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A Correlation Study of Employee Engagement and Servant Leadership

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A CORRELATION STUDY OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT AND SERVANT
LEADERSHIP
Debra Dean
Regent University
ABSTRACT
Organizations have seen big benefits of servant leadership and employee engagement.
The following seven constructs of servant leadership were investigated for this article:
agapao love, altruism, empowerment, humility, serving, trust, and vision (Dennis, 2005).
Additionally an examination of employee engagement pursued using four questions for
employee engagement created an “Employee Engagement Index” (Wiley, 2013). This
quantitative study with a correlation design examined the (a) servant leadership and (b)
employee engagement of a random sample of survey participants. A pilot study was
conducted first to test the surveys and methodology. Finally, a larger test was
performed. Analysis was conducted using SPSS version 21. The findings of this
research indicate a positive correlation between the seven servant leadership
constructs and employee engagement.
Keywords: Agapao love, altruism, employee engagement, empowering, humility,
servant leadership, serving, trust, visionary, and workplace spirituality.
1. INTRODUCTION
Results of Gallup’s 2013 State of the Global Workplace survey showed that only 13
percent of employees worldwide said they are engaged in their work. According to
Gallup’s 2013 State of the Global Workplace survey, only 41 percent of American
employees understood what their company stood for and how they differ from their
competition. Engaged employees, according to Gallup (2014) understand what their
company does, understands the mission, and tells others about the great place they
work. Employee engagement has become a popular topic for organizations trying to
retain human capital, maintain a competitive advantage, and enhance the work
environment. Likewise, servant leadership has become more popular as employers find
benefits from leaders that put their follower’s needs above their own. This study was
designed to examine the two concepts of employee engagement and servant leadership
together to determine the correlation between servant leadership and employee
engagement.
2. RESEARCH QUESTION
The benefits of servant leadership and employee engagement are numerous. This
study attempted to answer the question if servant leaders positively relates to employee
engagement, follower performance, and identification with the organization. The
purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between leader and follower in
such a way as to understand and answer if organizations whom employee more servant
leaders can expect to have more employee engagement.
3. THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL BASE
The employee engagement concept is a personal decision according to Vosloban
(2013). Organizations cannot force an employee to be engaged (Vosloban, 2013).
Although an agreed upon definition has not been provided in the existing literature, it is
believed that three basic concepts belong to employee engagement. The first concept is
emotional (Vosloban, 2013). The emotional aspect of employee engagement may also
tie back to the spiritual aspect of workplace spirituality (Giacalone, 2010). The second
concept is behavioral (Vosloban, 2013). The third concept is cognitive engagement
(Vosloban, 2013). Vosloban (2013) also wrote that the same factors which engage an
employee can also disengage an employee (Vosloban, 2013). Environmental factors
and personal factors such as emotions, family, and personality all have potential to
positively or negatively impact employee engagement (Vosloban, 2013).
Organizational spirituality is seen to have similar vantage points to that of employee
engagement. From the company perspective, organizational spirituality includes
increased employee commitment, increased employee productivity, increased
employee creativity, increased performance, and increased employee retention
(Giacalone, 2010). Additional benefits of workplace spirituality according to Giacalone
(2010) include enhanced teamwork, increased job involvement, increased sales and
profits, decreased employee turnover, decreased absenteeism, and having an effect
directly on the bottom line. With so many positive effects for the organization, this
phenomenon is gaining wide attention from company owners, business executives, and
leaders across the globe. From the employee standpoint, spirituality in the workplace
has produced higher levels of job satisfaction, enhanced perception of intuitive abilities
and competence, increased innovation, and a feeling of affiliation (Giacalone, 2010).
Organizational spirituality is closely related to one having purpose in life. Having
purpose is a fundamental need according to Abraham Maslow (Marques, 2010). The
self-actualization level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs indicate that people need to
have morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, a lack of prejudice, and an
acceptance of facts (Marques, 2010).
