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The aim of present study was to estimate the combining ability of five wheat genotypes viz; V-03138, V-04022, V-04189, PR-94 and 9247 crossed in 5 × 5 full diallel fashion during 2010-11. The five parents and twenty cross combinations were sown at research area of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during 2011-12 in randomized complete block design with three replications. At maturity, the date were recorded for plant height, tillers per plant, spike length, spikelets per spike, days to heading, days to maturity, seed index and grain yield per plant. Significant variability of combining ability estimates was observed for all traits. Higher SCA variance component was measured for most of the traits describing additive gene inheritance. Plant height showed non additive behavior and days to maturity was under control of cytoplasmic or extra nuclear genes inheritance presenting high variance component due to SCA and reciprocal effects, respectively. V-04022 possessed higher GCA estimates and proved to be best general combiner for most of the traits. Cross hybrids of V-03138 × V-04189 exhibited higher SCA for tillers per plant, days to maturity and spikelets per plant. Similarly, V-04189 × PR-94 had higher SCA values for days to heading, seed index and grain yield per plant. 9247 × V-04189 acquired high reciprocal effects followed by PR-94 × V-04022 and 9247 × V-04189 for most of the traits under study.
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American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 13 (9): 1239-1245, 2013
ISSN 1818-6769
© IDOSI Publications, 2013
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2013.13.09.11235
Corresponding Author: Ghazanfar Hammad, Vegetable Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute,
Faisalabad, Pakistan.
1239
Genetic Analysis of Quantitative Yield Related Traits in
Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Ghazanfar Hammad, Muhammad Kashif, Muneeb Munawar, Usman Ijaz,
1 2 11
Muhammad Muzaffar Raza, Muhammad Saleem and Abdullah
1 13
Vegetable Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan
1
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2
Wheat Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan
3
Abstract: The aim of present study was to estimate the combining ability of five wheat genotypes viz; V-03138,
V-04022, V-04189, PR-94 and 9247 crossed in 5 × 5 full diallel fashion during 2010-11. The five parents and
twenty cross combinations were sown at research area of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during 2011-12 in randomized complete block design with three
replications. At maturity, the date were recorded for plant height, tillers per plant, spike length, spikelets per
spike, days to heading, days to maturity, seed index and grain yield per plant. Significant variability of
combining ability estimates was observed for all traits. Higher SCA variance component was measured for most
of the traits describing additive gene inheritance. Plant height showed non additive behavior and days to
maturity was under control of cytoplasmic or extra nuclear genes inheritance presenting high variance
component due to SCA and reciprocal effects, respectively. V-04022 possessed higher GCA estimates and
proved to be best general combiner for most of the traits. Cross hybrids of V-03138 × V-04189 exhibited higher
SCA for tillers per plant, days to maturity and spikelets per plant. Similarly, V-04189 × PR-94 had higher SCA
values for days to heading, seed index and grain yield per plant. 9247 × V-04189 acquired high reciprocal effects
followed by PR-94 × V-04022 and 9247 × V-04189 for most of the traits under study.
Key words: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genetic Analysis Quantitative yield traits
INTRODUCTION 8.9 million hectares. The production of 23.5 million tons
Citadel of economy of Pakistan is based upon percent growth of last year’s production of 25.2 million
agriculture sector, which continues to be the single tons. This was due to fact that the sowing of the crop was
largest sector and a dominant driving force for the growth delayed due to standing water and other climatic factors.
and development of the national economy. Wheat Grain yield in wheat is a complex inherited character
(Triticum aestivum L.), “King of Cereals” plays pivotal and dependent upon several contributing factors,
role for large part of global population and is grown in affecting yield directly or indirectly. Breeding of crops for
almost all around the world. In Pakistan, considering main higher yields is essential for fulfilling the dietary demands
consumable crop and is ranked first among rice and maize of increasing population and it has become the primary
crops. The largest crop area in Pakistan is devoted to objective for wheat breeding. Wheat production can be
wheat and the quantity produced is more than that of any enhanced through development of improved genotypes
other crop. According to Economic Survey of Pakistan capable of producing better yield and resistant to different
2011-12 [1], wheat contributes 12.5 percent to the value biotic and abiotic stresses. For a successful breeding
added in agriculture and 2.6 percent to GDP. It was programme through diallel mating design the selection of
cultivated on an area of 8.6 million hectares, showing plants on the basis of their general and specific combining
a decrease of 2.6 percent over the last year’s area of abilities in a series of crosses and in a specific cross,
showing negative growth of 4.2 percent, as compare to, 11
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 13 (9): 1239-1245, 2013
1240
respectively, is a critical step. The yield and other yield research is the assessment of the combining ability
related traits under consideration help breeders in estimates for yield contributing attributes to their genetic
selecting good general and specific combiners among architecture determination in a group of wheat promising
germplasm. The knowledge of combining ability based lines contributed by breeders from all over the country.
upon diallel analysis provides information to breeders in
developing a successful hybridization programme. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The utilization of diallel analysis in wheat breeding is
an effective way to find out the genetic bases of grain The present study was carried out on five wheat
yield and related components and to identify good varieties i.e., V-03138, V-04022, V-04189, PR-94 and 9247 at
general combining parents. Genotypes possessing research area of the Department of Plant Breeding and
significant additive gene effects, or GCA variances and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Pakistan
non additive gene effects, or SCA variances [2, 3] for most during the crop season of 2010-11. The parents were
of the economic traits in wheat can be effectively utilized crossed in all possible combinations in full diallel mating
to make crosses for evolution of new wheat cultivars. fashion. The F along with their parents was sown at
Whereas, the significant reciprocal effects in the same location in a randomized complete block design
expression of grain yield and yield attributes also indicate with three replications during Rabi crop season of
the maternal influence or role of maternal parent in 2011-12. The experimental unit consisted of single row of
determining the phenotype of F and thus importance 5 meter length with row to row and plant to plant distance
1
of selecting the parents while making crosses [4]. 30 cm and 15 cm respectively. All cultural practices were
Non additive gene effects were more important while adopted carefully. At maturity, the metric data pertaining
selecting on the basis of grain weight per spike and to yield traits was recorded from selected guarded plants
harvest index [5]. Similar results were found by of each treatment and genotype.
