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Vol. 61, No. 1, March 2016
Leading article
THE CEYLON
MEDICAL JOURNAL
Established 1887
The Official Publication of the
Sri Lanka Medical Association
Volume 61, No.1, March 2016
Quarterly ISSN 0009–0875
Editors Emeritus
Chris G Uragoda MD, FRCP
Colvin Goonaratna FRCP, PhD
Janaka de Silva DPhil, FRCP
Editors
Anuruddha Abeygunasekera MS, FRCS
Varuni De Silva MBBS, MD
Section Editors
A Pathmeswaran MBBS, MD
B J C Perera MD, FRCPCH
Shalini Sri Ranganathan MD, PhD
Assistant Editors
Carukshi Arambepola MBBS, MD
Samath Dharmaratne MSc, MD
Tiran Dias MD, MRCOG
Ranil Fernando FRCS, PhD
Malik Goonewardene MS, FRCOG
Renuka Jayatissa MD, MSc
Prasad Katulanda MD, Dphil
Sarath Lekamwasam MD, PhD
Senaka Rajapakse MD, FRCP
Udaya K Ranawaka MD, FRCP
Chandu de Silva MBBS, MD
Sisira Siribaddana MD, FRCP
International Advisory Board
S Arulkumaran FRCOG, PhD
London, UK
Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta FRCPCH, PhD
Karachi, Pakistan
Andrew Dawson FRACP
Sydney, Australia
Barbara Gastel MD, MPH
Texas, USA
Kalle Hoppu MD, PhD
Helsinki, Finland
David Lallo MD, FRCP
Liverpool, UK
Ian Pearce BMBS, FRCS
Manchester, UK
Peush Sahni MS, PhD
New Delhi, India
Anita KM Zaidi MMBS, SM
Karachi, Pakistan
Online Manager
Rikaz Sheriff MBBS MSc
Health benefits of Ceylon cinnamon
(Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a summary
of the current evidence
Introduction
Cinnamon is obtained from the inner bark of trees from the genus
Cinnamomum. There are two main varieties of cinnamon; Cinnamomum
zeylanicum (CZ) and Cinnamon cassia (CC). CC is also known as Cinnamomum
aromaticum/Chinese cinnamon. In addition to its culinary uses, in Ayurvedic
medicine cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and
gynaecological ailments. Different parts of the plant (bark, leaves and root)
possess the same array of hydrocarbons in varying proportions. The primary
constituents being cinnamaldehyde (bark), eugenol (leaf) and camphor
(root) [1].
CZ, also known as Ceylon cinnamon or ‘true cinnamon’ is indigenous to
Sri Lanka and southern parts of India [2]. One important difference between
CC and CZ is their coumarin content [3]. Coumarins are plant compounds that
possess strong anticoagulant, carcinogenic and hepato-toxic properties. The
levels of coumarins in CC appear to be very high and could pose health risks
if consumed regularly in higher quantities, whereas CZ contains hardly any
coumarin [4]. Hence, although CC has also demonstrated health benefits,
numerous health agencies have advocated against the regular use of CC.
However, regular use of CZ has not shown to carry such risks.
In vitro and in vivo studies in animals and humans from different parts of
the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial health effects of CZ, such
as anti-inflammatory properties, anti-microbial activity, reducing cardiovascular
disease, boosting cognitive function and reducing risk of colonic cancer [5].
The current level of evidence is summarised in Table 1 and described further
in the following sections.
In vitro and in vivo effects on blood pressure, glycaemic control and lipids
Two systematic reviews in the effects of CZ extracts on diabetes
demonstrate numerous beneficial effects in animal models [6, 7]. In vitro CZ
has demonstrated potential for; reducing post-prandial intestinal glucose
absorption by inhibiting the activity of pancreatic α-amylase and α-
glucosidase, stimulating cellular glucose uptake by membrane translocation
of GLUT-4, stimulating glucose metabolism and glycogen synthesis,
inhibiting gluconeogenesis by effects on key regulatory enzymes and
stimulating insulin release and potentiating insulin receptor activity [6].