Servant leadership is thought to be an instrumental concept in increasing employee
engagement. The term servant leadership was first coined by Robert Greenleaf in 1977
(Berger, 2014). Servant leadership is still an emerging concept and scholars have not
agreed on a servant leadership theory; however, much effort has been made towards
the construction of the theory. According to Berger (2014), the servant leadership
community is in need of constructing a strong theory and evaluation for servant
leadership. Berger (2014) wrote that servant leadership is a leadership style that re-
engages employees by focusing on people. Servant leadership; therefore, is emerging
as a theory with the potential to create a positive organizational culture, produce socially
responsible organizations, and cultivate engaged employees (Berger, 2014).
Robert Greenleaf argued that the purpose of servant leadership is to serve first instead
of lead (Berger, 2014). Greenleaf believed that followers of servant leaders would grow
as a person and become more autonomous, freer, healthier, and wiser as a result of
being served (Berger, 2014). Servant leaders listen receptively, display empathy, heal
the self and others, and are aware of their self, their strengths, and their surroundings
(Berger, 2014). Servant leaders are persuasive (Berger, 2014). They can conceptualize
by looking beyond the day-to-day issues (Berger, 2014). Servant leaders have foresight
to learn from the past, understand the present, and forecast the future (Berger, 2014).
Servant leaders are also stewards that play a role in holding their organization to a high
standard for ethics (Berger, 2014). Servant leaders grow people and are personally
committed to developing others (Berger, 2014). Servant leaders also build community
and look for ways to improve the areas in which they work (Berger, 2014).
Dennis and Bocarnea (2005) examined the following seven constructs of servant
leadership: agapao love, altruism, empowerment, humility, serving, trust, and vision.
Agapao love is the act of the servant leader to be forgiving, be teachable, display
calmness, do what is right, have integrity, and show concern (Dennis, 2005). Altruism is
displayed by the servant leaders as one with moral obligation and selfless acts;
whereas, the leader puts the needs of the followers before their own needs (Dennis,
2005). Empowerment is displayed by the servant leader whom allows for self-direction
and encourages personal growth (Dennis, 2005). Humility is displayed by the servant
leader as they focus on others and not on the self, builds others up, refuses to accept
credit for others efforts, and exudes a humble demeanor (Dennis, 2005). Serving is a
primary characteristic of the servant leader (Dennis, 2005). Trust is the confidence the
servant leader displays in others as they exude characteristics of fairness, ethicality,
and predictability (Dennis, 2005). Vision is displayed by the servant leader as one that
uses collaborative efforts in creating a shared vision for the employees and organization
(Dennis, 2005).
4. LITERATURE SUPPORT
Employee engagement is an emerging concept that can aide an organization with
absenteeism, attrition, business productivity, customer loyalty, customer satisfaction,
individual performance, profitability, and resilience (Bhuvanaiah, 2014). Since 1990,
employee engagement has received attention; however, an accepted definition has yet
to be attained. Bhuvanaiah (2014) provided an extensive list of definitions from
empirical research. The phrase employee engagement was first defined by William
Kahn in 1990 (Vosloban, 2013). Kahn’s definition of employee engagement is “the
harnessing of organization members selves to their work roles; in engagement, people
employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role
performances” (Bhuvanaiah, 2014).
Other researchers defined employee engagement with words or phrases such as
someone who is absorbed in their work, adaptive, aware of business context,
committed, dedicated, empowered, energized, and engaged (Bhuvanaiah, 2014).
Further definitions included phrases such as enthused for work, experiencing belief in
what they do, experiencing collaboration, experiencing meaningful connections, and
experiencing positive emotions (Bhuvanaiah, 2014). Bhuvanaiah and Raya (2014)
shared additional definitions that included words and phrases such as experiencing
trust, exuding effort, finding smart ways to add value, focused, and fulfilling a purpose.
More definitions in the Bhuvanaiah and Raya (2014) research included words and
phrases such as involved, motivated, passionate for work, persistently working towards
organizational goals, satisfied with work, vigorous, willingly contributing intellectual
effort, and working with colleagues to improve performance.
May, et al (2004) furthered the work of Kahn (1990) to reveal the following three
psychological conditions related to employee engagement: availability, meaningfulness,
and safety. May, et al (2004) noted that low engagement levels of community, control,
fairness, reward, values, and workload could result in burnout. Maslach, et al (2001)
noted that employees with low levels of employee engagement are more likely to
experience cynicism and exhaustion.