Siddique et al. [6] for most of the yield attributing traits in Plant height was measured in centimeters by using
5 × 5 diallel cross analysis of wheat. Khan et al. [7] meter rod along the mother shoot of selected plant from
reported both additive and non additive gene effects ground level to tip of the spike excluding awns. Spike
controlling different plant parameters of wheat. Kashif and length was also calculated in centimeters and spkilets per
Khan [8] exhibited similar consequences while observing spike were counted from spike of selected main shoot of
non additive genetic base for all yield contributing guarded plants. Days to heading and days to maturity
traits in combining ability study of wheat genotypes. were observed from sowing date to 50 % heading and
Seboka et al. [9] described the predominance of physiological maturity respectively. Tillers per plant were
non-additive gene effects for plant height, harvest index, counted from selected plants of each treatment and
grain yield per plant, 1000 kernels weight and maturity genotype. 1000-grain weight was observed by electric
traits of eight genotype’s half diallel analysis study in balance (Model QUA-606) in grams for seed index
contrast with Topal et al. [10] that advocated the determination. Grain yield per plant was determined at
dominant GCA effects of 1000 grains weight and exhibited harvesting on weight basis with the help of electronic
the additive nature of this trait. Joshi et al. [11] showed balance (Model QUA-606) for each replication and
the predominance of additive gene effects for most of treatment.
yield traits in ten parent half diallel cross of hexaploid Average data collected for all traits were subjected to
wheat and were in strong agreements of Mahpara et al. analysis of variance according to Steel et al. [15] to sort
[12] depicting addictive inheritance due to greater out significant mean differences among parents and F
magnitude of than for all the traits except for plant cross combinations. Data of those traits which showed
2g 2s
height and grain yield per plant. Çifci and Ya di [13] also significant genotypic differences were further analyzed in
explained that non-additive gene effects play a major role full diallel matting technique, proposed by Griffing
on the heredity of yield contributing traits in wheat. approach Method I, Model II [16] to compute combining
Additive and dominance gene action was exhibited by ability estimates.
some morphological traits of wheat presented by
Kamaluddin et al. [14]. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The present study has been planned to screen out
genotypes with better performance for major yield This study presented in this dissertation described
contributing traits. Another main objective of present significant genetic variability (P ~ 0.01) among five wheat
1
1
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varieties and their F1 hybrids for all yield traits under variance component due to GCA (1.90) and Reciprocal
study (Table 3.1). Significant variation for general effects (3.10) indicated the presence of non additive gene
combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) action for plant height. These results are in agreement
and reciprocal effects presented in Table 3.2 illustrated the with those obtained by Li et al. [17] Asad et al. [18] and
presence of additive as well as non additive gene actions Rasal et al. [27] and in contrary to Mishra et al. [19], who
among all genotypes. The variance components described non additive gene action for plant height due to
(Table 3.3) described that all the traits, except plant height significant variance owing to SCA than GCA effects.
and days to maturity were under additive gene control V-04189 proved good general combiner with values
acquiring higher estimates of variance owing to GCA than of 2.30 followed by V-04022 (0.15) (Table 4.1). Cross
SCA and reciprocal effects. Plant height showed non combination V-03138 × V-04022 showed highest SCA
additive behavior with greater SCA variance, whereas, effects of 3.86 followed by the cross V-04189 × PR-94
higher reciprocal effects were observed in days to (2.18). Among ten direct crosses, only one cross V-04022
maturity that depicted the inheritance of Cytoplasmic or × 9247 gave negative SCA effects of -0.447 (Table 4.2).
extra nuclear genes for this trait. The perusal of table 4.3 described that parent PR-94
Among parents, V-04022 proved to be best general showed maximum reciprocal effects of 4.52 in cross
combiner for traits like days to heading, days to maturity, with V-04022. Among ten crosses, only one cross 9247 ×
spike length, spikelets per spike and seed index. Whereas, V-04189 showed negative value (-0.52) for reciprocal
V-04189, PR-94 and V-03138 showed higher general effects. These results are in accordance with the findings
combining ability values for plant height, tillers per plant of Chowdhry et al. [2], Ajmal et al. [20] and Arshad and
and grain yield per plant respectively (Table 4.1). Cross Chowdhry [21].
