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Nutritional Properties of Senna alata Linn Leaf and Flower

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The present study sought to investigate the nutritive value and some anti-nutritional factors present in Senna alata Linn leaves and flowers. Result from proximate analysis revealed that the leaves contained 4.49±0.50 g/100g moisture, 9.53±0.06 g/100g ash, 15.73±0.03 g/100g crude fibre, 18.23±0.13 g/100g crude protein, 3.91±0.01 g/100g crude lipid, 47.73±0.01 g/100g carbohydrate and food energy value of 298.61±0.40 Kcal/100g. The flower contained 6.16±0.14 g/100g moisture, 7.00±1.0 g/100g ash, 14.75±0.01 g/100g crude fibre, 13.14±0.02 g/100g crude protein, 1.81±0.09 g/100g crude lipid, 57.04±0.04 g/100g carbohydrate and food energy value of 296.98±0.61 Kcal/100g. The antinutritional analysis revealed 6.75±0.70 g/100g alkaloid, 2.00±0.01 g/100g saponin and 8.03±0.06 mg/100g oxalate in the leaf while the flower contained 8.50±0.01 g/100g alkaloid, 5.16±0.14 g/100g saponin and 3.50±0.01 mg/100g oxalate. Results from mineral analysis prefigured that the leaf is rich in K (779.20 mg/100g), Mg (142.80 mg/100g), Fe (42.35 mg/100g) and Ca (158.38 mg/100g). The flower is rich in K (1121.95 mg/100g), Mg (148.21 mg/100g), Fe (25.33 mg/100g) and Ca (63.30 mg/100g). Results obtained from vitamin analysis revealed that the leaves and flowers are excellent sources of β-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E. Conclusively, the leaf and flower are rich in some nutrient, and the antinutritional factors present should not pose a problem since they may be loss during the process of domestication.
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Copyright © 2013 by Modern Scientific Press Company, Florida, USA
International Journal of Modern Biology and Medicine, 2013, 4(1): 1-11
International Journal of Modern Biology and Medicine
Journal homepage: www.ModernScientificPress.com/Journals/IJBioMed.aspx
ISSN: 2165-0136
Florida, USA
Article
Nutritional Properties of Senna alata Linn Leaf and Flower
I. Abdulwaliyu *, S.O. Arekemase, S. Bala, A.S. Ibraheem, A.M. Dakare, R. Sangodare, M. Gero
National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, P.M.B. 1052, Basawa, Zaria, Kaduna State,
Nigeria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: abdulwaliyui@yahoo.com.
Article history: Received 8 January 2013, Received in revised form 26 February 2013, Accepted 27
March 2013, Published 20 June 2013.
Abstract: The present study sought to investigate the nutritive value and some anti-
nutritional factors present in Senna alata Linn leaves and flowers. Result from proximate
analysis revealed that the leaves contained 4.49±0.50 g/100g moisture, 9.53±0.06 g/100g
ash, 15.73±0.03 g/100g crude fibre, 18.23±0.13 g/100g crude protein, 3.91±0.01 g/100g
crude lipid, 47.73±0.01 g/100g carbohydrate and food energy value of 298.61±0.40
Kcal/100g. The flower contained 6.16±0.14 g/100g moisture, 7.00±1.0 g/100g ash,
14.75±0.01 g/100g crude fibre, 13.14±0.02 g/100g crude protein, 1.81±0.09 g/100g crude
lipid, 57.04±0.04 g/100g carbohydrate and food energy value of 296.98±0.61 Kcal/100g.
The antinutritional analysis revealed 6.75±0.70 g/100g alkaloid, 2.00±0.01 g/100g saponin
and 8.03±0.06 mg/100g oxalate in the leaf while the flower contained 8.50±0.01 g/100g
alkaloid, 5.16±0.14 g/100g saponin and 3.50±0.01 mg/100g oxalate. Results from mineral
analysis prefigured that the leaf is rich in K (779.20 mg/100g), Mg (142.80 mg/100g), Fe
(42.35 mg/100g) and Ca (158.38 mg/100g). The flower is rich in K (1121.95 mg/100g),
Mg (148.21 mg/100g), Fe (25.33 mg/100g) and Ca (63.30 mg/100g). Results obtained
from vitamin analysis revealed that the leaves and flowers are excellent sources of β-
carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E. Conclusively, the leaf and flower are rich in some
nutrient, and the antinutritional factors present should not pose a problem since they may
be loss during the process of domestication.