There are various levels of employee engagement, according to the Blessing White
Organization (Bhuvanaiah, 2014). The engaged are followers that are highly productive
(Bhuvanaiah, 2014). The almost engaged are followers that are reasonably productive
and content with their job (Bhuvanaiah, 2014). The honeymooners and hamsters are
highly satisfied with their job title and their employer; however, they have low
contribution levels (Bhuvanaiah, 2014). The crash-burners are followers that are highly
productive and contribute the maximum level; however, they are not happy with their
own success (Bhuvanaiah, 2014). The disengaged are discontent followers with a
negative outlook for the organization (Bhuvanaiah, 2014). Gallup (2013) also identified
various levels of engagement to include simply: (1) engaged, (2) not engaged, and (3)
disengaged (Bhuvanaiah, 2014).
To improve employee engagement, Bhuvanaiah (2014) documented several strategies
for leaders to manage in their organizations. The first strategy is to manage stress
through prioritizing tasks, controlling work load burdens, empowering employees to
manage their work, and recognizing the quality of the followers involved in the team
(Bhuvanaiah, 2014). The second strategy is to promote employee well-being. Every
human being has physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual needs. When those needs
are met, employees feel a sense of safety, trust, and well-being (Bhuvanaiah, 2014).
Improving employee well-being at work promotes high levels of employee engagement
(Bhuvanaiah, 2014). The third strategy is to facilitate self-management. Self-
management is possible when followers understand the meaningfulness of their task,
have clarity of their purpose, are provided with clear objectives, are able to achieve their
task, and can seek opportunities for improvement (Bhuvanaiah, 2014).
Wiley (2013) wrote that common components of employee engagement include a
willingness to exert discretionary effort, commitment, employee alignment with
organizational goals, enthusiasm for work, and organizational pride. To measure
employee engagement, Wiley (2013) examined four elements: advocacy, commitment,
pride, and satisfaction. Wiley (2013) explained that the reason to examine these four
elements of employee engagement is simple. A follower with high levels of employee
engagement is proud and satisfied with their firm as an employer (Wiley, 2013). The
engaged follower advocates for their firm (Wiley, 2013). The engaged follower is also
content with their workplace and intends to remain employed by the organization (Wiley,
2013). Wiley (2013) noted that the top ways to improve employee engagement are
displaying confidence in the firm’s future, displaying organizational support for work/life
balance, ensuring leadership communicates a motivating vision, ensuring that safety is
a priority, having a promising future for self, having excitement about one’s work, having
opportunity for growth and development, making quality and improvement top priorities,
and prioritizing organizational corporate responsibility efforts to increase overall
satisfaction. Wiley (2013) wrote that the list of ways to improve employee engagement
can be reduced to four pillars of employee engagement. The first pillar, according to
Wiley (2013) is that leaders inspire confidence in the future. The second pillar is that
managers recognize employees and emphasize quality and improvement as top
priorities (Wiley, 2013). The third pillar is that work is exciting and there are
opportunities to grow and develop (Wiley, 2013). The fourth pillar for employee
engagement is that firms demonstrate a sincere responsibility to their employees and
the communities where they operate.
5. HYPOTHESES
The Dennis and Bocarnea (2005) 42-item Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument
(SLAI) was used for this research. Patterson (2003) identified seven characteristics as a
result of developing a working theory of Servant Leadership. Each characteristic is
listed with the related questions from the survey.
1. Agapao Love: items 2, 7, 17, 19, 21, 27
2. Altruism: items 5, 9, 16, 18, 23, 26
3. Empowering: items 6, 11, 24, 25, 28, 33
4. Humility: items 8, 12, 20, 22, 37, 39
5. Serving: items 1, 4, 15, 29, 35, 38
6. Trust: items 3, 10, 13, 30, 31, 41
7. Visionary: items 14, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42
Each characteristic is defined below in addition to the hypothesis for each variable.
5.1. Agapao Love
Agapao Love is derived from the Greek word agapao meaning to do the right thing at
the right time for the right reason (Winston, 2002). This aspect of Servant Leadership
considers the whole person including their needs, wants, and desires. Servant Leaders
will display Agapao Love with their willingness to learn about the gifts and talents of
each follower. From a priority standpoint, the leader will focus on the employee first,
their talents second, and the organization third.