combinations of V-03138 × V-04189 and V-04189 × PR-94,
presented in Table 4.2, obtained top position with higher Tillers per Plant: Tillers per plant have direct effect on
specific combining ability estimates for traits like tillers per grain yield. Plant with more tillers contributes positively
plant, days to maturity and spikelets per plant, days to in grain yield per plant. On viewing analysis of variance in
heading, seed index and grain yield per plant respectively. Table 3.1 and of combining ability in Table 3.2 described
Higher specific combining ability estimates for plant the significant differences for tillers per plant as well as
height and spike length were displayed by hybrids of GCA, SCA and reciprocal effects. The greater magnitude
V-03138 × V-04022 and V-04022 × PR-94 respectively. of variance component due to GCA effects (0.071) than
Similarly, 9247 × V-04189 acquired high ranking of the SCA (-0.13) and reciprocal (0.070) effects (Table 3.3)
reciprocal effects for tillers per plant, days to heading and indicated that mainly additive genetic control was
grain yield per plant. PR-94 × V-04022 and 9247 × V-04189 involved in the control of this trait. These results
were at same place possessing higher reciprocal effects resembled with the findings of Chowdhry et al. [22].
for plant height, spike length, days to maturity and seed While Chowdhry et al. [2] and Khan et al. [7] illustrated
index respectively. V-04189 × V-04022 showed higher that non-additive genes were pronounced in this trait.
reciprocal values for only one trait (Table 4.3). Maximum GCA effects of 0.38 and 0.26 were
Combining Ability Analysis Table 4.1, respectively. The rest of the genotypes,
Plant Height: Plant height is important yield trait, it V-04022 (-0.03), 9247 (-0.26) and V-04189 (-0.35) showed
directly affects plant yield. It is most dependable variable negative GCA effects. 40% of the cross combinations
trait and after green revolution, short stature plants were exhibited positive SCA effects led by the hybrid V-03138
preferred in varietal development, because short stature × V-04189 (0.37). The cross 9247×V-04189 showed high
plants are resistant to lodging and more responsive to reciprocal effects of 0.97, whereas, only three hybrids
fertilizers. Analysis of variance (Table 3.1) revealed highly among the ten cross combinations exhibited negative
significant results among parents and cross combinations. reciprocal effects for tillers per plant.
Analysis of variance for combining ability also revealed
the significant mean squares due to general combining Days to Heading: Short duration wheat varieties are the
ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects need of present and the knowledge about the inheritance
and their reciprocal effects (Table.3.2). The higher of this trait will help the breeders to find out genotypes
variance component owing to SCA effects was 8.39 than with less time to heading days from planting date that will,
displayed by the genotypes PR-94 and V-03138 in
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1242
ultimately, result in evolution of early maturing and short (Table 3.3). These additive effects of spike length were in
duration wheat varieties. Analysis of variance described confirmation with Chowdhry et al. [22] and Gorjanovic
the significant mean differences for all genotypes. Mean and Balalic [5]. While, the findings of Saeed et al. [25] and
squares of combining ability showed highly significant Hasnain et al. [26] were in against as they observed high
GCA, SCA and reciprocal effects (Table 3.2). The GCA SCA effects for this trait.
components of variance were predominant (0.79) over The best general combiners for spike length were
SCA (-0.45) and reciprocal effects (0.42), which was an V-04022 and PR-94 (Table 4.1). Eight out of ten hybrids
indication of additive genetic control of this trait indicated positive SCA effects ranging from 0.01 to 0.49,
(Table 3.3). maximum value being displayed by V-04022 × PR-94
Table 4.1 displayed that V-04189 stood first among (Table 4.2). The cross PR-94 × V-04022 showed highest
the five genotypes with high GCA effects of 0.858 closely positive reciprocal effects of 0.50 among the ten hybrids
followed by V-04022 with value of 0.77. V-04022 × 9247 (Tale 4.3).
showed high SCA effects (Table 4.2) of 1.16 among 6
direct crosses displaying positive SCA effects. Similarly, Spikelets per Spike: More number of spikelets per spike
9247 ×V-04189 showed high reciprocal effects of 1.56 is also a desirable trait in wheat breeding. Spike with more
illustrated in Table 4.3. spikelets boosts up the gain yield of crop. The analysis of
Days to Maturity: Like days to heading days, days to highly significant effects for spikelets per spike. Variance
maturity also an important trait in wheat breeding components owing to GGA effects were above 0.24 over
programme. Early and late maturing varieties have a great SCA (-0.07) and reciprocal effects (-0.02) indicating the
impact on yield of the crop and genotypes with early additive behavior of inheritance for the trait under
maturing ability are desirable for breeders. Analysis of investigation (Table 3.3). Similar results were predicted by
variance (Table 3.2) represented that mean squares of Rasal et al. [27] and Mahpara et al. [12]. Whereas, Kashif
GCA, SCA and reciprocal effects for days to maturity were and Khan [8] Asad et al. [18] and Gorjanovic et al. [28]
highly significant. Variance components owing to GCA showed non-additive type of gene action for this trait.
(0.80) and SCA (-0.60) effects were much lower than Table 4.1 displayed that high positive GCA effects
reciprocal effects (1.26) indicated the inheritance of were determined in the genotypes V-04022 (0.76) and
cytoplasmic or extr a nuclear genes in the control of t he V-03138 (0.24). Whereas the genotypes 9247 (-0.14), PR-94
trait under study (Table 3.3). The results are not in (-0.27) and V-04189 (-0.59) displayed negative GCA
agreement with the findings of Saeed et al. [23] and effects. 70% of the direct crosses showed positive SCA
Javed et al. [24]. values while 30% of crosses had negative SCA values.
The data presented in Table 4.1 showed that the line Maximum SCA effects of 0.34 were calculated in the cross
V-04022 was good general combiner due to high GCA V-03138 × V-04189 (Table 4.2). In case of reciprocal effects
effects of 1.18 and the second best line was V-04189 (Table 4.3) the ratio of positive to negative values was of
(0.72). While the remaining three genotypes V-03138 50% and the highest value was achieved by the hybrid
(-1.15), PR-94 (-0.67) and 9247 (-0.08) displayed negative V-04189 × V-04022 (0.50).
