Abstract and Figures

Coaches can use time-out (TTo) to influence performance and use this moment to give tactical instructions and make visible structural modifications (modifications of the game system and players' substitutions). The aim of the present work is the analysis of the time-out usage and its influence on the game performance. 578 TTo were analyzed in three international handball competitions with two different regulations on the number of time-outs available. The variables were: competition, outcome, final difference, difference in the scoreboard during the time-out, difference five minutes before the time-out, defensive change, players' substitution and finalization of the five attacks previous and later to TTo. The use of TTo is mostly done by teams losing or which have had a bad streak on the scoreboard, being the latest factor the most decisive one for its application. Although the percentage of positive actions generally increases after the application of TTo, if analyzed in relation to the visible structural changes, players' substitutions are more effective than defensive system changes.
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Analysis of time-out use in handball and its influence
on the game performance
Óscar Gutiérrez-Aguilar1; Manuel Montoya-Fernández2; Juan J. Fernández-Romero3;
Miguel A. Saavedra-García3
1Department of Health Psychology, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain
2National Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Universitat de Barcelona,
Barcelona, Spain
3Department of Physical Education and Sports, Universidade da Coruña, A Coruña,
Spain.
Abstract
Coaches can use time-out (TTo) to influence performance and use this moment to
give tactical instructions and make visible structural modifications (modifications
of the game system and players’ substitutions). The aim of the present work is the
analysis of the time-out usage and its influence on the game performance. 578
TTo were analyzed in three international handball competitions with two different
regulations on the number of time-outs available. The variables were: competition,
outcome, final difference, difference in the scoreboard during the time-out,
difference five minutes before the time-out, defensive change, players’ substitution
and finalization of the five attacks previous and later to TTo. The use of TTo is
mostly done by teams losing or which have had a bad streak on the scoreboard,
being the latest factor the most decisive one for its application. Although the
percentage of positive actions generally increases after the application of TTo, if
analyzed in relation to the visible structural changes, players’ substitutions are
more effective than defensive system changes.
Keywords: performance analysis, coaching, timeout, handball.
1. Introduction
Game situations in team sports are in constant change. The tactical approach made up by
the trainer before the match begins can be modified according to the game dynamics. The
trainer’s ability to foresee, interpret and react properly to these changing situations can
be decisive to obtain victory (Gilbert, Trudel, & Haughian, 1999).
The strategies a trainer can use to influence tactically the games development are varied.
He can usually give instructions from his position during the development of the game
with the difficulty that they can be distorted when they reach the players because of the
distance, the ambient noise, etc. The manager also has the option of making players’
substitutions in order to correct aspects that he thinks are not working correctly, although
in some sports, such as football, there is a great limitation in this regard and only three
players’ substitutions can be made. Variations on the initial tactical approach can also be
made by adapting to new situations and changing game systems already employed. All
these operations can be made during the development of the game, but there is a
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport
2016, 16, 1-11.
45-344.
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regulation possibility that does not occur in all team sports, which is the chance of
applying for an interruption of the game in order to intervene: the so-called “Team
Timeouts” (TTo), thanks to which the trainer’s direct intervention is facilitated, since the
players are gathered close enough to hear the commands. That is why the use of TTo
becomes the best tool that a technical body can use to make tactical modifications (Bar-
Eli & Tractinsky, 2000; Taylor & Demick, 1994).
TTo request can be made with several purposes, such as to give instructions to the players
in order to modify or reinforce tactical behaviours, to make players’ substitutions, to give
players a break, to prepare special game situations or to interrupt the adversary’s winning
streak (Duke & Corlett, 1992; Gómez, Jiménez, Navarro, Lago-Penas, & Sampaio, 2011).
The trainer’s ability to influence a team’s performance has been already treated and
research on this topic is directed to several different lines of study. In the first place, there
are studies which have analysed the trainers’ cognitive processes during matches
(Debanne, Angel, & Fontayne, 2013; Debanne & Fontayne, 2009; Hastie, 1999; Jiménez
& Lorenzo, 2010; Zetou, Kourtesis, Giazitzi, & Michalopoulou, 2008). This intervention
and the given instructions diverge depending on the game’s and players’ dynamics.
Thereupon, the instructions that the trainer can give in the final moments vary depending
on whether the team is winning with a significant difference or a small difference on the
scoreboard or if they are addressed to novice or psychologically weak players, etc.
(Allison & Ayllon, 1980; Bar-Eli & Tractinsky, 2000). But one of the conditions this
message must accomplish is to be transmitted clearly and accurately taking into account
that there is a time limit to provide the information, which is usually one minute duration.