Keywords: Senna alata Linn; leaf; flower; nutrients; antinutrients; vitamin; mineral.
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1. Introduction
Senna alata Linn locally known as gungoroko (Nupe Northern Nigeria), asunwon oyinbo
(Yoruba Western Nigeria), nelkhi (Igbo Eastern Nigeria) is a pantropical ornament shrub,
belonging to Caesal piniaceae. It is commonly known as ringworm plant and widely distributed from
tropical America to India (Ibrahim et al., 1995; Singh et al., 1990). The leaves of Senna alata Linn
possess analgesic, antimicrobial, antitumor and antidiabetic properties (Palanichamy et al., 1988;
Palanichamy and Nagarajan, 1990; Somchit et al., 2003). It is locally used in Nigeria in the treatment
of several infections such as ringworm and parasitic skin diseases (Dalziel, 1956; Palanchamy et al.,
1990). The leaves have been used as abortificient and to hasten labour (Yakubu et al., 2010).
Traditionally, Senna alata Linn flower is well known for medicinal utility and commonly used to treat
problems related to liver, kidney, intestine and vision. The leaves are reported to be useful in treating
convulsion, gonorrhea, heart failure, abdominal pains, oedema and also used as purgative (Ogunti et
al., 1993).
The flower is locally credited for the treatment of syphilis and diabetes. The effectiveness of
Senna alata Linn against skin diseases was confirmed by modern scientific studies (Makinde et al.,
2007). The phytochemical components such as alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, tannins, terpenes,
steroids, flavonoids and carbohydrates of Senna alata Linn have been investigated for their
therapeutical potency (Owoyale et al., 2005). The utilization of feeds by living organisms significantly
elevates man’s development, his health and well being. Undernutrition is the basic concern of
developing countries. Senna alata Linn leaves and flowers are well known for their medicinal benefits.
Howbeit, the nutritional information is skimpy. The present study is aimed at evaluating the inorganic,
proximate, vitamin and antinutrient compositions of Senna alata Linn leaf and flower.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Plant Collection and Identification
Senna alata Linn leaves and flowers were obtained from Shonga, Edu Local Government
area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The plant materials were taxonomically identified at College of
Agriculture Mokwa, Niger State, Nigeria. The flowers and the leaves of Senna alata Linn were sun
dried and subjected to the following analysis.
2.2. Proximate Determination
The methods of the Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 1990) were used to determine
moisture, ash, crude fiber, crude protein and crude lipid present in Senna alata Linn leaf and flower.
Int. J. Modern Biol. Med. 2013, 4(1): 1-11
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Percentage of carbohydrates was obtained by difference i.e. 100% % (moisture + crude protein +
crude lipid + ash + crude fiber).
2.3. Antinutrient Determination
Alkaloid was determined based on the method described by Harbone (1973). Saponin was
determined using the method described by Obadoni and Ochuko (2001). The method described by Day
and Underwood (1996) was used to determine the oxalate contents present in the leaf and flower of
Senna alata Linn.
2.4. Mineral Determination
One gram (1 g) of the samples was digested using 15 mL of HCl and 5 mL of nitric acid (3:1).
Mineral compositions of the digested samples were determined using atomic absorption
spectrophotometer (AAS 6800) made by Shimadzu.
2.5. Vitamin Determination
Vitamin E, vitamin C and β-carotene were determined using UV-vis spectrophotometer (UV-
2550) made by Shimadzu.
3. Results and Discussion
The results obtained are shown in Tables 1-4.