GCA effects for days to maturity. Among crosses V-03138
× V-04189 showed high SCA effects of 1.16 and PR-94 × Seed Index: Significant variability in seed index/ grain
V-04189 showed high reciprocal effects of 2.28 followed weight is essential for breeder to sort out genotypes with
by PR-94 × V-04022 of 2.06 (Table 4.2 & 4.3). superior grain weight that result in higher grain yield.
Spike Length: Spike length is an imperative yield significant mean squares for GCA, SCA and reciprocal
component, as high spike length possesses more number effects. GCA effects (1.05) were predominant over SCA
of spikelets that usually increase the grain yield. GCA, effects (0.24) representing additive genetic control for this
SCA and reciprocal effects in table 3.2 displayed highly trait in the genotypes. These results were in accordance
significant results for spike length. The higher GCA with the findings of Mahmood and Chowdhry [29] and
magnitude of variance (0.23) as compared to SCA (0.10) Chowdhry et al. [22] than Li et al. [17] and Asad et al. [18]
concluded the additive type of gene control of this trait that showed non-significant SCA effects for this trait.
variance (Table 3.2) for combing ability effects predicted
Mean squares of combining ability (Table 3.2) showed
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Table 3.1: Analysis of variance for yield and yield traits of wheat in a 5 × 5 diallel cross analysis
SOV D.F. Plant height Tillers per plant Days to heading Days to maturity Spike length Spikelets per plants Seed index Grain yield per plant
Replication 2 37.35 6.15 0.01 3.54 0.45 0.80 1.87 32.57
ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
Genotypes 24 43.29** 1.09** 8.87** 9.99** 1.73** 1.71** 11.52** 15.70**
Error 48 8.38 0.83 4.78 3.55 0.32 0.68 3.23 6.96
ns= non significance **= significant at =0.01
Table 3.2: Combining ability analysis for yield and yield traits of wheat in a 5 × 5 diallel cross analysis.
SOV D.F. Plant height Tillers per plant Days to heading Days to maturity Spike length Spikelets per plants Seed index Grain yield per plant
GCA 4 21.78** 0.99** 9.53** 9.14** 2.41** 2.65** 11.58** 15.85**
SCA 10 16.89** 0.06** 0. 84** 0.17** 0.28** 0.12** 1.48** 0.63**
Reciprocals 10 9.04** 0.42** 2.44** 3.71** 0.14** 0.19** 3.10** 1.59**
Error 48 2.79 0.28 1.59 1.18 0.11 0.23 1.08 2.32
**= significant at =0.01
Table 3.3: Components of variance for yield and yield traits of wheat in 5 × 5 diallel analysis
Variance Components Plant height Tillers per plant Days to heading Days to maturity Spike length Spikelets per plants Seed index Grain yield per plant
GCA 1.90 0.071 0.79 0.80 0. 23 0.24 1.05 1. 35
SCA 8.39 -0.13 -0.45 -0.60 0.10 -0.07 0. 24 -1.00
Reciprocals 3.12 0.07 0.42 1.26 0.02 -0.02 1.01 -0.37
Table 4.1: Assessment of general combining ability for yield and yield traits of wheat in 5 × 5 diallel analysis
Parents Plant height Tillers per plant Days to heading Days to maturity Spike length Spikelets per plants Seed index Grain yield per plant
V-03138 -1.79 0.26 -0.68 -1.15 -0.51 0. 24 0.34 0.71
V-04022 0.15 -0.03 0.77 1.18 0.54 0.76 1.12 0.21
V-04189 2.30 -0.35 0.86 0.72 -0.41 -0.59 -1.45 -1.25
PR-94 -0.31 0.38 0.42 - 0.67 0.48 - 0.27 0.76 0.45
9247 -0.35 -0.26 -1.36 -0.08 -0.10 -0.14 -0.76 -0.12
Table 4.2: Assessment of specific combining ability for yield and yield traits of wheat in 5 × 5 diallel analysis
Crosses Plant height Tillers per plant Days to heading Days to maturity Spike length Spikelets per plants Seed index Grain yield per plant
V-03138 × V-04022 3.86 -0. 13 0.37 0.48 -0.10 0.07 -0.97 -0.35
V-03138 × V-04189 0.68 0.37 1.00 1.16 0.13 0.34 0.35 0.45
V-03138 × PR-94 0.80 -0.15 0.16 -0.48 0.04 - 0.07 -0.07 -0.10
V-03138 × 9247 1.23 0. 04 -0.73 -0.30 0.42 - 0.03 0.91 0.32
V-04022 × V-04189 0.88 -0. 07 -0.56 -0.61 0.15 0.16 -0.47 0.45
V-04022 × PR-94 0.66 0. 21 -0.27 0.28 0.49 0.08 0.72 -0.58
V-04022 × 9247 -0.45 0.14 1.16 0.03 0.01 0.04 1. 15 0.82
V-04189 × PR-94 2.18 -0.06 -0. 01 -0.38 0.31 0.09 1.02 -0.13
V-04189 × 9247 0.07 -0.11 0.001 0.09 -0.14 -0.45 -0.41 -0.71
PR-94 × 9247 1.66 -0.10 0.01 0.30 0.03 0.07 -1.40 0.59
Table 4.3: Assessment of reciprocal effects for yield and yield traits of wheat in 5 × 5 diallel analysis
Crosses Plant height Tillers per plant Days to heading Days to maturity Spike length Spikelets per plants Seed index Grain yield per plant
V-04022 × V-03138 1.94 0.08 -0.50 -0.33 -0.30 -0.57 0. 09 -1.17
V-04189 × V-03138 0.02 0.50 0.001 -1.89 -0.17 -0.43 0.04 0. 17
V-04189 × V-04022 0.96 0.77 -1.33 -1.11 0.35 0.50 -2.46 1.33
PR-94 × V-03138 3.37 0.43 1.28 0.03 -0.01 0.001 -0.24 0.001
PR-94 × V-04022 4.52 0.17 -0.04 2.06 0.50 0.27 0.32 0.001