The SLAI categorized six questions for the Agapao Love characteristic.
Hypothesis 1: The servant leader characteristic of agapao love correlates positively with
employee engagement.
5.2. Altruism
Altruism is a moral obligation and selfless act to put the needs of everyone else before
one’s self. The act of altruism requires personal sacrifice to help others without
consideration of personal gain. An altruistic leader is one that helps others just for the
sake of helping.
The SLAI categorized six questions for the Altruism characteristic.
Hypothesis 2: The servant leader characteristic of altruism correlates positively with
employee engagement.
5.3. Empowering
Empowering others is a major goal of a servant leader. To obtain this milestone the
leader will pull instead of push individuals along (Russell, 2002). Patterson (2003)
stated that empowerment is “letting people do their jobs by enabling them to learn, grow
and progress and it means allowing for self-direction and freedom to fail; all of this
multiplies the followers’ strengths and trust”. With each successful attempt by the
follower, they will grow in their confidence to take on more responsibility and will
increase their self-esteem.
The SLAI categorized six questions for the Empowering characteristic.
Hypothesis 3: The servant leader characteristic of empowering correlates positively with
employee engagement.
5.4. Humility
Humility is displayed when leaders consider the needs of others while surrendering their
own motives of selfish ambition. As a humble leader, one will keep their own
accomplishments and talents in the shadow while spotlighting the success of others.
Humble leaders are eager to listen to others and consider their position a great
responsibility of leading the followers entrusted to them. Humility is often associated
with modesty and passivity. Humility can also be displayed with boldness by one that
embraces their values, morality, and doing the right thing.
The SLAI categorized six questions for the Humility characteristic.
Hypothesis 4: The servant leader characteristic of humility correlates positively with
employee engagement.
5.5. Serving
Serving others is a primary characteristic for servant leadership. Patterson’s (2003)
model describes the servant leader as one that is “called to serve and see’s life as a
mission of service”. As a servant leader, one will serve their followers first.
The SLAI categorized six questions for the Serving characteristic.
Hypothesis 5: The servant leader characteristic of serving correlates positively with
employee engagement.
5.6. Trust
Trust is a level of confidence one has in another. For a leader-follower relationship, one
may trust that the other will be fair, ethical, and predictable. Leadership is not a position,
but a combination of character and competence. Trust will be difficult if not impossible to
foster in relationships where leadership is only a position.
The SLAI categorized six questions for the Trust characteristic.
Hypothesis 6: The servant leader characteristic of trust correlates positively with
employee engagement.
5.7. Visionary
A leader with vision has the ability to foresee the future. An organization will expect a
visionary leader to see the mission and purpose for the business. Patterson (2003)
refers to vision as the role of the follower instead of the leader. The leader; instead,
understands the goals and interest of the follower and modifies the organization’s
procedures to best fit the follower. Additionally, the leader sees the follower as a worthy
and valuable person, which the leader is willing to serve.
The SLAI categorized six questions for the Visionary characteristic.
Hypothesis 7: The servant leader characteristic of visionary correlates positively with
employee engagement.
7. PILOT STUDY METHODOLOGY
The Dennis and Bocarnea (2005) Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument (SLAI) is
designed to measure seven characteristics of servant leadership including agapao love,
altruism, empowering, humility, serving, trust, and visionary. The instrument uses a 42-
item questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale.
The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to analyze the above set of data for
servant leadership and the following four questions from Wiley (2013) for employee
engagement:
I am proud to tell people I work for my organization.
Overall, I am extremely satisfied with my organization as a place to work.
I would recommend this place to others as a good place to work.
I rarely think about looking for a new job with another organization.
The above four questions were used in the Wiley (2013) study for employee
engagement. According to Wiley (2013), the four items above were shown to be a
single scale with Cronbach’s alpha of .91. In this proposed study, the same questions
were used with a 5-point Likert scale. The scores were summed for each employee to
measure their engagement.
7.1. Pilot Study
During the pilot study, the SLAI was provided to 75 employees of an international
organization. The 75 employees all report to management within the hierarchy of one
manager that is interested in improving employee engagement within his organization.