Some other lines of TTo analysis are those whose aim is to give guidelines on the type of
information that must be provided at these stages (Iglesias, Cárdenas, & Alarcón, 2007),
and which patterns must be followed to solve the problem, that is, to provide solutions.
They even quantify the time that must be dedicated to one’s own team (45%) and to the
opposing (55%).
Nevertheless, analysing this sort of data may pose considerable problems since, to do it,
direct access to the communication established between the trainer and the players would
be needed. For this reason, research analysing how to use TTo through objective structural
changes has been made. It also analyses the request’s external result, that is, external data
visible to an observer who has no direct access to verbal information given during TTo.
Within this line, there are several studies on basketball (Duke & Corlett, 1992; Kozar,
Whitfield, Lord, & Mechikoff, 1993; Saavedra, Mukherjee, & Bagrow, 2012; Sampaio,
Drinkwatter, & Leite, 2010) table tennis (Wang, Chen, Lee, & Hsu 2010) and volleyball
(Zetou et al., 2008).
Regarding handball, there are few studies found on this topic. Regulation on TTo
application changed in the season 2011-2012, replacing two TTo allowed (one for each
half) for three: one for each half plus an additional one that can be requested whenever
wanted. But two TTo can never be applied for in each period’s last five minutes.
The first of them is the study by Antúnez, Ureña, and Escudero (2001), which analyses
the use of TTo in high level handball and concludes that it is usually requested in the
match’s final minutes by the team that is losing. This same approach is found in Debanne
and Fontayne’s study (2009), which focus on the case of a successful handball trainer by
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observing how he organises the activity at this stage regarding six tasks: the control of
the players’ physical load, the management of collective duels, the management of
individual duels, the referee’s actuation, the players’ level of commitment and the
technical-tactical instructions given to the players. Valle, Antúnez, Sáez, García, and
Cañadas (2012) carry out a study of 15 TTo in the Spanish handball League (ASOBAL)
with the recent regulation and they conclude that the trainers do not use all TTo available
and that they use it mostly when losing, in each period’s last ten minutes and when a
losing streak on the scoreboard occurs. These same conclusions are contributed by the
last study on the use of TTo in handball published so far: the one by Gomes, Volossovitch,
and Ferreira (2014), which analyses 2178 TTo in the ASOBAL League.
The aim of the present research is to find behaviour patterns in asking TTo (to know when
and which team ask for TTo) and value the results of TTo related to structural changes
and team substitutions.
2. Methods
The sample is formed by the 558 TTo applied for in the European Championship (EC) of
2012, held in Serbia (156), the World Championship (WC) of 2013 held in Spain (346)
and the Olympic Games (OG) of London in 2012 (76).
During the European Championship of Serbia in 2012, the regulation allowed each trainer
to apply for a TTo for each half. In the Olympic Games of London in 2012 and in the
World Championship held in Spain in 2013, regulation in this regard changed so as to
allow three TTo for match and team.
The difference of all the games analysed shown on the scoreboard was 5.64±6.03 goals,
and the most usual difference was of two goals.
The variables taken into account were: championship (EC,WC,OG), final result of the
match (home team winner, visitor team winner and draw), final difference (number of
goals), differences on the scoreboard when requesting TTo (Score in favour of the team
which applies for time out, Draw, Score against the team which applies for time out),
difference on the scoreboard five minutes before minute the TTo is requested (Score in
favour of the team which applies for time out, Draw, Score against the team which applies
for time out), modification of the defence system (occurrence or not occurrence), players’
substitutions (occurrence or not occurrence), and finalization of the five attacks previous
and subsequent to the moment the TTo is requested (action type and number of positive
and negative actions).
The data were gathered through video observation. Positive and negative actions and their
percentages before and after applying for a TTo were registered by two experts on
handball who presented a very high rate of agreement (Cohen's kappa coefficient of
0,988).
For each TTo, results of the five previous attacks and of the five subsequent attacks of
the team applying for the TTo have been analysed.
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Tables of absolute frequencies, relative frequencies and bar charts are generated. The
description of the variables is made through the average and the standard deviation.
The difference of goals five minutes before and at the moment of applying for the TTo is
analysed with the Wilcoxon test due to the lack of normality of the variables involved.
In order to evaluate the level of association between the results in the moment of applying
for the TTo and the players’ substitutions or the changes of the defence system after the
TTo, we use contingency tables. Contingency coefficient and the Cramer's V are obtained
as measures of association.