PR-94 × V-04189 1.84 -0.08 0.11 2.28 -0.07 -0.20 2.35 0.67
9247 × V-03138 1.51 -0.08 0.40 -0.12 0.12 -0.08 1.25 -0 .17
9247 × V-04022 0.18 0.13 0.72 0.67 -0.09 -0.17 1.44 0.50
9247 × V-04189 -0.52 0.97 1.56 0.89 0.36 0.13 -0.38 1.83
9247 × PR-94 0.22 -0. 23 -2.33 -1.72 0.28 0.17 -0.18 0. 83
The perusal of Table 4.1 revealed that higher positive (1.44). While, PR-94 × V-03138 (-0.24), 9247 × V-04189
GCA effects were obtained by V-04022 (1.12) followed by (-0.38) and V-04189 × V-04022 (-2.46) hybrids showed
PR-94 (0.76) and V-03138 (0.34). The hybrid V-04022 × 9247 negative reciprocal effects.
(1.15) had maximum positive SCA effects. On the other
hand the cross PR-94 × 9247 indicated worst negative Grain Yield per Plant: Grain yield in crop improvement is
(-1.40) SCA effects. The cross combination PR-94 × ultimate objective of any breeding programme. Analysis
V-04189 (2.35) showed high positive reciprocal effects of variance Table 3.1 highly significant differences were
followed by 9247 × V-03138 (1.25) and 9247 × V-04022 observed among the genotypes, on further analysis of
Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 13 (9): 1239-1245, 2013
1244
combining ability effects in Table 3.2; significant variation 5. Gorjanovi , B. and M.K. Balali , 2004. Genetic
for GCA, SCA and reciprocal effects. Higher variance of
GCA effects with a magnitude of 1.35 over SCA (-1.00)
and reciprocal effects (-0.37) revealed that additive
gene action was strictly observed by the genotypes.
The results were in conformation with those obtained by
Mishra et al. [19]and Arshad and Chowdhry [21].
Table 4.1 indicated that V-03138 had positive GCA
effects of 0.713 and was good general combiner followed
by PR-94 (0.45) and V-04022 (0.21). On observing the SCA
effects (Table 4.2) 50% of the hybrids exhibited positive
effects ranging from 0.820 (V-04022 × 9247) to 0.320
(V-03138 × 9247) and other 50% indicated negative effects
ranging from -0.713 (V-04189 × 9247) to -0.01 (V-03138 ×
PR-94). Table 4.3 illustrated that the cross 9247 × V-04189
had maximum reciprocal effects of 1.83 followed by two
other hybrids 9247 × PR-94 (0.83) and PR-94 ×V-04189
(0.67).
CONCLUSIONS
Considerable genetic variability exists in wheat
genotypes for yield improvement. Both additive and non
additive gene action is involved in expression of yield and
yield components. Parental effects play important role in
expression of days to maturity. Parents showing high
GCA values can be used in future breeding to develop
high yielding cultivars.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am thankful to Department of Plant Breeding and
Genetic, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan to
provide the financial support for this study.
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... Parent among lines Sahar-06 having greater positive GCA with the value of (1.09) and out of three 2 male parents having positive GCA (Table 5). Similar studies have also been discussed by Majeed et al., (2011) andHammad et al., (2013). Among crosses, 9867 × AARI-11 had highest and positive SCA effects (0.71) followed by 9966 × BARAS-09 (0.52). ...
... The best specific combiner for spike length was 9867 × AARI-11 among all crosses (Table 6). Similar results were reported by Singh et al., (2013), and Hammad et al., (2013), Ahmed et al., (2017) for spike length. ...
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Combining ability was estimated by using line × tester analysis. For all the characters under study the analysis of variance showed highly significant difference between genotypes. For number of tillers per plant, spike length, Sahar-06 proved to be good general combiner the female parent, while the other female parent Pasban-90 illustrated positive general combining ability for traits like days to maturity, days to heading and grain yield/plant. It is concluded that significant variation exists among genotypes and cross combinations. According to the GCA and SCA effects the lines/varieties Sahar-06, Pasban-90 and Galaxy-13 are potential general combiner and prove beneficial to generate desirable combinations. The crosses like Sahar-06 × Galaxy-13 and 9869 × AARI-11 showed desirable SCA effects for yield and most of its components. This may yield transgressive segregates in the subsequent generations which can be selected and improved further to evolve high yielding wheat genotypes.
... (Table 6). Similar results were reported Majeed et al., (2011), Singh et al., (2013, Hammad et al., (2013) and Ahmed et al., (2017) for stomata size. The findings of Saeed et al., (2005) and Khan et al., (2018) were not similar. ...
