Chronic wounds that do not heal with standard wound care are a growing public healthcare concern. Wound care costs associated with lower extremity ulcers, such as venous leg ulcers, pressure ulcers, and diabetic foot ulcers, place a signifi cant burden on healthcare systems and severely lower the quality of life for patients. Advanced wound care therapies are needed to promote wound closure in recalcitrant wounds. Exogenous mesenchymal stem cell delivery and endogenous bone marrow stem cell recruitment have been investigated as advanced wound therapies, and have demonstrated promising potential for enhancing wound closure in preclinical and clinical studies. The aim of this book chapter is to review the wound healing process and pathobiology of chronic wounds, and discuss the current state of stem cell therapies as advanced wound therapies. The potential role of nano- and micro-scale technologies in addressing current limitations of stem cell therapies will also be explored. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. All right reserved.