To compare if positive and negative actions vary depending on players’ substitutions or
on the change in the defensive strategy, the Mann-Whitney test has been applied - due to
the lack of normality of the variables involved.
Given that after the TTo we will not necessarily find five attacks -because of its proximity
to the end of the first half or the end of the match- the number of positive actions and the
number of negative actions has relativized (percentage). The comparison of the
percentage of positive actions previous and subsequent to the TTo has been made by
means of the sign test.
The level of significance has been established through p<0.005 in all cases.
3. Results
The TTo temporal distribution can be observed in table 1 and Figure 1.
Table 1. Temporal distribution of the time out.
Global
EC
WC
OG
Time
n
%
n
%
n
%
N
0 to 5 minutes
4
0.69
1
0.64
3
0.87
0
5 a 10 minutes
19
3.29
4
2.56
13
3.76
2
10 to 15 minutes
36
6.23
8
5.13
24
6.94
4
15 to 20 minutes
48
8.30
11
7.05
28
8.09
9
20 to 25 minutes
84
14.53
22
14.10
51
14.74
11
25 to 30 minutes
86
14.88
41
26.28
37
10.69
8
30 to 35 minutes
9
1.56
1
0.64
7
2.02
1
35 to 40 minutes
24
4.15
5
3.21
18
5.20
1
40 to 45 minutes
48
8.30
2
1.28
35
10.12
11
45 to 50 minutes
46
7.96
8
5.13
32
9.25
6
50 to 55 minutes
68
11.76
12
7.69
47
13.58
9
55 to 60 minutes
106
18.34
41
26.28
51
14.74
14
Total
578
100
156
100
346
100
76
EC= European Championship; WC= World Championship; OG= Olympic Games
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Figure 1. Temporal distribution of TTo.
It can be observed (Table 1) that most of the TTo are applied for within the last ten
minutes of each period (29.4% at the end of the first half and 30.1% at the end of the
second half). The teams which have the score against them usually ask for more TTo
(53.7%) than the teams which have it in favour (Table 2).
Table 2. TTo applied for depending on the scoreboard at the moment of the application.
Times out
Value
N
%
Score in favour of the team which applies for time out
224
38.8
Draw
43
7.5
Score against the team which applies for time out
310
53.7
Total
577
100
The difference of scores five minutes before applying the TTo and at the moment of the
application can be seen in Table 3.
Table 3. Difference of scores five minutes before applying for the TTo and at the
moment of the application.
Difference of scores
Value
Average
σ
Average
range
Sig.
Wilcoxon
Difference of scores five minutes before applying for the
TTo
3.79
4.18
236.49a
0.002
Difference of score at the moment of applying for the
TTo
4.02
4.12
212.83b
a The difference of scores is smaller five minutes before applying for a time out
b The difference of scores is biggest at the moment of applying for a time out
419
36
48
84 86
924
48 46
68
106
0 to 5 minutes
5 to 10 minutes
10 to 15 minutes
15 to 20 minutes
20 to 25 minutes
25 to 30 minutes
30 to 35 minutes
35 to 40 minutes
40 to 45 minutes
45 to 50 minutes
50 to 55 minutes
55 to 60 minutes
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Substitutions of players during TTo (30.2%) and modification of the defence system
(6.9%) after the request of TTo can be observed in Table 4.
Table 4. Substitutions of players and changes of defence after time out.
Player’s substitutions
Changes of defence
Value
N
%
N
%
Yes
161
30.2
37
6.9
No
372
69.8
496
93.1
Total
533
100
533
100
In Table 5 it is seen that when the result is in favour of the team which demands a TTo,
the trend is not to make players’ substitutions. On the contrary, when the scoreboard is
against the team which applies for a TTo, the number of substitutions is highest than
expected.
Table 5. Association between the result at the moment of applying for a time out and
the players’ substitutions after a time out.
Contingency table
Players’ substitutions
Total
Yes
No
Result:
In favour of the
team which applies
for a TTo
Count
47
164
211
Expected count
63.9
147.1
211.0
Standardized residual
-2.1
1.4
Draw
Count
12
28
40
Expected frequency
12.1
27.9
40.0
Standardized residual
.0
.0
Against the team
which applies for a
TTo
Count
102
179
281
Expected count
85.0
196.0
281.0
Standardized residual
1.8
-1.2
Total
Count
161
371
532
Expected count
161.0
371.0
532.0
Measures of association
Value
Sig.