... The best specific combiner for No. of spikelets/spike was 9863 × Chakwal-86 among other crosses. Similar results were reported by Cifci and Yagdi, (2010), Hammad et al. (2013) Singh et al., (2013) Khan et al., (2018 for No. of spikelets/spike. ...
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The experiment was performed for the genetic study of wheat under normal field condition using line × tester analysis. Eighteen F1 hybrids along with nine parents were sown in RCB Design. The characters observed include stomata frequency, stomata size, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight. The hybrid 9861 × Chakwal-86 was the best specific combiner for stomata frequency. The cross combination 9862 × Punjab-11 proved the best specific combiner for stomata size. The hybrid 9860 × Chakwal-86 was the best specific combiner for a number of grains per spike. The cross 9864 × Miraj-08 was proved as a best specific combiner for traits like a number of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight. The crosses showing desirable SCA effects for yield and most of its components may yield transgressive segregants in the subsequent generations which can be selected to evolve high yielding wheat genotypes.
... Pakistan is the sixth-largest consumer of wheat worldwide [1]. Wheat is known as a reliable and inexpensive source of fibre, proteins, vitamins and minerals [2]. Their quality and quantity largely depend upon the genotype, environment, and their mutual interaction [3]. ...
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One hundred and five (105) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes, including five commercial checks, were screened for stripe rust resistance at seedling and adult plant stages. Seedlings grown under controlled conditions were screened for disease resistance after 12 days concerning disease incidence percentage after inoculation. K-means cluster analysis divided the genotypes into five different classes according to the presence of virulence/avirulence profile, i.e., class 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. The same set of genotypes was grown under field conditions for adult plant resistance. Data for disease scoring and different yield and yield-related parameters was recorded. A comparison of breeding lines indicated that all studied traits were negatively affected by disease incidence. Further cluster analysis ranked the genotypes into three distinct groups with Group I and III being the most diverse. Thirteen stripe rust resistance lines were identified using seedling and adult plant resistance strategies. Correlation analysis indicated a negative association between stripe rust incidence and yield and yield-related traits, particularly grains per spike, grain weight per spike, thousand-grain weight, and grain yield per plant. These findings suggested that stripe rust resistance negatively affects yield and yield related traits. The breeding programs aiming at the development of high yielding varieties must also focus on stripe rust resistance.
... Significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) was observed among accessions for 1000 grain weight, accession KPAS3 recorded the heaviest 1000 GW of 0.53 g, and the least accessions in terms of grain weight were EYAS5 and NFAS4 which recorded the same grain weight of 0.51 g. e effect of location on 1000-grain weight of Fonio was not significant (P > 0.05), so was the interaction effect of location and Fonio accession on 1000 grain weight. e grand mean for 1000 grain weight was 0.52 g, and this falls within the finding of Nyam et al. [18] who recorded 1000 grain weight between 0.51 g and 0.75 g. e results are also in line with the report of Hammad et al. [19], where they recorded variability among Fonio genotypes for 1000 grain weight. ese diversities observed among Fonio genotypes across its production zones can be exploited through selection of genotypes with superior grain weight for improvement. ...
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Background and Objective. Fonio is categorized as one of the neglected, under-utilized, or orphan crops of West Africa due to its poor yields and inadequate research information for its improvement and use. The need to improve the agronomic traits of this crop and also explore the possibility of growing it in different agroecologies has been felt over the years. A study was therefore conducted during the 2019 cropping season to determine variations among Fonio accessions and also assess the influence of genotype/accession, location, and genotype x location on growth and total grain yield of Fonio. Materials and Methods. Five accessions of the crop were planted in two locations in northern Ghana (Guinea and Sudan savannah) and replicated three times using factorial experiment in randomized complete block design. Results. The study indicated significant (P<0.05) variations among accessions for most of the attributes measured. Accession OUSAI with 75 days to physiological maturity (DPHM) recorded highest grain yield of 1015.10 kg/ha, and NFAS4 with 98 DPHM recorded the least grain yield of 713.23 kg/ha. The most lodged accession was OUAS1 which recorded 65% lodging of its total plant population, and the least lodged accessions (NFAS4 and EYAS5) recorded about 10% lodging each. Conclusion. The results demonstrated a significant (P<0.05) diversity among the accessions used in the study and influence of genotype/accession x location on growth and total grain yield of Fonio.
... Jain and Sastry, [8] and Adel and Ali, [9] also observed significant difference in their study in wheat.The  2 SCA was considerably higher than their corresponding  2 GCA for all the characters in all the three environments except for plant height in E 1 and E 3 (Table 1), which indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of these traits except for plant height in E 1 and E 3 . Preponderance of non-additive variance in the expression of different traits in wheat have also been reported Desale and Mehta, [10]; Hammad et al. [11]. ...