Table 1. Proximate analysis of Senna alata Linn leaf and flower
Parameters
Leaf (g/100g)
Flower (g/100g)
Moisture
4.49±0.50
6.16±0.14
Ash
9.53±0.06
7.00±1.0
Crude fibre
15.73±0.03
14.75±0.01
Crude protein
18.23±0.13
13.14±0.02
Crude lipid
3.91±0.01
1.81±0.09
Carbohydrate
47.73±0.01
57.04±0.04
Food energy value
298.61±0.40 (Kcal/100g)
296.98±0.61 (Kcal/100g)
Note: Values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation of three determinations.
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Table 2. Antinutrient composition of Senna alata Linn leaf and flower
Antinutrient
Leaf
Flower
Alkaloid (%)
6.75±0.70
8.50±0.01
Saponin (%)
2.00±0.01
5.16±0.14
Oxalate (mg/100g)
8.03±0.06
3.50±0.01
Note: Values were expressed as mean of three ± standard deviation of three determinations.
Table 3. Mineral composition of Senna alata Linn leaf and flower
Elements
Leaf (mg/100g)
Flower (mg/100g)
K
779.20
1121.95
Zn
0.55
2.14
Cd
0.61
0.33
Na
0.53
0.14
Mg
142.80
148.21
Fe
42.35
25.33
Ca
158.38
63.30
Table 4. Vitamin composition of Senna alata Linn leaf and flower
Vitamins
Leaf
Flower
β-Carotene (IU)
50.37
51.00
Vitamin C (mg/L)
9.09
6.23
Vitamin E (IU)
31.50
25.89
3.1. Results from Proximate Analysis
The result obtained from proximate analysis on the leaf and flower of Senna alata Linn was
depicted in Table 1. The leaf of Senna alata Linn contained 4.49± 0.50 g/100g moisture, 9.53±0.06
g/100g ash, 15.73±0.03 g/100g crude fiber, 18.23±0.13 g/100g crude protein, 3.91±0.01 g/100g crude
lipid, 47.73±0.01 g/100g carbohydrate and caloric value of 298.61±0.40 Kcal/100g. The flower
contained 6.16±0.14 g/100g moisture, 7.00±1.0 g/100g ash, 14.75±0.01 g/100g crude fibre, 13.14±0.02
g/100g crude protein, 1.81±0.09 g/100g crude lipid, 57.04±0.04 g/100g carbohydrate and food energy
value of 296.98±0.61 Kcal/100g. The moisture content of Senna alata Linn leaf was low compared to
10-13 g/100g obtained in grain amaranth (Akingbade et al., 1997) and 11-12% obtained in the grain of
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cowpea varieties (Henshaw and Sobowale, 1996). The moisture content of the flower was also low
compared to 7.50% moisture content of Cassipourea congoensis (Nkafamiya et al., 2007). This
implies that dried leaves and flowers of Senna alata Linn can be stored for some days without any
physiological changes and biochemical reactions due to the low moisture content.
The ash content was high (9.53 g/100g) in the leaf, which is an indication of high mineral
content. The ash content (7.00±1.00 g/100g) of Senna alata Linn flower was almost the value reported
for the ash content of Moringa oleifera leaf, but high (9.53 ±0.06 g/100g) in the leaf of Senna alata
Linn as compared to Moringa olefeira (Ogbe et al., 2012). Fiber contents value (14.75± 0.01 g/100g)
of the flower was higher than the value reported for Milletia obanensis (Umoren et al., 2005).
The crude fiber contents of Senna alata Linn leaf and flower were higher than the reported
values 13.65%, 4.63% and 3.09-4.66% for Senna siamea seeds and for some legumes (Ingweye et al.,
2010; Khattab et al., 2009; Mubarak, 2005). The complex carbohydrates that are not digested by the
human enzymes are collectively referred to as dietary fiber. Fiber absorbs large quantities of water and
toxic compounds produced by intestinal bacterial. Fiber also improves glucose tolerance by the body.
This is mainly done by a diminished rate of glucose absorption from the intestine. Consumption of
dietary fibre above 30 g per day may decrease the intestinal absorption of certain minerals e.g. Ca, P,
and Mg.