Cinnamtannin B1 has been identified as the potential active compound
DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v61i1.8251
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Ceylon Medical Journal
Leading article
Table 1. Summary of current evidence
Effects on blood glucose In vitro Reducing intestinal glucose absorption and stimulating cellular glucose uptake
Stimulating glycolysis and glycogensis, and inhibiting gluconeogenesis
Stimulating insulin release and potentiating insulin receptor activity
In vivo (animals) Reducing FBG and HbA1c, and increasing insulin levels
Effects on cholesterol In vivo (animals) Reducing LDL cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol
Effects on blood pressure In vivo (animals) Reduction in blood pressure
Anti-oxidant properties In vitro Reduced oxidative stress and free radical scavenging activity
In vivo (humans) Reduced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation
Activity against micro- In vitro Bactericidal and fungicidal
organisms Anti-bacterial activity (Salmonella enteritidis, oral cavity anaerobic bacteria)
In vivo Anti-fungal activity (Candida)
Anti-parasitic activity (Cryptosporidium parvum)
Others In vitro Inhibiting tau aggregation and filament formation (Alzheimer’s disease)
Stimulation of collagen synthesis in dermal fibroblasts (anti-ageing skin
treatment)
Inhibition of osteoclastogenesis (osteoporosis)
In vivo (animals) Reducing nephropathy and neuropathy (diabetes)
Reduced acid secretion and increased mucus secretion of stomach
(peptic ulcer disease)
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and wound healing activity
Hepato-protective activity
responsible for these effects [6]. The beneficial effects
of CZ observed with in vivo animal models include;
attenuation of weight loss associated with diabetes,
reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG), reducing LDL
and increasing HDL cholesterol, reducing HbA1c and
increasing circulating insulin levels [6]. In addition CZ
also showed beneficial effects against diabetic neuropathy
and nephropathy in animal models [6].
Effects of CZ extracts (CZA) on mean arterial blood
pressure (BP) of normotensive rats (NR), salt-loaded
hypertensive rats (SLHR), L-NAME hypertensive rats
(LNHR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)
have been studied [8]. Immediately after intravenous
administration, a significant drop in BP was shown in NTR,
SLHR and LNHR in a dose dependent manner and the
drop in BP was not dose dependent in SHR [8]. These
observations indicate that CZ could have potential health
benefits in diseases such as diabetes mellitus and
hypertension.
In-vitro and in-vivo anti-oxidant properties
The volatile oils of CZ have 55.9% and 66.9%
antioxidant activity at 100 and 200 ppm concentration,
respectively [9]. The dried fruit extracts of CZ with ethyl
acetate, acetone, methanol and water exhibited
antioxidant activity in the order of water > methanol
> acetone > ethyl acetate [10]. The etheric (0.69 mg),
methanolic (0.88 mg) and aqueous (0.44 mg) cinnamon
extracts, inhibited the oxidative process in 68%, 95.5%
and 87.5% respectively [11]. CZ bark extracts were found
to be potent in free radical scavenging activity especially
against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and
ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic
acid) radical cations, while the hydroxyl and superoxide
radicals were also scavenged by the tested compounds
[12]. Similarly CZ has 65.3% of anti-oxidant activity and
strong free radical scavenging activity [13].
Operating room personnel who consumed tea with
CZ (100 mg/ 300 ml) daily for 10 days had their blood
samples analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress
including lipid peroxidation level (LPO), total antioxidant
power (TAP) and total thiol molecules (TTM).
Consumption of cinnamon induced a significant reduction
in plasma LPO [14]. Treatment of 54 healthy volunteers
with CZ 100 mg/ 30ml of tea daily was significantly effective
in the reduction of lipid peroxidation and increasing TAP
and TTM in comparison with controls [15]. The extent of
increase in plasma TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive
substances) and TAP in the CZ group was significantly
higher than in those given only regular tea [15]. Hence,
CZ has the potential of reducing the oxidative stress
associated with diseases such as diabetes, and the
potential to reduce oxidative stress associated
complications of these diseases.
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Vol. 61, No. 1, March 2016
Leading article
In vitro and in vivo anti-microbial properties
CZ has shown potential for in-vitro anti-microbial
action against a wide variety of gram positive
(Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and
Streptococcus pyogenes), gram negative (Escherichia
coli, Haemophilus Influenzae, Helicobacter pylori,
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and
Salmonella typhi) and anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium
difficile and Clostridium perfringens) [6]. It has also
demonstrated in-vitro anti-microbial activity against
Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition there seems to
be activity against numerous fungi of Aspergillus spp.
and Candida spp. CZ has demonstrated activity against
the human rotavirus too [6].
