Article

Did Queen Ankhesenamun (c. 1342 – after 1322 BC) have a goitre? Historico-clinical Reflections upon a paleo-pathographic study

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Book
Full-text available
A gripping analysis of the results of the groundbreaking imaging technology used to examine the royal mummies of the New Kingdom, by leading experts in the field The royal mummies in the Cairo Museum are an important source of information about the lives of the ancient Egyptians. The remains of these pharaohs and queens can inform us about their age at death and medical conditions from which they may have suffered, as well as the mummification process and objects placed within the wrappings. Using the latest technology, including Multi-Detector Computed Tomography and DNA analysis, co-authors Zahi Hawass and Sahar Saleem present the results of the examination of royal mummies of the Eighteenth to Twentieth Dynasties. New imaging techniques not only reveal a wealth of information about each mummy, but render amazingly lifelike and detailed images of the remains. In addition, utilizing 3D images, the anatomy of each face has been discerned for a more accurate interpretation of a mummy’s facial features. This latest research has uncovered some surprising results about the genealogy of, and familial relationships between, these ancient individuals, as well as some unexpected medical finds. Historical information is provided to place the royal mummies in context, and the book with its many illustrations will appeal to Egyptologists, paleopathologists, and non-specialists alike, as the authors seek to uncover the secrets of these most fascinating members of the New Kingdom royal families. Zahi Hawass is one of the world’s best known Egyptologists, former Egyptian minister of state for antiquities, and National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence. He is the author of many books on ancient Egypt, including Discovering Tutankhamun: From Howard Carter to DNA. Sahar Saleem, professor of radiology at Cairo University, is a Professor of Radiology specialized in advanced imaging technology with experience in paleoradiology.
Book
Full-text available
Gebundene Ausgabe: 288 Seiten Verlag: Koehler & Amelang; Auflage: 1., Aufl. (18. August 2011) Sprache: Deutsch ISBN-10: 3733803817 ISBN-13: 978-3733803810 Größe und/oder Gewicht: 21,6 x 14,2 x 2 cm Kundenbewertung bei Amazon: 5 von 5 Sternen Kurzbeschreibung Sind Nofretete und Echnaton die Eltern Tutanchamuns? Rätsel um den berühmtesten Pharao dank DNA-Analyse gelöst. Neue wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse über die schönste Königin der Welt. Ägyptische Familiengeheimnisse gelüftet. Wer waren die Eltern Tutanchamuns? Und wer war Nofretete? Seit der DNA-Analyse der Amarna-Mumien 2010 sind die Forscher dem Rätsel um die Familienverhältnisse Tutanchamuns einen großen Schritt nähergekommen. Die Analyse hat bewiesen, dass Echnaton als Vater von Tutanchamun identifiziert werden kann und dass Nofretete keine ausländische Prinzessin war. Diese Erkenntnis hat einschneidende Folgen für die Interpretation der ägyptischen Geschichte, die der Autor hier nachzeichnet. So entsteht ein lebendiges Bild der Amarna-Zeit und von Aufstieg und Untergang der beiden Regenten. Michael E. Habicht, geb. 1974, studierte Klassische Archäologie, Ägyptologie und prähistorische Archäologie an den Universitäten Zürich und Basel. Er hat sich auf das Neue Reich, die Königsgräber und Unterweltsbücher sowie auf die Zeit Echnatons, Nofretetes und Tutanchamuns spezialisiert. Preise: Deutschland einheitlich Euro 24.90
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to use MDCT to examine two mummies found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun to estimate their gestational ages at mummification, to determine the mummification method, and to investigate the congenital deformities of one of the mummies that had been suspected at previous medical examinations. MDCT was performed on the mummies of the daughters of King Tutankhamun (article numbers 317a and 317b), and the images were reconstructed and subjected to forensic imaging analysis. The gestational ages at mummification of mummies 317a and 317b were estimated to be approximately 24.7 and 36.78 weeks. The skeletal congenital anomalies of mummy 317b suggested at past radiographic analysis were ruled out. The results of this study may set a precedent for use of CT and forensic image analysis in the study of ancient mummified fetuses.