The crude protein content (18.23±0.03 g/100g) of Senna alata Linn leaves is comparable to
18.74% crude protein contents of Myriathus arboreus (Amata, 2010). The crude protein contents of
Senna alata Linn leaves and flowers are also comparable to some wild edible leafy vegetables such as
Momordical balsamina (11.29), Moringa olefeira (20.72%) (Lockett et al., 2000) and Lesianthera
africana (13.10 -14.90) (Hensisan and Umar, 2006). Protein from plants leaf sources is perhaps the
most naturally abundant and cheapest source of protein, such that there has been growing realization in
the use of plant leaf meals in livestock diets. Apart from the nutritional significance of protein as a
source of amino acids, it also plays a part in the organoleptic properties of foods (Okon, 1983). High
content of carbohydrate in the leaf and flower of Senna alata Linn may play a significant role in
protein sparing action. Protein performs a specialized function of body building and growth. The
wasteful expenditure of protein to meet the energy needs of the body should be curtailed. Carbohydrate
comes to rescue and spare the proteins from being misused for caloric value.
The crude lipid yield (3.80%) was high in the leaf, but low in the flower (1.80%) as compared
to crude lipid content (2.11%) of Moringa oleifera (Ogbe et al., 2012). Lipid is important in diets
because it promotes fat soluble vitamins and does not add to the bulk of the diet (Bogert et al., 1994).
3.2. Antinutrient Composition
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Wild edible plants are rich in several nutrients. However, the main problem related to the
nutritional exploitation of these kinds of plants is the presence of antinutritional and toxic factors. The
results obtained from antinutritional analysis depicted in Table 2 revealed that the oxalate contents
(8.00± 0.06 and 3.50±0.01 mg/100g) of Senna alata Linn leaves and flowers were low compared to
that of H. esculentus (23.4%) and T. triangular (6.93-7.4%) (Oyesiku, 2006). At low pH, oxalate
inhibits calcium absorption from the gut of animals (McDonald et al., 1995). Oxalate forms complex
with calcium thereby making it unavailable, and more also high oxalate diets can increase the risk of
renal calcium absorption (Osagie and Eka, 1998).
The saponin contents (2.00±0.01 and 5.16±0.14 g/100g), compared to 12.1 g/100g of M. utilis
were low (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2005). Saponins are naturally occurring surface active glycosides.
They are mainly produced by plants, but also by lower marine animals and some bacteria (Riguera,
1997; Yoshiki et al., 1998). Animal nutritionists have generally considered saponins to be deleterious
compounds. In ruminants and other domestic animals, the dietary saponins have significant effects on
all phases of metabolism, from the ingestion of food to the excretion of wastes (Cheeke, 1996).
Saponin reduces protein digestibility probably by the formation of sparingly digestible saponin protein
complexes (Potter et al., 1993). Saponin is associated with growth retardation in non-ruminants (e.g.
chicks and pigs), primarily due to reduction in feed intake (Cheeke and Shull, 1985). In ruminants,
saponin may not retard growth since it undergoes bacteria degradation in the rumen (Lu and Jorgensen,
1987). Alkaloids are more or less toxic substances which act primarily on the central nervous system
(Hegnuauer, 1963).
Antinutrients are found at some level in almost all foods for a variety of reasons. However,
their levels may be reduced as a result of process of domestication. Saponins are characterized by a
bitter taste and foaming properties. The adverse effect of saponin can be overcome by repeated
washing with water which makes the feed more palatable by reducing the bitterness associated with
saponins (Joshi et al., 1989). Dietary oxalate may be degraded by rumen microbes into CO2 and formic
acids
3.3. Mineral Composition
The results obtained from mineral analysis on the leaf and flower of Senna alata Linn portray
in Table 3 revealed low content of sodium and high contents of calcium, potassium, iron and
magnesium. The result showed that the magnesium, potassium and iron contents of the leaf and flower
of Senna alata Linn were high compared to magnesium (19.16 mg/kg), iron (3.80 mg/kg) and
potassium (0.6 mg/kg) contents of shear butter leaf (Abidemi et al., 2009). Minerals perform several
essential functions which are important for the existence of the organism. These include calcification
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of bone, blood coagulation, neuromuscular irritability, acid base equilibrium, fluid balance and
osmotic regulation. Several minerals participate as co-factors for enzymes in metabolism. Certain
hormones exert their function through the mediation of Ca2+ (instead of cAMP). Calcium is regarded
as a second messenger for such hormonal action e.g. epinephrine in liver glycogenolysis. Calcium
serves as third messenger for some hormones e.g. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) acts through cAMP,
and then calcium.