Cramer’s V
0.145
0.004
Contingency coefficient
0.144
0.004
When the same analysis between the result and the change of the defensive system is
made, significant differences are not found (p=0,435 for the contingency coefficient and
Cramer’s V). The actions related to the five attacks previous and subsequent to the
request of TTo are observed in Table 6.
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Table 6. Description and comparison of attacks before and after applying for TTo.
Results of the five
attacks previous to
the time out
Results of the five
attacks
subsequent to the
time out
Comparison of
percentages of positive
actions before and after
the TTo
N
%
%
Actions
n
%
%
Actions
After
Before
N
Sig*
Positive
actions
Goal
994
34.8
37.7
1030
42.0
46.8
Positive
differences
186
0.000
7 metres
83
2.9
120
4.9
Negative
differences
302
Negative
actions
Failed
launch
1045
36.6
826
33.6
Draws
83
Attack
without
launch
736
25.8
62.3
479
19.5
53.2
Totals
2858
100
100
2455
100
100
*Significance of the signs test
The number of positive actions is 9.1% times higher after the request of a TTo. In
addition, the comparison between the percentage of positive actions before and after
applying for TTo shows a significant difference (Z=-5.205; p<0.001).
The effect of TTo is not the same in all the championships analysed; notable differences
were found in the OG (Z=-2.233; p<0.027) and in the WC (Z=-5.009; p<0.001), but not
in the EC (Z=-0.861; p>0.389).
Positive effects of the TTo are found regardless of the local team winning (Z=-3.382;
p<0.002) or losing (Z=-0.861; p>0.389).
In Table 7 it is observed that a change in the defensive system does not modify the
difference of positive actions relevantly (p=0.866). Nonetheless, the improvement of
performance is of nearly ten percentage points higher when after a TTo, players are
substituted than it is when players are not substituted, and that difference is statistically
meaningful (p<0.016).
Table 7. Comparison of the improvement of game actions according to the change of
defence or the players’ substitution after a TTo.
Change of defence
Players’ substitutions
Average±σ
Sig.
Mann-
Whitney
Average±σ
Sig.
Mann-
Whitney
Percentage difference of positive
actions (after a TTo-before a TTo)
9.81±34.10
0.866
14.52±37.03
0.015
4. Discussion
The regulatory option of applying for a TTo gives the trainer a direct and unique tool to
modify his team’s performance tactically. That is why knowing how to use that tool and
knowing the results obtained can help employ it more properly.
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It is observed that the use of this period of time usually occurs in the final moments of
each half, when the timeframe to make any sort of modification is shorter than at the
middle of one of the halves and the trainer needs to make a change. This coincides with
the studies of Kozar et al. (1993), Mechikoff, Kozar, Lord, Whitfield and Brandenburg
(1990), Gomes et al. (2014), Sevim andTaborsky, (2004) and Valle et al. (2013). In the
present research it can be seen how pronounced this trend was when regulation only
allowed a TTo per half (until Serbia European Championship of 2012) which occurred in
the last five minutes of each half 26, 28% of the entirety of TTo requested, with a really
huge difference from the previous five minute period more than 12 points in the first
half and nearly 19 points in the second.
However, after the change of regulation enabled to apply for three TTo, it can be observed
that the number of TTo requested in the last five minutes of each half decreases
importantly. In the five minute period previous to the first half, that is, between minute
20 and minute 25, the percentage of TTo requested is maintained despite the regulatory
change, but it is in the period between minute 50 and minute 55 that the number of TTo
applied for clearly increases with respect to the system which allowed only a TTo per half
and the last two periods of five minutes are equalised.
The analysis of the scoreboard evolution at the moment of applying for a TTo can explain
the reasons why the trainers utilize them. Data show that the trainers mostly apply for a
TTo when they have lower punctuation in the scoreboard (53.7 %), which shows the
intention to have influence on the match’s development by trying to break a dynamics
which is being negative for them. This negative trend is shown on table 3, where it can
be seen that the average of goals the teams have against them five minutes before applying
for TTo is of 3,79 goals, while at the moment of applying for it, it is of 4,02 goals. This
difference can be considered as decisive, for because of it, it is possible to recover the
difference in the scoreboard before it is insurmountable. These results are in line with the
studies by Ortega, Palao, Gómez, Ibáñez, Lorenzo, and Sampaio (2010), Valle et al.
(2013) and Gomes et al. (2014), which also affirm that the use of TTo is done mainly by
the teams which are losing and after a losing streak.