Only 24 of the 75 employees provided usable responses. According to the Statistical
Power Analysis correlation, a minimum of 47 participants were required for this study
(Correlation, 2014).
7.2 Pilot Study Analysis
The Pearson-r correlation is an appropriate measurement for examining correlation
between sets of data to determine their relationship. The Pearson Product Moment
Correlation shows the linear relationship between two sets of data. Williams and Monge
(2001) explained that the Pearson-r correlation simply informs the researcher if the two
sets of data are related, it does not provide reasons for the relationship. SPSS was
used to examine the data from this study.
The first step to the assessment was to calculate the sum for each servant leadership
characteristic on the Dennis and Bocarnea (2005) 42-item Servant Leadership
Assessment Instrument (SLAI). Each construct became a variable: Agapao Love,
Altruism, Empowering, Humility, Serving, Trust, and Visionary. The next step was to
sum the employee engagement score for each participant; creating another variable.
The analysis was performed in SPSS and is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Pilot Study Pearson-r Correlation Output
Pearson-r correlation is the most commonly used coefficient technique. Pearson-r
correlation measures the relationship between two variables. Correlation ranges from -
1.0 to +1.0. The closer the Pearson Correlation number is to +1.0, the more positively
related the two variables are. When the p-value is < .05 there is a significant relationship
between employee engagement and the servant leadership characteristic. When the p-
value is > .05, there is not a significant relationship between employee engagement and
the servant leadership characteristic. Altruism, humility, love, and vision were not
significantly related to employee engagement; therefore, hypotheses 1, 2, 4, and 7 are
not supported. Empower, serve, and trust were significantly related to employee
engagement; therefore, hypotheses 3, 5, and 6 are supported.
8. METHODOLOGY
Results of the pilot study methodology showed promise in relating employee
engagement to servant leadership characteristics. Additionally, the pilot study provided
insight into the collection of the data. As a result, the following demographic questions
were added to the survey: residence currently, residence for the past five years,
employment department, and employee status (employee or contractor). Instead of
focusing on one department in one organization, the survey was sent out to a large
random sample. The survey was completed by 126 participants in California, Colorado,
Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. The departments represented by
the survey respondents included accounting, administration, business intelligence,
customer service, engineering, finance, I.T., legal, marketing, operations, product,
research and development, and sales. An “other” category was also provided for
respondents to self-disclose their employment in academic administration, actuarial,
compliance, field operations, government, healthcare, new business, project
management, teaching, and underwriting. Due to unanswered questions, only 104 of
the 126 surveys were usable.
8.1. Statistical Analyses
Analyses of data were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 21. The Pearson
correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlations between employee
engagement and the seven constructs of servant leadership. A P value <0.05 is
considered significant.
8.2. Agapao Love
The coefficient of correlation between agapao love and employee engagement was
determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The servant leadership construct of
agapao love was significantly correlated with employee engagement (r=.55, P = 0.00,
Table 2). The first hypothesis was supported.
Hypothesis 1: The servant leader characteristic of agapao love correlates positively with
employee engagement.
Table 2 Pearson-r Correlation Output
Correlations
AGAPAO LOVE
EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT
Pearson Correlation
.554**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
104
AGAPAO LOVE
Pearson Correlation
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
104
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
8.3. Altruism
The coefficient of correlation between altruism and employee engagement was
determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The servant leadership construct of
altruism was significantly correlated with employee engagement (r=.52, P = 0.00, Table
3). The second hypothesis was supported.
Hypothesis 2: The servant leader characteristic of altruism correlates positively with
employee engagement.
Table 3 Pearson-r Correlation Output
Correlations
ALTRUISM
EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT
Pearson Correlation
.524**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
104
ALTRUISM
Pearson Correlation
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
104
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
8.4. Empowering
The coefficient of correlation between empowering and employee engagement was
determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The servant leadership construct of
empowering was significantly correlated with employee engagement (r=.53, P = 0.00,
Table 4). The third hypothesis was supported.
Hypothesis 3: The servant leader characteristic of empowering correlates positively with
employee engagement.