The iron contents of Senna alata Linn leaf and flower were greater (42.35 and 25.33 mg/100g)
than 2.88, 8.8, 9.7 and 2.4-4.1 mg/100g reported for raw Canavalia spp, beach pea, mung beans and
Desi chickpea seeds respectively (Shahidi et al., 1999; Sridhar and Seena, 2006; Umoren et al., 2005;
Zia-Ul-Haq et al., 2007). Iron is mostly found in foods in ferric form (Fe3+) bound to proteins or
organic acids. In the acid medium provided by gastric HCl, the Fe3+ is released from foods. The
reducing substances such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and cysteine convert ferric iron (Fe3+) to ferrous
form (Fe2+). Iron in the ferrous form is soluble and readily absorbed. Iron is associated with the
effective immune competence of the body.
The leaves and flowers of Senna alata Linn are excellent sources of potassium, but the values
(779.20 and 1121.95 mg/100g) obtained from this study were lower than 1029-1786 mg/100g and
2000 mg/100g reported for Cassia hirsute (Vadivel and Janardhanan, 2000).
The zinc contents (0.55 and 2.5 mg/100g) of Senna alata Linn leaf and flower were far below
the dietary requirement (10-15 mg/day). Zinc deficiency is associated with poor wound healing,
growth retardation, loss of appetite and loss of taste sensation. It is also useful for protein synthesis,
normal body development and recovery from illness (Mohammed et al., 2011). Zinc may be regarded
as an antioxidant since the enzyme superoxide dismutase (zinc containing) protects the body against
the free radical damage.
The magnesium composition obtained from this study is enough to consider the leaf and the
flower as good source of magnesium. Magnesium is necessary for efficient metabolism of
carbohydrates and lipids, involved in cellular respiration and general cellular biochemistry and
function (McDonald et al., 1995).
3.4. Vitamin Composition
Results obtained from vitamin analysis were shown in Table 4. The results revealed that the
leaf contained 50.37 IU β-carotene, 9.09 mg/L vitamin C and 31.50 IU vitamin E. The flower
contained 51.00 IU β-carotene, 6.23 mg/L vitamin C and 25.89 IU vitamin E. The presence of vitamin
E in the leaves and flowers of Senna alata Linn may play a significant role in alleviating aluminium
toxicity. Regional accumulation of aluminium in albino rat brain was found to be affected by dietary
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supplementation of vitamin E (Abubakar et al., 2004). Consumption of Senna alata Linn leaves and
flowers may protect the liver from being damage by toxic compounds such as carbon tetrachloride due
to the presence of vitamin E. As an antioxidant, vitamin E works in association with vitamin A, C and
β-carotene, to delay the onset of cataract. Vitamin C performs a sparing action on other vitamins such
as vitamin A, vitamin E and some B-complex vitamins from oxidation. Vitamin C reduces the risk of
cancer and coronary heart diseases.
4. Conclusions
The results obtained from this present research revealed that the leaves and flowers of Senna
alata Linn were rich in crude fiber, crude protein, carbohydrate, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium,
β-carotene and vitamin E. If well processed, Senna alata Linn leaves and flowers may improve the
health status of livestock.
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Copyright © 2013 by Modern Scientific Press Company, Florida, USA
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composition study of Desi chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) cultivars grown in Punjab, Pakistan.