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Combining ability analysis for morph-physiological and grain yield traits was performed using ten selected parents in half diallel to develop forty five crosses were tested during Rabi 2016-17. Across the environments mean squares due to GCA × E and SCA × E were significant for grain filling period, flag leaf length, flag leafwidth, flag leaf area, peduncle length, total number of tillers plant-1, number of productive tillersplant-1, spike length, number of spikelet’s spike-1, spike weight productive tillers-1, grain weightspike-1, biological yield plant-1, economic yield plant-1, harvest index, protein content, prolinecontent, heat injury index and leaf canopy temperature. In addition to above traits, mean square due to GCA × E was also significant for days to 50 % flowering, days to maturity and test weightrevealed influence of environment on GCA. The s2 SCA was considerably higher than theircorresponding s2 GCA for all the characters in all the three environments except for plant height inE1 and E3, which indicated preponderance of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of thesetraits except for plant height in E1 and E3. The estimates of general combining ability effects indicated that parents NIDW-295, and HI 8498 were good general combiners for grain yield plant-1 and most of components along with heat tolerance characters. The SCA effects for grain yield plant-1 were significantly positive for 16 crosses in pool. Crosses PDW-233 × PDW-314, HI-8737 × HI-8498, PDW-274× PDW-291, NIDW-295 × PDW-274 and Raj-1555 × PDW-274 in pooled had maximum SCA. All these crosses were also having significant SCA effects for one or more components and heat tolerant characters indicate their genetic worth for these characters in respective environments.
... Pakistan is one of the largest wheat producing countries of the world. The geometrical increase in Pakistan population has been a challenge for agricultural scientists (Hammad et al., 2013). To feed burgeoning population of Pakistan, there is a dire need to improve wheat genotypes having high yield potential. ...
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... This result shows that VL 3017 and VL 892 could be most promising parent having good general combiner for grain yield and others yield contributing characters. This type of result corroborated with result of Hammad (2013) [5] and Desale (2014) [3] and Dedaniya et al. (2019) [2] . ...
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This study was carried out in Andro Research Farm, CAU, Imphal to study diallel analysis of yield and its important components in 10 genotype of wheat during two consecutive rabi season 2017-2019. All the 10 genotype and their 45 F1's cross combination exhibited significant difference in characters under study Combining ability analysis showed that both gca and sca variances value were highly significant for most of traits studied in F1 progenies which suggest importance of both additive as well as non-additive genetic components for the expression of characters under study. VL 3017 was found good general combiner for the characters like fifty percent flowering, days to eighty percent maturity, plant height, total number of tillers per hill, total number of spikelets per spike, spike length, total number of filled grains per spike and grain yield per plant. Among all 45 crosses, cross combination VL 3018 x HS 490 and VL 892 x UP 3017 were good specific combiners for the grain yield per plant character in F1 generation. Introduction Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest and most important cereal crops in the world. It is an allohexaploid (2n=6x=42, AABBDD). Wheat belongs to tribe Triticeae (Hordeae) under family Poaceae and genus is Triticum. In an effective breeding programme diallel analysis is an important tool to identify parents with better potential to transmit desirable characteristics to its progenies and to identify the best specific crosses for yield and various quality parameters. We should keen on selection of right parent for effective hybridisation as well as good knowledge of estimating genetic component of variation and their proportion. One of best method for complete information on nature and magnitude of comes through diallel observation. Here the combining ability analysis used as a tool which gives us all the information of genetic mechanism that influence the quantitative and qualitative traits and helped in selection of suitable genotype in hybrid combination for the commercial reason. The Study revealed that both gca and sca was significant therefore there was importance of both additive as well as non-additive gene effects in the inheritance of characters (Dinesh and Kerkhi 2015) [1]. Keeping this in view, the present study was carried out with two objectives one is to study the gene action of the yield and its important components in wheat and second is to estimate the genetic components of variance for grain yield and its components in wheat.
... While among crosses 9737 × Kohistan-97 was recorded as greatest mean yield/plant among crosses (F1) while lowest mean yield per plant was found in 9739 ×Chakwal-86. General combining ability (GCA) effects Number of fertile tillers per plant: Number of fertile/productive tillers is good indication for high yield as it can increase the number of spikes that lead to increase number of grains that will ultimately increase production (Hammad et al., 2013;Uzair et al., 2016). Genotype 9739, 9740 and Chakwal_50 were performed best among parents under drought as well as in normal irrigation conditions. ...
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Wheat is one of the leading cereal crops of the world. Being a staple food in Pakistan it gains more consideration by the specialists. With the increasing population and fluctuation in climatic conditions, it requires more attention to save people from hunger. Drought is one of the yield threatening stress in wheat crop and alarming for food security. In developing countries where water resources are not satisfied according to the crop requirement, drought tolerant/resistant genotypes are key to feed people. Although MAS selection and other advances in molecular breeding are done widely to compete with such stresses but still it is not contributing efficiently so breeding efforts should be emphasized to cope with drought stressed areas. Hence, there is a need to do genetic improvement through advanced breeding efforts and evaluation of best performing genotypes to get new hybrid/variety by combining their genetic potential in a proper way. By developing specific crosses and selection through proper breeder's eye, genetic variability can be created for best executing genotypes that will also increase our germplasm. In wheat crop, genetic gain has been successfully brought out through breeding efforts by the breeders. The present research is done to gain genetic variability by combining alleles through hybridization and analyze yield contributing traits under drought stress and normal environment to select the yield boosting genotypes for this stress. Yield influencing traits are evaluated and ultimately exploitation of best genotype is done based on difference of performance and adaptability of genotypes under normal and stressed conditions.