Table 4 Pearson-r Correlation Output
Correlations
EMPOWER
EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT
Pearson Correlation
.534**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
104
EMPOWER
Pearson Correlation
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
104
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
8.5. Humility
The coefficient of correlation between humility and employee engagement was
determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The servant leadership construct of
humility was significantly correlated with employee engagement (r=.56, P = 0.00, Table
5). The fourth hypothesis was supported.
Hypothesis 4: The servant leader characteristic of humility correlates positively with
employee engagement.
Table 5 Pearson-r Correlation Output
Correlations
EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
HUMILITY
EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT
Pearson Correlation
1
.556**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
104
104
HUMILITY
Pearson Correlation
.556**
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
104
104
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
8.6. Serving
The coefficient of correlation between serving and employee engagement was
determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The servant leadership construct of
serving was significantly correlated with employee engagement (r=.69, P = 0.00, Table
6). The fifth hypothesis was supported.
Hypothesis 5: The servant leader characteristic of serving correlates positively with
employee engagement.
Table 6 Pearson-r Correlation Output
Correlations
SERVE
EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT
Pearson Correlation
.692**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
104
SERVE
Pearson Correlation
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
104
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
8.7. Trust
The coefficient of correlation between trust and employee engagement was determined
by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The servant leadership construct of trust was
significantly correlated with employee engagement (r=.58, P = 0.00, Table 7). The sixth
hypothesis was supported.
Hypothesis 6: The servant leader characteristic of trust correlates positively with
employee engagement.
Table 7 Pearson-r Correlation Output
Correlations
TRUST
EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT
Pearson Correlation
.581**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
104
TRUST
Pearson Correlation
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
104
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
8.8. Visionary
The coefficient of correlation between visionary and employee engagement was
determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The servant leadership construct of
visionary was significantly correlated with employee engagement (r=.54, P = 0.00, Table
8). The seventh hypothesis was supported.
Hypothesis 7: The servant leader characteristic of visionary correlates positively with
employee engagement.
Table 8 Pearson-r Correlation Output
Correlations
EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
VISION
EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT
Pearson Correlation
1
.535**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
104
104
VISION
Pearson Correlation
.535**
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
104
104
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
9. CONCLUSION
Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that servant leadership be
considered as an instrument to improve employee engagement. The Dennis and
Bocarnea (2005) Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument (SLAI) can provide
organizations with a method to assess their leadership and encourage training designed
to improve the leader’s tendencies to display agapao love, altruism, empowering,
humility, serving, trust, and visionary in their interactions with their followers. The Wiley
(2013) employee engagement assessment is also useful to gauge the level of
engagement in an organization.
Servant leadership and employee engagement are both emerging areas of research
and further research is recommended on both topics independently and together.
Recommendations for future research include adding industry to the survey
demographics to investigate the level of servant leaders and employee engagement in
different industries.
Further areas to consider would also include examining servant leadership and
employee engagement from a cultural perspective. It will be interesting to know if
certain cultures are more engaged than others naturally and if certain cultures have a
tendency to employ servant leaders than others.
10.0 REFERENCES
Berger, T. A. (2014). Servant Leadership 2.0: A Call for Strong Theory. Sociological
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Bhuvanaiah, T., & Raya, R. P. (2014). Employee Engagement: Key to Organizational
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http://www.cct.cuhk.edu.hk/stat/other/correlation.htm
Dennis, R. S., & Bocarnea, M. (2005). Development of the servant leadership
assessment instrument. Leadership and Organization Development Journal,
25(8), 600-615.
Gallup (2013). How Employee Engagement Drives Growth. Retrieved from
http://businessjournal.gallup.com/content/163130/employee-engagement-drives-
growth.aspx
Gallup (2014). Five Ways to Improve Employee Engagement Now. Retrieved from
http://businessjournal.gallup.com/content/166667/five-ways-improve-employee-
engagement.aspx
Giacalone, R. & Jurkiewicz, C. (2010). Handbook of workplace spirituality and
organizational performance. Armond, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Marques, J. (2010). Spiritual Considerations for Managers: What Matters Most to
Workforce Members in Challenging Times. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(3),
381-390. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0514-1
Patterson, K. (2003). Servant leadership: A theoretical model. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 64(02), 570. (Publication No. 3082719)
Vosloban, R. I. (2013). Employee Engagement Concept - A Theoretical and Practical
Approach. Contemporary Readings in Law & Social Justice, 5(2), 759-765.
