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Distilled white vinegar (5% acetic acid) as a potential decontamination method for adult zebra mussels

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Abstract

The spread of zebra mussels into new bodies of water is of great concern in the United States due to their economic and ecological costs. Some government agencies suggest the use of vinegar as a decontamination option but do not provide data to explain this decision. This study examined the toxicity of distilled white vinegar on adult zebra mussels at varying concentrations and exposure times. All tested concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100%) caused complete mortality within four hours. These results indicate that distilled white vinegar can be used for the decontamination of adult zebra mussels.

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... We cleaned the shells with a brush and removed the attached flora and fauna. Despite collecting U. pictorum in January, we rinsed the shells of this species with 5% acetic acid so as to kill any Dreissena polymorpha larvae that may have become attached to these mussels (DiVittorio, Grodowitz & Snow, 2012;Davis, Wong & Harman, 2015). ...
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Using time-lapse photography in a laboratory setting, we exposed Anodonta anatina and Unio pictorum for 4 h to algal (Chlorella vulgaris) concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 20.0 mg ash-free dry mass l−1 and to three different temperatures (11 ± 1, 15 ± 1 and 19 ± 1 °C). We analysed the proportion of mussels in locomotion, duration of locomotory activities, posterior tip movement and valve opening behaviour. The proportion of mussels in locomotion was significantly higher for A. anatina and for A. anatina was significantly lower at 11 °C. For both species, the proportion of mussels in locomotion, the duration of locomotion and movement of the posterior tip decreased with increasing algal concentration. The locomotory duration was significantly shorter in U. pictorum. In both species, valve opening peaked at intermediate algal concentrations, with the deviation from the peak being more prominent in A. anatina. Finally, we recorded a contrasting locomotory strategy for the two species (A. anatina crawled on the sediment surface, whereas U. pictorum moved through the sediment) and identified potential density dependence in behavioural adaptation.
... For these reasons, the application of biochemical engineering principles in vinegar production is important for largescale producers, not only because vinegar is a food flavouring agent found in virtually every household [9] but also due to its widespread use in the food industry [5,48,71,95]. In the context of this review, vinegar engineering refers to food, biochemical, bioprocess and chemical reaction engineering technology. ...
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Food engineering is an important sub-field that requires special attention in the food industry. The application of biochemical process engineering principles in food production often leads to the optimization of certain features of the food production process; similarly, it results in rapid production, improved quality and reduced food losses. Consequently, to address each aspect of food processing including engineering adequately, researchers must have a multidisciplinary approach, using aspects from a number of fields such as microbiology, chemistry, food technology, process engineering and molecular biology. Accordingly, this review focuses on the engineering of various vinegars. Furthermore, cognizance is given to the gaps that need to be addressed in vinegar engineering, particularly to address limitations employed in traditional approaches during vinegar production. Food engineering assessments address numerous functions in integrated systems for which fermentation systems are the primary process. Mathematical models are used to describe the process, simulate future fermentations and describe process performance. Vinegar engineering also includes the use or design of bioreactors intended for improved product yield and rapid production, improved mass or energy transfer efficiencies and the reduction of detrimental hydrodynamics fermentor conditions on the microorganisms used. For vinegar fermentation, bioreactor selection which might include cell immobilization requires that appropriate process control and optimization be conducted using mathematical models, with rates of acetification being influenced by parameters such as the ratio of dissolved oxygen consumption in comparison to acetic acid yield. Graphical Abstract
... Lethal effects are desired for eliminating target species, be they invasive or native species fouling marine shellfish culture (Carver et al. 2003;Sharp et al. 2006;Forrest 2007;Forrest et al. 2007;Denny 2008;Locke et al. 2009;Parent et al. 2011;Rolheiser et al. 2012) or aquatic species invading native communities (the present study and Ksander 1995a, b, 1999;Kilroy et al. 2006;Anderson 2007;McCann et al. 2013;Davis et al. 2015). A second, major focus of many studies reviewed here has been the effect of V/AA on non-target species where non-lethal (at best, or sub-lethal) effects are desirable. ...
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... Adult mortality data were used to create the LD50 and LD99 with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for times 4, 6, 12, and 24 h by using a probit regression. For each exposure period, the LD50 was the chemical concentration that caused mortality of 50% of the mussels, and the LD99 was the concentration that caused mortality of 99% of the mussels (Davis et al. 2015a(Davis et al. , 2015b. We determined that a 24-h period was the greatest exposure time for watercraft disinfection. ...