That would entail analysing the reasons why the trainers use TTo. Antúnez et al. (2001)
and Saavedra et al. (2012) expose several probable causes, among which some tactical
ones are found: breaking a positive sequence of actions of the opposite team, searching
for a successful solution of an action at a particular moment of the match, make tactical
modifications, etc.
It would only be possible to know verbal information given by trainers by recording those
conversations for further analysis. This intervention goes beyond the aims of the present
research, but there are objective signs which show the intention of modifying the team’s
tactical behaviour through structural changes. On the first hand, there is the modification
of the game’s system that was being used. In handball, attack systems are changed
constantly, so it would be difficult to determine if a new conduct is the product of
technical instructions or not. On the contrary, the use of defence systems is much steadier,
with very few variations throughout the match. In this case, it can be clearly seen if the
defensive game’s system has been modified after the instructions received during TTo.
Other objective signs can be players’ substitutions. Although handball regulation allows
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players’ substitutions to be made at any moment and with no limitation, TTo is usually
employed to readjust the occupation of the specific positions of those players who are not
achieving the expected performance.
In order to analyse these questions, data of Table 4 were collected. It shows that the
trainers mostly lean towards giving verbal instructions rather than making structural
changes. That is to say, there is a greater trend to using players’ substitutions (30.2%)
than to modifying the defence game’s system (6,9%). This may be due to the trainer’s
opposition to the idea that his initial tactical approach is failing, and that what must be
changed are the players who are applying it inappropriately, thus maintaining his initial
design.
Once analysed when and why TTo is used, it is necessary to know which its result is. In
Table 5, the result of the five attacks previous and subsequent to the request of TTo is
shown. It indicates if they have been positive actions (they end up in goal or in seven-
metre throw) or negative actions (they end up in failed launch or in ball loss). A positive
influence of the use of TTo can be observed, since after it the number of positive actions
increases notably, with an augmentation of more than 9% and 46.8% of successful
actions. This data are in the same line of previous research (Sampaio, Lago-Penas, &
Gómez, 2013; Ortega et al., 2010; Valle et al., 2012). But although there seems to be a
positive influence on performance immediately after the petition of TTo, there are studies
which suggest that it does not affect the match’s final result, for both teams have the same
chance of using this strategy (Saavedra et al., 2012).
When the variation of efficiency is analysed independently according to the structural
changes made, it is observed that the modification of the defensive game’s system is less
efficient than players’ substitutions. This may suggest that tactical performance can be
often determined by individual questions of diverse nature. Despite in some occasions it
must be necessary to vary the game’s system employed it is the players substitutions in
the same game’s system that modifies the game’s system favourably. This may be due to
factors related to players’ accumulated fatigue, to the influence of the match’s
development on the players or their previous interventions.
5. Conclusions
TTo is mostly used by teams which are losing or which have had a negative streak on the
scoreboard. The ends of each of the two halves are the favourite moments to apply for
time out. In spite of the percentage of positive actions being increased generically after
the request of TTo, if it is related with the visible structural changes carried out, players’
substitutions are more effective that defence system’s changes.
Most of the TTo are applied for within the last ten minutes of each period. The losing
teams usually ask for more TTo than the winning teams. The losing teams shows a
negative increase in the difference of goals in the previous five minutes before asking for
a TTo.
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When the team asking for a TTo is losing, the trend is to make players’ substitutions and
defence changes. The number of team positive actions increases after the request of a TTo
(in OG and WC, but not in EC). A change in the defensive system does not modify the
difference of positive actions relevantly after asking for a TTo, but the effect is positive
when players are substituted.
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... Based on comparative studies, five topics were created to better understand the subject: Comparative analysis based on Timeouts (TTos), (Gomes, Volossovitch, & Ferreira, 2014;Gutiérrez Aguilar, Montoya, Fernandez, & Saavedra, 2016;Guzmán, Calpe-Gomez, Grijalbo Santamaria, & Imfeld Burkhard, 2012;Prieto, Gómez, Volossovitch, & Sampaio, 2016) (Table 2). ...
... Among the various options available to handball coaches to control the course of the match, the two main features are player replacement and time-out calls; in the case of handball, there are three TTO requests per match, with a maximum of two per period permitted (Gomes et al., 2014). Thereby, coaches can use time-out as a tool to influence team performance, since they can use this moment to give tactical instructions or to perform structural modifications (e.g., game system, tactical disposition of the players) (Gutiérrez Aguilar et al., 2016). ...