Wiley, J. W. (2013). Using Employee Opinions about Organizational Performance to
Enhance Employee Engagement Surveys: Model Building and Validation. People
& Strategy, 36(4), 38-49.
Williams, F., & Monge, P. R. (2001). Reasoning with statistics: How to read quantitative
research. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers
Winston, B. (2002). Be a leader for God’s sake. Virginia Beach, VA: Regent University-
School of Leadership Studies.
11.0 AUTHOR PROFILE
Debra J. Dean is a student at Regent University. She is pursuing a Ph.D. in
Organizational Leadership. Her interests include (but are not limited to) cultural
dimensions, followership, and servant leadership. She has more than 18 years of
experience with a large, multi-national organization.
... This process is sweetly displayed as Mitroff and Denton performed the first qualitative study and other scholars (this is not an exhaustive list) such as Ashmos, Benefiel, Cedillo, Duchon, Fry, Geigle, Giacalone, Jurkiewicz, Miller, Nisiewicz, and Vitucci have extended the research over the past 20 years. For the purpose of this book chapter, the focus will be on three studies performed by Dean (2016Dean ( , 2017Dean ( , 2019. ...
... Based on the research conducted by Dean (2016Dean ( , 2017Dean ( , 2019 practical recommendations to develop a culture of soulful work for happy employees will be discussed in this section. To start, the variables for each project are listed in Table 6. ...
... However, the proof is in the research. Time and time again, empirical research shows that love is related to and can predict desirable work outcomes, as is the case in the research performed by Dean (2016Dean ( , 2017Dean ( , 2019. It was a number one predictor of employee engagement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. ...
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... When talking with employees in any organization Dean (2016Dean ( , 2017 likes to explain that workplace spirituality is important because it is the right thing to do. The more she researched this topic, she realized that her efforts merely validated what God had already documented in the Sacred Text. ...
... It may also cause absenteeism or high turnover. As a leader in the organization and a scholar, Dean (2016Dean ( , 2017 found herself asking what can she do to help nourish the soul at work and how can she help each employee find meaning and purpose in the time spent earning a paycheck. Workplace spirituality was the answer for her to help co-workers and others move from their job to their vocation and research shows that spirituality in the workplace can increase job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and other workplace outcomes. ...
... Shortly after the above deflating conversation, Dean went to a university about one hour from her home to present an article entitled "Employee Engagement and Servant Leadership" (Dean, 2016). While talking with the class, she was asked about her dissertation titled, "Religion and Spirituality in the Workplace: A Quantitative Evaluation of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment" (Dean, 2017). ...
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... Building upon Patterson's research, The Servant Leadership Assessment Index (SLAI) measures the constructs of agapo love, altruism, empowerment, humility, serving, trust, and vision (Dennis & Bocarnea, 2005). In a study with 128 participants, Dean (2016) found that each variable related to employee engagement and the one variable with the most predictive capacity was serving. The Servant Leadership Assessment Index is available by contacting Dennis and Bocarnea directly for permission to use their instrument. ...
... Love and leadership go hand-in-hand according to many scholars. Dean (2016) found that servant leadership variables of agapao love, altruism, empowerment, humility, serving, trust, and vision all correlated to employee engagement. Later, Dean (2017) found that spiritual leadership variables of altruistic love, sense of community, and meaningful work significantly predicted job satisfaction; meanwhile, altruistic love was also found to significantly predict organizational commitment. ...
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The research objective was to evaluate work outcomes of employee engagement, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational spirituality with independent variables from the Fruit of the Spirit including love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. The study was conducted with 176 employees. For statistical purposes, correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed with the data using IBM SPSS Statistics version 21. Based on the findings, the Fruit of the Spirit are beneficial to workplace outcomes of employee engagement, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational spirituality. Each of the nine fruits correlated to those four workplace outcomes, and specifically, this research found that love, kindness, and self-control can predict employee engagement; joy and gentleness can predict job satisfaction; love can predict organizational commitment; and love and peace can predict organizational spirituality.