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Decontamination of watercraft and/or equipment following exposure to zebra mussels with the use of chemicals is one method of decontamination that has been recommended in the United States by multiple government agencies. The ideal chemical to be used for decontamination would be inexpensive, easily obtained, have no or limited effect on nontarget species, and relatively environmentally friendly. Two chemicals that have been tested are potassium chloride and sodium chloride. The toxicity of each chemical to both adult mussels and veliger larvae was examined. Sodium chloride was less effective at causing mortality than potassium chloride within the exposure periods tested. Adult mussels required an exposure period four times longer to experience complete mortality when exposed to sodium chloride (24 h) at a concentration of 30,000 mg/L compared to potassium chloride (6 h). At a 10,000 mg/L concentration, sodium chloride took eight times longer (96 h) to cause 100% mortality of adult mussels than potassium chloride (12 h). Veligers exposed to 1,250 mg/L of potassium choride required a 12 h exposure period to cause complete mortality while an exposure period of 18 h was required for a 10,000 mg/L concentration of sodium chloride to have the same result. To determine if potassium chloride is more advantageous as a decontamination chemical, the cost and chemical availability need to be researched. Received 30 May 2017 accepted 01 Oct 2017 revised 12 Sep 2017
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The prevention of the spread of the zebra mussel is of great concern in many places in North America. The cost of constructing wash stations that provide hot water at high pressure precludes their application as an easy decontamination method. Therefore, the ability to use a garden hose to flush veligers remaining in residual water from the livewell of a boat was examined. Although flushing was not found to be completely effective, more than 90% of veligers were removed after 150 s of flushing.
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Challenges to successful environmental management, such as costly litigation, planning delays, and contentious stakeholder relations, suggest a need for improved environmental governance. The need for improvement does not, however, in and of itself make a case for alternatives that engage diverse interests collaboratively in environmental decision making, commonly referred to as environmental conflict resolution (ECR). To better make the case for ECR and to understand what contributes to ECR success, a group of federal and state agencies developed an ECR evaluation framework. This article describes the evolution, structure, associated instrumentation, and current applications of this ECR evaluation framework.
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Communicated by J. Ellen Marsden Index words Laurentian Great Lakes Eradication Monitoring Early detection Ballast water Risk assessment Ballast water regulations implemented in the early 1990s appear not to have slowed the rate of new aquatic invasive species (AIS) establishment in the Great Lakes. With more invasive species on the horizon, we examine the question of whether eradication of AIS is a viable management strategy for the Laurentian Great Lakes, and what a coordinated AIS early detection and eradication program would entail. In-lake monitoring would be conducted to assess the effectiveness of regulations aimed at stopping new AIS, and to maximize the likelihood of early detection of new invaders. Monitoring would be focused on detecting the most probable invaders, the most invasion-prone habitats, and the species most conducive to eradication. When a new non-native species is discovered, an eradication assessment would be conducted and used to guide the management response. In light of high uncertainty, management decisions must be robust to a range of impact and control scenarios. Though prevention should continue to be the cornerstone of management efforts, we believe that a coordinated early detection and eradication program is warranted if the Great Lakes management community and stakeholders are serious about reducing undesired impacts stemming from new AIS in the Great Lakes. Development of such a program is an opportunity for the Laurentian Great Lakes resource management community to demonstrate global leadership in invasive species management.
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We postulate that the causes of the problem of invasive alien species are primarily economic and as such, require economic solutions. Invasive alien species are of increasing concern for four reasons. First, introductions are increasing sharply, while mechanisms for excluding or eradicating alien species have been either withdrawn or progressively weakened. Both trends are due to the liberalization of and increase in international travel and trade, an economic phenomenon. Second, the costs of invasions are rising rapidly due partly to increasing human population density, and partly to increasing intensity of production in genetically impoverished agricultural systems. Third, biological invasions are associated with a high degree of uncertainty both because they involve novel interactions, and because invasion risks are endogenous. Actual risks depend on how people react to the possibility of invasions. Fourth, the exclusion and control of invasive species is a "weakest-link" public good. This places the well-being of society in the hands of the least effective provider. We argue that an economic solution to the problem of invasive species has two components. One is to use incentives to change human behavior so as to enhance protection against the introduction, establishment, and spread of invasive behavior. The other is to develop institutions that support the weakest members of global society, converting a "weakest-link" to a "best-shot" public good.
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Applying the concept of sustainability to invasive species management (ISM) is challenging but necessary, given the increasing rates of invasion and the high costs of invasion impacts and control. To be sustainable, ISM must address environmental, social, and economic factors (or "pillars") that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although these pillars are generally acknowledged, their implementation is often limited by insufficient control options and significant economic and political constraints. In this paper, we outline specific objectives in each of these three "pillars" that, if incorporated into a management plan, will improve the plan's likelihood of sustainability. We then examine three case studies that illustrate how these objectives can be effectively implemented. Each pillar reinforces the others, such that the inclusion of even a few of the outlined objectives will lead to more effective management that achieves ecological goals, while generating social support and long-term funding to maintain projects to completion. We encourage agency directors and policy-makers to consider sustainability principles when developing funding schemes, management agendas, and policy.