... When the team calls for a TTO, the tendency is to make substitutions of players and changes of defence. The number of positive actions of the team increases after requesting a TTO; a change in the defensive system alone does not change the positive action difference in a relevant way after requesting a TTO, but the effect is positive when players are replaced (Gutiérrez Aguilar et al., 2016). Also, the decision of when to call a TTO during the match can make a difference to the final result of the match as well as short-term performances of both teams (Gomes et al., 2014). ...
... Given the key competitive advantage to determine your own timing, it is crucial to make a good decision when to use a TTO. Existing research shows that teams can benefit in general from TTOs and that they are called at the end of the game and when trailing (Gomes et al., 2014;Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al., 2016;Prieto et al., 2016). However, to generate relevant findings, situational variables must be included (Fernandez-Navarro et al., 2020;. ...
... The latter represent a particularly exciting instrument since the coach can address all players at once. Moreover a team has only a limited number of TTO-calls available -and thus has to weigh up when to use them (Fernández-Echeverría et al., 2019;Ferrari et al., 2019;Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al., 2016). A coach chooses to take a TTO for different reasons like cutting down the opposing team's scoring streak, to adjust game strategy, to give individual instructions or to give the players a short period of rest (Prieto et al., 2016). ...
... In order to derive relevant suggestions for the timing of TTO calling from observational performance analyses, it is essential to consider situational variables (Fernandez-Navarro et al., 2020;. This has already been taken into account specifically for handball in match analyses (Gómez et al., 2014;Volossovitch, 2017), and also regarding TTOs (Gomes et al., 2014;Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al., 2016;Prieto et al., 2016). So far, there is evidence that TTO are mainly called at the end of periods and in situations where the team is running low. ...
Article
Calling a Team Timeout (TTO) is one of the coaches' most important tools. Given the key competitive advantage to determine your own timing, it is crucial to make a good decision when to use a TTO. Existing research shows that teams can benefit in general from TTOs and that they are called at the end of the game and when trailing (Gomes et al., 2014; Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al., 2016; Prieto et al., 2016). However, to generate relevant findings, situational variables must be included (Fernandez-Navarro et al., 2020; Gómez, Lago-Peñas et al., 2015). By integrating situational variables like scoring streak and player difference and higher-order interactions, this study aims to identify specific game situations where TTOs are most effective. Based on 850 games of the German Handball Bundesliga, game situations are identified by Classification Tree Analysis and efficacies are evaluated. Findings indicate a strong impact of timing. Frequently used TTOs, e.g., at the end of periods, are beneficial to the teams. However, strongest effect occurs for TTOs taken at the early stages of the game and with a positive run. Results indicate that TTO is a powerful tactical tool and an application at uncommon timings may even enhance the success rate.
... Interdisciplinary studies on individual outcomes in the fields of psychology, work, and sports already show a positive effect for the break initiator and a negative effect for the break recipient who tends to suffer from the break (e.g. Mace et al. 1992;Gómez et al. 2011;Sampaio et al. 2013;Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al. 2016). This beneficial impact can also apply to negotiations. ...
... Sports science focuses on the dynamics of the one-sided (tactical) interruption and how interruptions can be used to analyze the opponent and to adjust strategies (e.g. Gomez et al. 2011;Siegle/Lames 2012;Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al. 2016). These tactical measures have, at the same time, positive effects for the initiating party and negative effects for the receiving party. ...
... With reference to sports science, Gomes et al. (2014) outline that a forced interruption of the opposing party's gambit can supposedly cut short a negative run of play on the side of the break initiator and, at the same time, enable the break initiator to make tactical adjustments. For example, a time-out interrupts the opponent's dynamics and the course of play, thereby deteriorating his performance while simultaneously improving the timeout initiator's performance (Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al. 2016;Prieto et al. 2016). The interruption of an opponent's good run of play, reinforces the interruption initiator's psychological power and can diminish the opponent's psychological power -the "momentum" lies, thus, in the simultaneous downfall and the rise of the two opposite sides (Iso-Aloha/ Mobily 1980; Burke et al. 2003;Roane et al. 2004). ...
... Interdisciplinary studies on individual outcomes in the fields of psychology, work, and sports already show a positive effect for the break initiator and a negative effect for the break recipient who tends to suffer from the break (e.g. Mace et al. 1992;Gómez et al. 2011;Sampaio et al. 2013;Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al. 2016). This beneficial impact can also apply to negotiations. ...
... Sports science focuses on the dynamics of the one-sided (tactical) interruption and how interruptions can be used to analyze the opponent and to adjust strategies (e.g. Gomez et al. 2011;Siegle/Lames 2012;Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al. 2016). These tactical measures have, at the same time, positive effects for the initiating party and negative effects for the receiving party. ...