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The recent global pandemic, COVID-19, has compelled the higher education sector to resort to virtual mode of teaching from the traditional methods of classroom teaching thereby causing a huge paradigm shift. In order to make online learning a more positive and meaningful learning experience teachers must resort to reflective teaching. Reflective teaching is a skilled procedure that requires teachers to take logical decisions on their own teaching pedagogy, actions and provide meaningful guidance to students for better learning outcomes. Conscious lean educational leadership can holistically transform and enhance the leadership aptitude and responsibilities of academic communities virtually. The purpose of this chapter is to integrate reflective teaching as an innovative strategy in virtual mode for the development of conscious lean educational leadership in higher education. The findings yield that conscious lean educational leadership can serve as a great means to boost teachers’ morale and enrich their understanding during worldwide crisis. Reflective teaching can assist teachers to effectively contribute to virtual academic workplace through online educational tools. This chapter complements to extant literature on the amalgamation of conscious lean educational leadership by exploring how reflective teaching can assist to achieve the desired organizational goals in the virtual academic workplace.
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Servant Leadership emphasizes the significance of the interaction between leaders and followers. It also gives consideration to the fact whether leaders are focused on nurturing, concerning and empathizing their followers. This study intends to inspect the influence of servant leadership on employee engagement. By using a structured questionnaire, the data has been collected from a sample of 150 employees in the Banking Sector.Both public and private banks of Bikaner district were covered. Judgmental sampling technique was utilized to pick the respondents. The data has been analyzed through factor analysis and linear regression. The finding of the study shows a significant positive influence of servant leadership on employee engagement.
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This chapter explores the way in which yogic principles influence leadership behavior and approaches. Current understandings of leader development have not incorporated principles of stillness as part of leadership evolution and growth, which leaves the door open for such an exploration. Using a combination of semi-structured personal interviews with individuals at the intersection of yoga and leadership, this inductive inquiry finds that yoga influences leadership in three primary ways: by transforming leadership into a humble service, by allowing leaders to display their humanity through example, and by encouraging leaders to tune in within themselves for better decision-making. This chapter opens the door on the discussion of consciously intertwining yogic practice and philosophical foundations for the benefit of leader development at the individual level.
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Purpose – Building upon Patterson's servant leadership theory, this study aims to present an instrument to measure the constructs of this working theory (identified as agapao love, humanity, altruism, vision, trust, service, and empowerment). Design/methodology/approach – Specifically, the seven component concepts, as defined by Patterson, were used to build items for a servant leadership instrument. This study used DeVellis' “Guidelines in Scale Development” to develop an instrument for Patterson's new theory of servant leadership. The participants for the study consisted of a stratified sample taken from the study response data base. The surveys were created, and administered, using an online survey using surveysuite. Findings – Three separate data collections were used for the development of this instrument reducing the 71-item scale to 42 items yielding five factors: empowerment, love, humility, trust, and vision. Research limitations/implications – Recommend that future research include surveys at companies and organizations that advocate servant leadership concepts. Future research should include how each gender influences some of these items. Practical implications – It is the intention that this instrument has the ability to predict or give measurement to the concepts of Patterson's theory of servant leadership so that a servant leader can measure his or her effectiveness as a servant leader. Originality/value – According to the review of the literature, this is the first instrument to measure five factors on servant leadership.
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A survey conducted among 50 members of the Los Angeles Workforce, all within the age range of 20–50years, and with a minimum of 2years of work experience and a minimum of 2years of college education, delivered results that may be of interest to managers in their efforts to enhance workers’ satisfaction and successfully transcend the challenges of these times. The focus of this study was on values that mattered most in challenging times to members of the workforces. The hypothesis that inner- and inter-human aspects would be considered more important than money and status in such times was highly supported, with values such as love and relationships, and positive motivation, in an overwhelming lead. While financial worries were undoubtedly considered, it was underscored that in times of trouble, employees reach inwardly and outwardly to inner-human and inter-human connectedness. Keywordsconnectedness-workforce-values-motivation-relationships-spirituality
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Regent University, 2003. Includes abstract. Includes bibliographical references.
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