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A comprehensive, systematic literature review and original research were conducted to ascertain whether patients' emotional and spiritual needs are important, whether hospitals are effective in addressing these needs, and what strategies should guide improvement. The literature review was conducted in August 2002. Patient satisfaction data were derived from the Press Ganey Associates' 2001 National Inpatient Database; survey data were collected from 1,732,562 patients between January 2001 and December 2001. Data analysis revealed a strong relationship between the "degree to which staff addressed emotional/spiritual needs" and overall patient satisfaction. Three measures most highly correlated with this measure of emotional/spiritual care were (1) staff response to concerns/complaints, (2) staff effort to include patients in decisions about treatment, and (3) staff sensitivity to the inconvenience that health problems and hospitalization can cause. The emotional and spiritual experience of hospitalization remains a prime opportunity for QI. Suggestions for improvement include the immediate availability of resources, appropriate referrals to chaplains or leaders in the religious community, a team dedicated to evaluating and improving the emotional and spiritual care experience, and standardized elicitation and meeting of emotional and spiritual needs. Survey data suggested a focus on response to concerns/complaints, treatment decision making, and staff sensitivity.
Invasive Aquatic Weed Control Program Lake Tahoe CA: Bureau of Reclamation Final Report No. R10AP20613 Four decades of change: dramatic loss of zoobenthos in an oligotrophic lake exhibiting gradual eutrophication
  • J Brockett
  • K Boyd
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  • S Chandra
  • Bl Hayford
  • Me Wittmann
Brockett J, Boyd K, Shaw D, Stone P (2013) Invasive Aquatic Weed Control Program Lake Tahoe, CA: Bureau of Reclamation Final Report No. R10AP20613, South Lake Tahoe, CA, 28 pp Caires AM, Chandra S, Hayford BL, Wittmann ME (2013) Four decades of change: dramatic loss of zoobenthos in an oligotrophic lake exhibiting gradual eutrophication. Freshwater Science 32: 692–705, http://dx.doi.org/10.1899/12-064.1
History and status of introduced fishes in California California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin No. 178 Offense and defense in landscape-level invasion control
  • Wa Dill
  • Aj Cordone
Dill WA, Cordone AJ (1997) History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin No. 178, Sacramento, CA, 414 pp Drury KLS, Rothlisberger JD (2008) Offense and defense in landscape-level invasion control. Oikos 117: 182–190, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2007.0030-1299.16081.x
Aquatic Pesticide Monitoring Program: Review of Alternative Aquatic Pest Control Methods for California Waters Economically viable strategy for prevention of invasive species introductions: Case study of Otsego Lake
  • Bk Greenfield
  • N David
  • J Hunt
  • Me Wittmann
  • G Siemering
Greenfield BK, David N, Hunt J, Wittmann ME, Siemering G (2004) Aquatic Pesticide Monitoring Program: Review of Alternative Aquatic Pest Control Methods for California Waters. Oakland, CA, 106 pp Horvath T (2008) Economically viable strategy for prevention of invasive species introductions: Case study of Otsego Lake, New York. Aquatic Invasions 3: 3–9, http://dx.doi.org/10.3391/ ai.2008.3.1.2
Ecosystem effects of the invasion of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) at Lake Tahoe
  • K M Walter
Walter KM (2000) Ecosystem effects of the invasion of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) at Lake Tahoe, CA-NV. Master Thesis, University of California Davis, 263 pp Wittmann ME, Chandra S (2015) Implementation Plan for the Control of Aquatic Invasive Species within Lake Tahoe.
Offense and defense in landscape-level invasion control
  • W A Dill
  • A J Cordone
Dill WA, Cordone AJ (1997) History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin No. 178, Sacramento, CA, 414 pp Drury KLS, Rothlisberger JD (2008) Offense and defense in landscape-level invasion control. Oikos 117: 182-190, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2007.0030-1299.16081.x
Natural and Human Limitations to Asian clam distribution and recolonization--Factors that Impact the Management and Control in Lake Tahoe (P057): A report submitted to the Pacific Southwest Research Station
  • M E Wittmann
  • S Chandra
  • S G Schladow
  • J E Reuter
  • M E Pp Wittmann
  • C L Jerde
  • J G Howeth
  • S P Maher
  • A M Deines
  • J A Jenkins
  • G W Whitledge
  • S R Burbank
  • W L Chadderton
  • A R Mahon
  • J T Tyson
  • C A Gantz
  • R P Keller
  • J M Drake
  • D M Lodge
Wittmann ME, Chandra S, Schladow SG, Reuter JE (2013) Natural and Human Limitations to Asian clam distribution and recolonization--Factors that Impact the Management and Control in Lake Tahoe (P057): A report submitted to the Pacific Southwest Research Station, US Forest Service, 91 pp Wittmann ME, Jerde CL, Howeth JG, Maher SP, Deines AM, Jenkins JA, Whitledge GW, Burbank SR, Chadderton WL, Mahon AR, Tyson JT, Gantz CA, Keller RP, Drake JM, Lodge DM (2014) Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: Establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71: 992-999, http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0537