Food Chem., 105: 1357-1363.
... Each experiment was carried out in triplicate and results expressed as Mean±SD [20] and 16.1mg/100g for Chanca piedra leaf (stone Breaker) Gafar et al.,(2012) [24]. ...
... sample is recommended by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON).The phytates content is found to be 10.86±0.01mg/100g which is higher than the documented values for Senna alata leaf (3.55mg/100g)Abdulwaliyu et al.,(2013)[20] and 0.0002mg/100g, 0.0001mg/100g for I. alba and I. batatas respectively (Essiett et al.,2014), but lower than values documented for Senna alata leaf (15.07mg/100g) Abubakar et al., (2015);Chanca piedra leaf (27.58mg/100g) ...
... sample is recommended by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON).The phytates content is found to be 10.86±0.01mg/100g which is higher than the documented values for Senna alata leaf (3.55mg/100g)Abdulwaliyu et al.,(2013)[20] and 0.0002mg/100g, 0.0001mg/100g for I. alba and I. batatas respectively (Essiett et al.,2014), but lower than values documented for Senna alata leaf (15.07mg/100g) Abubakar et al., (2015);Chanca piedra leaf (27.58mg/100g) ...
... Excessive intake can, however, cause increased intestinal gas production that can lead to bloating. Consuming over 30g per day can lead to malabsorption of important minerals, such as magnesium, calcium and phosphorus [19] . The result of the qualitative analysis of the leaf indicated that alkaloids, quinones, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and anthraquinone were present; as seen in Table 2. Saponins are amphipathic glycosides reported to be utilized as adjuvants in cancer treatment [20] . ...
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Studies on proximate and phytochemical analyses of leaf extract of Senna alata (L) Roxb were carried out to evaluate its nutritional potentials and possible medicinal properties. Result obtained from proximate analysis showed the composition of moisture, total ash, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate as: 15.4±0.17%, 6.00±0.13%, 17.50±0.57%, 9.80±0.21%, 16.91±0.51%, 2.00±0.61%, respectively. Phytochemical studies showed the presence of saponins, phenolic acids, flavonoids mainly kaemferol (148.568 ± 4.133) and quercetin (232.315 ± 1.821), tannins present as tannic acid (974.870 ± 2.315), alkaloids including coniine (30.508 ± 3.255) and coniceine (33.410 ± 3.480), and negligible amounts of quinones and acrylamides. The result from this study showed that while the leaf extract of S. alata (L) Roxb may be used for therapeutic purposes within its safety limit, usage as a source of food for man or animals may be lethal, due to the presence of poisonous phytochemicals like connine and coniceine.
... Iron (Fe) is an indispensible element for human body as it takes part in various metabolic functions including oxygen transport, electron transport, synthesis of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its requirement is very high in case of the pregnant women & in adolescents at the time of period of growth spurt [24] . Abdulwaliyu researched on the element present in the leaves of C. alata and found the concentration of Fe as 420.35 ppm [25] . In our present study, the concentration of the leaves of C. alata was found as the highest one showing the value 1192.16 ...
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Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the proximate and elemental analysis of two different medicinal plants namely Cassis alata and Spermacoce latifolia which are frequently grown in Bangladesh. Methodology: Macro (Na, K, Ca, Mg), micro (Al, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd) elements were determined quantitatively in the leaves of Cassia alata and in the root and aerial parts of Spermacoce latifolia by using flame photometer and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results: The elemental contents of the plants were evaluated in considerable amounts (Na: 611.87-1223.88 ppm, K: 5532.37-8344.77 ppm, Al: 1349-9798.52 ppm, Ca: 13131.45-18591.65 ppm, Mg: 2165.71-5068.38 ppm, Fe: 924.93-1192.16 ppm, Cu: 8.36-12.89 ppm, Mn: 68.58-221.07 ppm, Zn: 116.96-323.60 ppm, Ni: 3.88-14.29 ppm, Cr: 1.59-4.56 ppm, Pb: 14.28-27.82 ppm and Cd: 0.0827-0.7313 ppm. Conclusion: The mineral analysis showed that the macro (Na, K, Ca, Mg) elements are present in higher amount than the micro (Al, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr) elements which indicate the effectiveness of these plants in treating various ailments. And the concentrations of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd) are in very trace amount which shows that these plants are safe for medicinal uses.