Article
Full-text available
The New Kingdom in ancient Egypt, comprising the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties, spanned the mid-16th to the early 11th centuries bc. The late 18th dynasty, which included the reigns of pharaohs Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, was an extraordinary time. The identification of a number of royal mummies from this era, the exact relationships between some members of the royal family, and possible illnesses and causes of death have been matters of debate. To introduce a new approach to molecular and medical Egyptology, to determine familial relationships among 11 royal mummies of the New Kingdom, and to search for pathological features attributable to possible murder, consanguinity, inherited disorders, and infectious diseases. From September 2007 to October 2009, royal mummies underwent detailed anthropological, radiological, and genetic studies as part of the King Tutankhamun Family Project. Mummies distinct from Tutankhamun's immediate lineage served as the genetic and morphological reference. To authenticate DNA results, analytical steps were repeated and independently replicated in a second ancient DNA laboratory staffed by a separate group of personnel. Eleven royal mummies dating from circa 1410-1324 bc and suspected of being kindred of Tutankhamun and 5 royal mummies dating to an earlier period, circa 1550-1479 bc, were examined. Microsatellite-based haplotypes in the mummies, generational segregation of alleles within possible pedigree variants, and correlation of identified diseases with individual age, archeological evidence, and the written historical record. Genetic fingerprinting allowed the construction of a 5-generation pedigree of Tutankhamun's immediate lineage. The KV55 mummy and KV35YL were identified as the parents of Tutankhamun. No signs of gynecomastia and craniosynostoses (eg, Antley-Bixler syndrome) or Marfan syndrome were found, but an accumulation of malformations in Tutankhamun's family was evident. Several pathologies including Köhler disease II were diagnosed in Tutankhamun; none alone would have caused death. Genetic testing for STEVOR, AMA1, or MSP1 genes specific for Plasmodium falciparum revealed indications of malaria tropica in 4 mummies, including Tutankhamun's. These results suggest avascular bone necrosis in conjunction with the malarial infection as the most likely cause of death in Tutankhamun. Walking impairment and malarial disease sustained by Tutankhamun is supported by the discovery of canes and an afterlife pharmacy in his tomb. Using a multidisciplinary scientific approach, we showed the feasibility of gathering data on Pharaonic kinship and diseases and speculated about individual causes of death.
Article
To the Editor-in-Chief,In a recent article published in this journal, Tekiner et al. [1] presented a most interesting example of retrospective diagnosis based on the recognition of a pathological trait in artistic representations. King Ariarathes IV Eusebes of Cappadocia is diagnosed with goitre using a coin minted in the 33rd year of his reign on whose obverse the king’s neck shows a dramatically enlarged anterior compartment. While the proposed diagnosis is undoubtedly correct and highly suggestive of thyroid pathology, we would like to point out that a stylized representation of the king’s traits may not be enough to venture into the field of aetiology. In particular, building on the fact that the coin was minted in 187 BC (after 33 years of reign) in Mazaka, the authors interestingly endeavour to establish a causal link between the location of the king’s new capital (i.e., Mazaka) and the development of the disease, since the region in question is mountainous, and almost as a rule, ...
Article
Pregnancy loss in women suffering from hyperthyroidism has been described in case reports, but the risk of pregnancy loss caused by maternal hyperthyroidism in a population is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal hyperthyroidism and pregnancy loss in a population-based cohort study. All pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 leading to hospital visits (n = 1,062,862) were identified in nationwide registers together with information on maternal hyperthyroidism for up to 2 years after the pregnancy [hospital diagnosis/prescription of antithyroid drug (ATD)]. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for spontaneous abortion (gestational age <22 weeks) and stillbirth (≥22 weeks), reference: no maternal thyroid dysfunction. When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed before/during the pregnancy (n = 5,229), spontaneous abortion occurred more often both in women treated before the pregnancy alone [aHR 1.28 (95% CI 1.18-1.40)] and in women treated with ATD in early pregnancy [1.18 (1.07-1.31)]. When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed and treated for the first time in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (n = 2,361), there was a high risk that the pregnancy under study had terminated with a stillbirth [2.12 (1.30-3.47)]. Both early (spontaneous abortion) and late (stillbirth) pregnancy loss were more common in women suffering from hyperthyroidism. Inadequately treated hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy may have been involved in spontaneous abortion, and undetected high maternal thyroid hormone levels present in late pregnancy may have attributed to an increased risk of stillbirth.