... With reference to sports science, Gomes et al. (2014) outline that a forced interruption of the opposing party's gambit can supposedly cut short a negative run of play on the side of the break initiator and, at the same time, enable the break initiator to make tactical adjustments. For example, a time-out interrupts the opponent's dynamics and the course of play, thereby deteriorating his performance while simultaneously improving the timeout initiator's performance (Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al. 2016;Prieto et al. 2016). The interruption of an opponent's good run of play, reinforces the interruption initiator's psychological power and can diminish the opponent's psychological power -the "momentum" lies, thus, in the simultaneous downfall and the rise of the two opposite sides (Iso-Aloha/ Mobily 1980; Burke et al. 2003;Roane et al. 2004). ...
Conference Paper
First offers are powerful anchors that strongly determine the outcome of a negotiation. To give a better insight into the first offer effect, we adopt a process-oriented view and analyze the impact of first offers on individual concessions, in distributive price negotiations. We furthermore investigate the interdependencies of buyer and seller in the negotiation process and other variables that influence concessions. Using a multilevel approach, the results show that individual buyer and seller concessions are influenced by the first offer, the time of the negotiation (in that larger concessions are made at the beginning), and the time to react to the opponent’s concession. Interestingly, concessions remain unaffected by the opponent’s preceding concession. The results demonstrate that the first offer is indeed a powerful anchor that influences all steps required to settle. Keywords: price negotiations, first offer, anchoring, buyer-seller interaction, multilevel approach
... The handball coach plays an active role in the game by managing the on-field players and tactics at any moment. The coach can directly impact the game with time-outs (Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al., 2016), player´s on-court time (Büchel et al., 2019) and moderate defensive tactics, thinking about the effects of fouls (Fasold & Redlich, 2018;Laxdal & Ivarsson, 2022), and exclusions (Prieto et al., 2015). Therefore, coaches need to know if the final minutes in balanced matches represent a different situation from the rest of the game to make better decisions in the match. ...
Article
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The objectives of this study are to analyze handball game-related statistics in balanced games (0-2 goal difference at minute 50) in the final 10 minutes regarding the final outcome of winning or losing. i) Analyse statistical differences between winners and losers in male and female top Icelandic handball leagues and ii) calculate a discriminating model for performance variables for both male and female top Icelandic handball leagues. The game-related statistics from the final 10 minutes of 127 games from two seasons (85 male and 42 female) with a goal difference of two or fewer at minute 50 were analyzed. The internal consistency and reliability ranged from good to excellent for the games of both sexes. Differences between winning or losing for each sex were determined using the unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, and Cohens d for effect sizes was calculated. The results for males include four variables with large effect sizes and six with significant differences. The discriminatory model selected technical fouls and goalkeeper blocked shots from 9 m to classify 40.4% correctly (Wilks' lambda 0.005, and canonical correlation of 0.997). For females, findings align with previous research underscoring the importance of 9 m shots at goal at this level. However, they differ somewhat from full game statistics at the elite level with no difference in red cards and 7 m shots. Coaches should pay particular attention in tactical preparation to shots outside 9 m-both offensively and defensively in balanced games in the final 10 minutes.
... Another study on the men's World Championships between 2005 and 2019 (Meletakos et al., 2020) found breakthrough efficiency, the goalkeeper saved shots, 6 m efficiency, and the number of steals made by the defence discriminated the top four teams from the others. Other research has studied the conventional role of the goalkeeper (Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al., 2016;Hatzimanouil, 2020) and the effect of rule changes on the substitution of the goalkeeper for an extra offensive player observed from the notational analysis of game-related statistics (Gümüş & Gençoğlu, 2020). ...
... The score is another of the variables considered when analysing the request for timeouts in sport. In sports such as handball, basketball and volleyball, the largest number of timeouts are requested when the team is behind in the score (Mace et al., 1992;Zetou et al., 2008;Gomes et al., 2014;Gutiérrez-Aguilar et al., 2016). ...
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The purpose of this study was to analyse the variables (lost rallies and score difference) that determine the timeout effect (positive or no effect) in volleyball, in balanced and unbalanced sets. 232 timeouts, requested by the coaches of 66 male and female teams participating in the Spanish Championship in the Under-14 and Under-16 categories, were analysed. The variables considered in this study were timeout effects, lost rallies and score differences. To analyse the timeout effect, a binary logistic regression model was applied. The results of this model show that, in balanced sets, the variables that predict the timeout effect are the number of rallies (≤2 lost rallies) and the score difference (2–3 points), whilst in unbalanced sets, and the variable that predicts the timeout effect is the number of lost rallies (3 lost rallies). These results show the importance of bearing these variables in mind when timeouts are managed and requested by coaches, in order to optimise the team’s performance.