... However, excessive intake can cause increase in production of intestinal gas which can cause bloating [31] . Consumption of more than 30g per day could lead to malabsorption of essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium and phosphorus [32] . The crude fat content was 15.37%. ...
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This study was carried out to evaluate the proximate, vitamin and phytochemical compositions of Cucumis metuliferus Seed. The analyses were done using standard methods. The proximate analysis showed that the seed contains carbohydrate (50.24 ± 0.03%), crude fibre (19.23 ± 0.28%), crude fat (15.37 ± 0.14%), moisture (7.31 ± 0.28%), Ash (5.23 ± 0.18%0 and crude protein (2.63 ± 0.06%). From the result of the phytochemical analysis, the following phytochemicals were detected: tannins (2.93±0.08mg/g), steroids (2.62±0.16mg/g), Alkaloids (2.54±0.13mg/g), Saponin (1.41±0.05mg/g), phenols (1.20±0.04mg/g) and flavonoids (0.97±0.06mg/g) while glycosides and terpenoids were not detected. The result from the vitamin analysis showed that the seed contains high amounts of vitamins with vitamin K as the most abundant vitamin (2.58±0.23mg/g) while β-carotene as the least (1.56±0.04mg/g). This study suggests that the seed of Cucumis metuliferus can serve as a good source of nutrient and has the potential to be used for therapeutic purposes.
... Several minerals such as potassium, iron, manganese, calcium, zinc, copper, and chromium have been assessed in S. alata. ese mineral constituents help in formulation of herbal drugs and dietary supplements [113][114][115]. ...
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Senna alata is a medicinal herb of Leguminosae family. It is distributed in the tropical and humid regions. The plant is traditionally used in the treatment of typhoid, diabetes, malaria, asthma, ringworms, tinea infections, scabies, blotch, herpes, and eczema. The review is aimed at unveiling the ethnobotanical description and pharmacological activities of S. alata. Different parts of the plant are reported in folk medicine as therapeutic substances for remediation of diverse diseases and infections. The extracts and isolated compounds displayed pronounced pharmacological activities. Display of antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, dermatophytic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antilipogenic, anticonvulsant, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antimalarial, anthelmintic, and antiviral activities could be due to the array of secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, anthraquinone, saponins, phenolics, cannabinoid alkaloids, 1,8-cineole, caryophyllene, limonene, α-selinene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, cinnamic acid, pyrazol-5-ol, methaqualone, isoquinoline, quinones, reducing sugars, steroids, and volatile oils present in different parts of the plant. The review divulges the ethnobotanical and pharmacological activities of the plant and also justifies the ethnomedical claims. The significant medicinal value of this plant necessitates a scientific adventure into the bioactive metabolites which constitute various extracts.
... The results of some of the anti-nutrients present in A. micraster stem bark are shown in Table 3. Oxalate content was low compared to that of Senna alata Linn leaves and flowers 8.00 and 3.50 mg/100g (Abdulwaliyu et al., 2013). Oxalate binds to calcium to form calcium oxalate crystals; these prevent the absorption and utilization of calcium by the body thereby causing diseases such as ricket and osteomalacia (Ladeji et al., 2004). ...
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Cassia alata L. (called Gelinggang) was a type of herbal plant used as a skin and diarrhea medicine. However, there has been no further research related to gelinggang microgreens. Therefore, this study utilizes gelinggang as a microgreen. This study aimed to determine the growth media’s effect on chlorophyll and ascorbic acid in gelinggang microgreens. In this study, gelinggang seed was grown in organic soil and rockwool for about 14 days at room temperature (27±1°C). The chlorophyll of acetone extract and ascorbic acid of sodium oxalate extract of this microgreen were determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometric methods. There was a difference between organic soil and rockwool as growing media on the vitamin C and chlorophyll gelinggang microgreen. The study showed that microgreens on organic soil had the highest chlorophyll content, while microgreens on rockwool had the highest vitamin C content. Thus gelinggang microgreens high in phytochemicals compounds could be used as health-promoting food ingredients.