Article
Algunos personajes históricos han sufrido enfermedades endocrinológicas. Esta revisión relaciona aquellos cuyas enfermedades han sido publicadas en la literatura científica. Se realiza un breve apunte biográfico y se describe el proceso patológico en aquellos considerados más relevantes por la naturaleza de la enfermedad o la importancia del personaje en el ámbito español e iberoamericano: el faraón Akhenatón, Maximino I, Bodhidharma, Sancho I de León, Guillermo el Conquistador, Enrique IV de Castilla, Enrique VIII de Inglaterra, María Tudor, Carlos II de España, Pío Pico, Pedro II de Brasil, Eisenhower y J. F. Kennedy.
Article
Some historical figures have suffered endocrine diseases. This review relates those whose diseases have been published in the scientific literature. It takes a biographical summary and describes the disease process in those considered most relevant by the nature of the disease or the importance of the figure in the Spanish and Latin American context: the Pharaoh Akhenaten, Maximinus I, Bodhidharma, Sancho I of Leon, William the Conqueror, Enrique IV of Castile, Henry VIII, Mary Tudor, Carlos II of Spain, Pio Pico, Pedro II of Brazil, Eisenhower and J. F. Kennedy.
Article
Objective: Various physiological changes occur in maternal thyroid economy during pregnancy. This review focuses on the events taking place during gestation that together strongly influence maternal thyroid function. Methods: Scientific reports on maternal thyroid physiology in pregnancy. Results: During the 1st trimester, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induces a transient increase in free thyroxine (FT4) levels, which is mirrored by a lowering of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. Following this period, serum FT4 concentrations decrease of approximately 10 to 15%, and serum TSH values steadily return to normal. Also starting in early gestation, there is a marked increase in serum thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) concentrations, which peak around midgestation and are maintained thereafter. This event, in turn, is responsible for a significant rise in total T4 and triiodothyronine (T3). Finally, significant modifications in the peripheral metabolism of maternal thyroid hormones occur, due to the expression and activity of placental types 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinases (D2 and D3, respectively). Conclusion: In line with these variations, both free thyroid hormone and TSH reference intervals change throughout pregnancy, and most scientific societies now recommend that method- and gestation-specific reference ranges be used for interpreting results in pregnancy.The maternal iodide pool reduces during pregnancy because of increased renal clearance of iodine and transfer of iodine to the feto-placental unit. This results in an additional requirement of iodine during pregnancy of ~100% as compared to nonpregnant adults. In accordance, the recommended iodine intake in pregnancy is 250 μg/day. A daily iodine intake below this threshold poses risks of various degrees of thyroid insufficiency for both the mother and the fetus.
Ägyptens falscher Prophet. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern
  • N C Reeves
  • Echnaton
Reeves NC. Echnaton. Ägyptens falscher Prophet. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern; 2002.
The Search for Nefertiti. London: Hodder and Stroughton
  • J Fletcher
Fletcher J. The Search for Nefertiti. London: Hodder and Stroughton; 2004.
Tut-Ench-Amun. Leben und Tod eines Pharao. Frankfurt am Main: Ullstein
  • C Desroches-Noblecourt
Desroches-Noblecourt C. Tut-Ench-Amun. Leben und Tod eines Pharao. Frankfurt am Main: Ullstein; 1979.
The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt
  • A Dodson
  • D Hilton
Dodson A, Hilton D. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson; 2004.
American University of Cairo Press
Cairo: American University of Cairo Press; 2016.
Das Grab und seine Schätze. GmbH GLV, editor
  • Ies Edwards
  • Tutanchamun
Edwards IES. Tutanchamun. Das Grab und seine Schätze. GmbH GLV, editor. Bergisch Gladbach;
Queen Ankhesenamun with Goiter
  • E Martino
  • M Tacca
  • Del
Martino E, Tacca M Del. Queen Ankhesenamun with Goiter. J Edocrimol Invest. 2008;31: 583. 13.
  • M E Habicht
  • Nofretete Und Echnaton
Habicht ME. Nofretete und Echnaton: Das Geheimnis der Amarna-Mumien. Leipzig: Koehler + Amelang Gmbh; 2011.
Leben und Tod eines Pharao. Frankfurt am Main: Ullstein
  • C Desroches-Noblecourt
  • Tut-Ench-Amun
Desroches-Noblecourt C. Tut-Ench-Amun. Leben und Tod eines Pharao. Frankfurt am Main: Ullstein; 1979.
  • E Martino
  • M Tacca
  • Del
Martino E, Tacca M Del. Queen Ankhesenamun with Goiter. J Edocrimol Invest. 2008;31: 583.