... The dimensions considered relevant according to the theoretical framework and the consulted studies were that each one of them was used for a list of elaborated categories, according to several authors (Gutierrez, Montoya, Fernandez, & Saavedra, 2016;Prieto, Gomez, Volossovitch, & Sampaio, 2016;Prudente et al., 2004;Skarbalius et al., 2013). To evaluate the answers of the interviewed people, nominal scales were used, that consisted of a set of answer categories qualitatively different and mutually exclusive. ...
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This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument of observation of the offensive process within the handball context. Was used 3 EHF CL games as a basis to determine the macrocategories to be analysed and then a questionnaire was applied to qualified coaches in handball, about the variables in relation to the fundamental functions of the offensive game process. The analysed variables should contain more than 65% positive responses by the coaches to be representative. As a result of the investigation, handball coaches considered the following macrocategories, referring to the following indicators: 1) Offensive actions: Positional Attack, Fast Attack and Counterattack; 2) Shooting indicators: 9 meters, between 9 and 6 meters, 6 meters and 7 meters; 3) Collective actions: Type-I, Type-II, Type-III and 4) Field zones. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that the observation system covers all fundamental aspects of the game and as such can be used for the collection and process the information for a long-term analysis of the different variables of the offensive process in the handball game. RESUMO Este estudo teve um objetivo de desenvolver e validar um instrumento de observação do processo ofensivo no âmbito do jogo de andebol, foi utilizado 3 jogos da EHF CL como base para determinar as macrocategorias a analisar e a seguir aplicado um questionário aos treinadores, com titulação em andebol sobre as variáveis em relação às funções fundamentais do processo ofensivo do jogo. As variáveis analisadas deviam conter mais de 65% respostas positivas pelos treinadores para serem representativas. Como resultado da investigação, os treinadores de andebol consideraram as seguintes macrocategorias, referindo-se aos seguintes indicadores: 1) Ações ofensivas: Ataque Posicional, Ataque Rápido e Contra-ataque; 2) Indicadores de remates: 9 metros, entre 9 e 6 metros, 6 metros e 7 metros; 3) Ações coletivas: Tipo-I, Tipo-II, Tipo-III e 4) Zonas de campo. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que o sistema de observação abrange todos os aspectos fundamentais do jogo e, como tal, pode ser utilizado para a recolha e processo das informações para uma analise a longo prazo das diferentes variáveis do processo ofensivo no jogo de andebol.
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Substitutions are probably the most important opportunity for football coaches to actively influence a match in progress. The present article presents two studies investigating substitutions in football from two different methodological perspectives: Study I, a survey reporting the opinions of 73 licensed coaches, and Study II, data-based analysis of a total of 41,301 substitutions from 7,230 matches in seasons 2014/15 to 2018/19 of the top four European football leagues. The coaches stated to prefer offensive substitutions over defensive substitutions and additionally indicated that changing the current score was more likely to be a reason for substitution than keeping the score. The analysis of the data revealed that not offensive, but neutral substitutions, where the player is replaced by a player of the same playing position, were most frequent. However, offensive players participated significantly more frequently in substitutions. In addition, a high level of score dependence was found, as more than half of the defensive substitutions were made while winning and more than half of the offensive substitutions were made while losing. The present study sheds light on the substitution behaviour of coaches in football and intends to stimulate discussion on the optimal timing and the type of substitutions.
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Team timeout (TTO) in handball is a powerful instrument that influences the team's performance. This study aimed to identify the different contexts of a TTO calling in handball according to the following contextual variables: 1) match status (current score difference), 2) goals scored in the last five ball possessions, 3) goals allowed in the last five ball possessions, 4) game period, and 5) match location. The sample consisted of 2178 TTOs registered in 720 match reports of official statistics of the ASOBAL League, seasons 2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The results suggest that 71.0% of TTOs were called when the match status was “balanced” or “lose”, 57.0% of TTOs occurred in the last ten minutes of each period and 57.9% of TTOs were called when the ratio between offensive and defensive short-term performances became negative. The interaction between match status, game period and short-term offensive and defensive performance was confirmed as the main source that causes handball coaches to call TTO. Further studies should focus on the contents of coaches' interventions during a TTO, as well as on its consequences on team performance in handball.
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