicate tanks, and four tanks for the control. After 7 weeks, weight gain (WG, P = 0.0302) and thermal growth coefficient (TGC, P = 0.0408) were significantly reduced in fish fed the 60% FO replacement level in comparison to the 30% level; fish fed diets containing 30% BSFLO were the only ones achieving statistically similar WG (59.40 g) and TGC (0.175) as fish fed the control diet (WG of 60.68 g and TGC of 0.177). Muscle and liver tissues of fish reflected the FA profiles of experimental diets; fish fed BSFLO showed greater content of lauric acid (12:0) in muscle (0.14–0.17 mg g⁻¹), while alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was higher in those fed CO (0.25–0.51 mg g⁻¹). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) content was statistically similar in fillets from all different treatments, demonstrating selective retention of this biologically important FA, but eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) decreased as the level of FO replacement by CO or BSFLO in diets increased. The presence of BSDL and CDPL in the digestive tract of T. macdonaldi was confirmed for the first time, but regulation of their gene expression was not significantly affected at a transcriptional level by the progressive replacement of FO by CO or BSFLO under these experimental conditions. These findings suggest that 30% of FO can be successfully replaced by BSFLO in diets for juvenile T. macdonaldi, and a 100 g fillet from fish fed this diet would provide 284 mg of DHA + EPA, satisfying the daily intake recommended for adult consumers.
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of soaked Bauhinia monandra (Kutz) seed as alternative protein source for Clarias gariepinus and to determine cost of feed compounded. The proximate analysis of the diet (crude protein, crude fibre, ash, moisture content and lipid) were determined using AOAC (1980). Data for each parameter was subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) while means of various results were compared at 5% level of significance. A preliminary study was conducted to determine the best processing method that reduced anti-nutrients to the minimum level without impairing nutrients composition. Boiled, toasted and soaked seeds were used. Bauhinia seeds soaked for 96 hours had least concentration of anti-nutrients. The experimental diets was formulated to contain soaked Bauhinia seed meal (SBSM) at levels of 25%, 50% and 75% inclusion (Diets 2, 3 and 4 respectively) with two diets acting as control (Diets 1 and 5). All diets were isonitrogenous (40% crude protein) and isocaloric (3212kcal/kg). A 12 weeks feeding trial was conducted using juveniles which were randomly distributed into 12 improvised non-recirculatory and semi-flow through indoor plastic tanks (52cm X 34cm X 33.5cm) at a stocking rate of 10 fish per tank and three (3) replicates per treatment. The experimental design was complete randomized. The fish were fed at 5% body weight, twice daily. Diets with higher inclusion levels of SBSM (diets 3 and 4) significantly depressed growth performance of fish. The variations observed in the Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Feed Efficiency Ratio (FER) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) were associated with the anti-nutrients present in the diets, these parameters reduced with increasing levels of SBSM in the diets of fish. Based on the relative cost of diets per unit weight gain and protein gain, diet 2 (25% SBSM) was most economical. The results suggested that SBSM can be used to substitute up to 25% levels of dietary protein in C. gariepinus juveniles without significant reduction in growth.
Article
This study evaluated the effects of diets containing Tenebrio molitor (TM) larvae meal on growth performances, somatic indexes, nutrient digestibility, dorsal muscle proximate and fatty acid (FA) compositions of rainbow trout. Three hundred sixty fish were randomly divided into three groups with four replicates each. The groups were fed diets differing in TM inclusion: 0% (TM0), 25% (TM25) and 50% (TM50) as fed weight basis. Weight gain was not affected by treatment. Feeding rate was significantly higher in TM0 than TM50. Feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in TM0 than TM25 and TM50, while an opposite trend was observed for protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. The survival rate was significantly lower in TM0 than TM25 and TM50. The apparent digestibility of protein was significantly lower in the TM50 group than the other groups, while the apparent digestibil-ity of dry matter, organic matter and lipids was unaffected by treatment. If compared to control , the protein and lipid contents of fillets were respectively increased and decreased following TM inclusion in the diet. The Σn3/Σn6 FA ratio of fish dorsal muscle was linearly (TM0>TM25>TM50) reduced by TM inclusion in the diet. Results suggested that TM could be used during the growing phase in trout farming ; however, additional studies on specific feeding strategies and diet formulations are needed to limit its negative effects on the lipid fraction of fillets.