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Choice of promising genotypes from a diverse genetic base and subsequent utilization forhybridization is one of the strategies for improving productivity of bread wheat. The data from eight parents and their F1 progenies of half-diallel crosses were analyzed for combining ability for yield and yield related traits in triplicate randomized complete block design in 2005 at Sinana, south-east Ethiopia. Significant differences among all the genotypes were apparent for all traits, except for biomass per plant. Both GCA and SCA mean squares revealed significant differences in plant height, harvest index, grain yield per plant, 1000-kernel weight and maturity traits, indicating the important of both additive and non-additive gene actions in the inheritance of these traits with the predominant effect of non-additive gene action. For the remaining traits, only mean square due to GCA showed significant variation, indicating the greater importance of additive gene action in controlling the inheritance of these characters. Abola gave highly significant GCA effects in the desirable direction and was the best general combiner for most of the traits, followed by Galema and Sofumer, while Dashen was the only parent which showed significant positive GCA effect for grain yield per plant. Cross combinations of Dashen x Galema, Abola x Dure, Dashen x Meda-Welabu, Abola x Galema, and Galema x Dure, exhibited significant SCA effects in the desired direction for at least two and, at most, for four traits, for which SCA variance showed significant differences. Hence, these crosses revealed possibility for commercial exploitation of heterosis as well as selection of potential homozygous lines from transgressive segregants for improvement of yield levels of bread wheat. Keywords: Combining Ability; Diallel Cross; GCA; SCA; Triticum aestivum *Corresponding author. E-mail: hseboka@yahoo.com ©Haramaya University, 2009 ISSN 1992-0407
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Six wheat genotypes (three each females and males) were crossed for the study of some morpho-physiological traits. Kohistan-97 and MH- 97 showed the highest negative GCA effects for epidermal cell size and stomata size, respectively. Highest positive GCA estimates for number of tillers per plant, number of grains per spike and grain yield per plant were obtained in Chakwal-86, while Barani-83 showed highest positive GCA effects for flag leaf area. Hybrid Kohistan-97 x MH-97 exhibited negative SCA effects for stomata size and epidermal cell size. Cross combination Kohistan-97 x Pasban-90 showed highest positive SCA effects for number of tillers per plant, number of grains per spike and grain yield per plant. About 55% of the hybrids showed positive SCA effects for number of grains per spike, grain yield per plant and 67% for flag leaf area and number of tillers per plant. While 44% hybrids exhibited positive SCA effects for stomata size and epidermal cell size. These crosses may prove useful in future breeding programme.
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Breeding wheat for high yield and other desirable traits is a dire need of the day. Main focus during wheat breeding programme is the selection of desirable wheat varieties used as parents for production of gene combinations containing high yield and other superior traits. Combining ability analysis was done following Griffing approach (1956) for 7 × 7 complete diallel among Shahkar-95, Parwaz-94, Iqbal-2000, Uqab-2000, MH-97 4072 and Punjab-96. Various plant phenotypic traits like plant height, flag leaf area, number of tillers per plant, peduncle length, extrusion length, spike length, spikelet per spike, spike density, grains per spike, 1000-grains weight and grains yield per plant were investigated. Significant differences appeared for genotypes, general combining ability (GCA) specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal effects. The greater magnitude of σ2g than σ2s for all the traits except for plant height and grain yield per plant depicted the importance of additive gene action in inheritance of the traits. Involvement of non-additive gene action was evident in the inheritance of plant height and grain yield per plant. Punjab-96, Uqab-2000, Iqbal-2000 and MH-97 appeared to be best general combiners for almost all the plant traits, respectively and hybrids Iqbal-2000 × Parwaz-94, Parwaz-94 × Uqab-2000 and Punjab-96 × 4072 seemed to be best specific combiners. "
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A 4 x 4 diallel cross of wheat were evaluated for combining ability at Wheat Research Institute, Faisalabad during 2004-05. Data were recorded from F, generation for plant height, number of tillers plant", biomass plant", 1000-:: grain weight, harvest index, number of grains spike" and grain yield plant". The additive gene effects were operating in plant height, biomass plant", number of grains spike" and grain yield plant' while number of tillers plant" and 1000-grain weight were controlled by non-additive gene effects. The genotypes of "Uqab 2000" proved to be good general combiner for grain yield, 1000-grain weight, biomass plant", number of tillers plant" and plant height. While V-00055 was found good general combiner for grain yield, biomass plant", plant height and number of grains spike". The cross "SH-02 x Uqab 2000" and its reciprocal and "V-00125 x V-00055" were the best specific combiners for grain yield plant" and yield components.
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Hybrid breeding is a widely discussed alternative for triticale. Heterosis as well as general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were estimated for eight agronomic traits. The experiment comprised 24 F1 hybrids, produced by a chemical hybridizing agent, together with their six female and four male parents, grown in drilled plots in two locations. In comparison with the mid-parent values, hybrids averaged a 6.4 dt/ha (10.1%) higher grain yield, 8.4% more kernels per spike, a 6.8% higher 1000-kernel weight, 9.7% lower falling number (FN) and 4.4% greater plant height. SCA effects for grain yield were significant and ranged from 4.5 to 6.9 dt/ha for grain yield. Together with GCA x location interactions, they explained most of the variation. For 1000-kernel weight, GCA effects were predominant. SCA and interactions with location accounted for most of the variation in FN, whereas interactions were negligible for plant height. Correlations between mid-parent and hybrid performance and between GCA and per se performance of parents were tight for all traits except grain yield, which allows for pre-selection of parental lines. Although the amount of heterosis in triticale at present is closer to wheat than to rye, by selecting parents for combining ability and identifying heterotic patterns, grain yield heterosis of up to 20% appears sufficiently encouraging to embark on hybrid breeding.
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A detailed examination of the concept of combining ability in relation to diallel crossing systems is made. Eight different analyses aro presented. 'l'hese result from a consideration of four different diallel crossing systems together wit.h two alternative assumptions with regard to the sampling nature of tho experimental material. A numerical example is given.