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This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical and proximate composition of the flowers, leaves, stem and root of Senna alata. The phytochemical analysis result revealed that saponin was highest in the leaf (4.13±0.035), flavonoid was higher in the stem (6.63±0.064) while anthraquinone was highest in the root (4.52±0.438). The result of the proximate analysis showed that carbohydrate was higher in the leaf (33.81±0.827), root (50.52±1.945) and flower (55.67±0.021). The result of the mineral composition showed that the leaf, root, flower and stem extract of S. alata were higher in potassium (779.01±0.276, 556.39±0.198, 1121.85±0.141, and 246.29±0.042). The results obtained from this research revealed that the leaves, roots, flowers and stem of Senna alata Linn were rich in crude fibre, crude protein, carbohydrate, potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium. That is, well-processed parts of Senna alata may improve the health status of livestock.
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Daun Senna alata telah dikenal sebagai obat penyakit kulit akibat parasit. Namun, di Dusun Nyapa Indah, Kabupaten Berau, Kalimantan Timur, daun Senna alata yang dikenal sebagai Urokep, secara tradisional rebusan daun keringnya digunakan sebagai obat pelangsing. Untuk meningkatkan kegunaan herbal menjadi produk obat herbal yang aman dikonsumsi khalayak umum, harus dilakukan proses pengilmiahan melalui uji fitokimia dan GC-MS, demikian pula dengan daun Urokep. Hasil uji fitokimia ekstrak etanol daun Urokep menunjukkan bahwa daun Urokep mengandung tannin, alkaloid, flavonoid, steroid dan triterpenoid. Kandungan tannin dan flavanoid dalam buah atau sayur yang dikonsumsi sehari sekali sudah cukup untuk digunakan sebagai program diet. Hasil uji GC-MS, diduga ekstrak etanol Urokep mengandung dua puluh komponen bahan kimia aktif, diantaranya 18,11% 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, 15,7% Palmitic acid, methyl ester dan 7,75% Beta-sitosterol yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan untuk obat-obatan aktif dalam industri farmasi.Kata kunci : Urokep, Senna alata, pelangsing, fitokimia, GC-MS
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The present study assessed the nutritional potentials of the raw seeds of Senna siamea. The results reveal that raw Senna siamea seeds had high in dry matter (91.02% wet weight), crude protein (25.09 % dry matter) and crude fiber (13.65 % dry matter) contents but poor percentage ether extract, nitrogen free extract, ash and caloric value. Among the vitamins assessed (riboflavin, thiamine, niacin, vitamins C, E and A), only niacin was abundant (2.08 mg/100g). The seeds were also rich in calcium (800 mg/100g), phosphorus (7300 mg/100g), sodium (550 mg/100g), magnesium (460 mg/100g), iron (206.80 mg/100g), zinc (26.49 mg/100g) and copper (8.38 mg/100g). The concentrations of potassium, molybdenum, cobalt, chromium, selenium, sulphur and flourine in the seeds were low. Flourine was the most abundant micro mineral element (0.83 mg/100g). Seventeen amino acids were detected. Senna siamea seeds showed high valine (4.01 g/100g), leucine (8.35 g/100g), isoleucine (3.55 g/100g) and histidine (2.52 g/100g) contents. Glutamic acid was the most abundant (8.9 g/100g) amino acid. Leucine had the highest concentration among the essential amino acids, while cystine was the most limiting of this group (1.05 g/100g). All the antinutrients studied were low in concentration except phytate (200.24 mg/100g). We conclude that though rich in nutrients, there may be need for processing of the raw seeds to render the antinutrients harmless when Senna siamea seed meal is fed to livestock, especially monogastrics.
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