Administration of CZ oil is beneficial in protecting
susceptible hosts against opportunistic zoonotic parasites
such as Cryptosporidium parvum [16]. Two infants who
were chronic carriers of Salmonella enteritidis and received
short term (10 days) administration of grounded CZ bark
had consistently negative stool cultures with neither
clinical nor microbiological relapses [17,18]. Activity of
CZ against fluconazole resistant and susceptible Candida
were studied in HIV infected patients having pseudo-
membranous candidiasis, where three patients out of five
showed improvements in oral candidiasis [19]. The effects
of sugared chewing gum containing cinnamic aldehyde
and natural flavours from CZ on the short-term germ-killing
effect on total and hydrogen sulphide (H
2
S)-producing
salivary anaerobes has been investigated [20]. Significant
reductions in total salivary anaerobes and H
2
S-producing
salivary anaerobes were observed 20 minutes after
participants chewed the gum.
Other in vitro effects
An aqueous extract of CZ is known to inhibit tau
aggregation and filament formation in the brain, which are
hallmarks of Alzheimers disease [21]. The extract also
promotes complete disassembly of recombinant tau
filaments and cause substantial alteration of the
morphology of paired-helical filaments isolated from brains
of those with Alzheimers disease, although it was not
deleterious to the normal cellular function of tau. An A-
linked proanthocyanidin trimer molecule isolated from the
CZ extract has shown to contain a significant proportion
of this inhibitory activity [21]. CZ extracts facilitate
collagen biosynthesis in human dermal fibroblasts [22].
CZ extract up-regulated both mRNA and protein ex-
pression levels of type I collagen without cytotoxicity,
cinnamaldehyde was the major active component
promoting the expression of collagen by HPLC and NMR
analysis. This suggests that CZ extracts might be useful
in anti-aging treatment of skin [22]. CZ extracts have also
exhibited strong inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis
[23]. CZ dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast-like cell
formation at concentrations of 12.5-50 μg/ ml without
affecting cell viability. This finding raises prospects for
the development of a novel approach in the treatment of
osteopenic diseases [23].
Other in vivo effects in animals
CZ is known to have anti-secretagogue and anti-
gastric ulcer effects [24]. CZ suspension pre-treatment
decreased the basal gastric acid secretion in pylorus
ligated rats and effectively inhibited gastric haemorrhagic
lesions induced by 80% ethanol, 0.2M NaOH, and 25%
NaCl. It also showed anti-ulcer activity against
indomethacin. CZ treatment replenished the gastric wall
mucus secretion reduced by ethanol [24]. CZ extracts at
100 and 200 mg/ kg doses significantly reduced the extent
of the diarrhoea (71.7% and 80.4%) in test animals [25].
In a study using two animal models for the
investigation of the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory
effects of CZ and selected plants, CZ induced a dose-
dependent analgesic protective effect against both thermal
stimuli. Furthermore, CZ showed an anti-inflammatory
effect against chronic inflammation of cotton pellet
granulomata [26]. These effects have been confirmed by
other authors [27]. CZ has wound healing properties.
Topical CZ containing ointments accelerated the wound
healing process and specifically increased epithelialisation
[28]. Oral CZ increased the wound breaking strength,
granulation tissue breaking strength and hydroxyproline
content in wister rates [29].
CZ has hepato-protective effects in a study where
liver injury was induced in rats by carbon tetrachloride
(CCl
4
) [30]. Administration of CZ extracts (0.01, 0.05 and
0.1 g/kg) for 28 days significantly reduced the serum levels
of liver enzymes. In addition, treatment with CZ increased
the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes
in rats [30]. Water-based extract from CZ was a potent
inhibitor of VEGFR2 kinase (vascular endothelial growth
factor receptor) activity which is involved in angiogenesis
[31]. As a result, CZ inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial
cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro,
sprout formation from aortic ring ex vivo and tumour-
induced blood vessel formation in vivo [31].
In conclusion, the available in-vitro and in-vivo
evidence suggests that CZ has anti-microbial, anti-
parasitic, anti-oxidant, free radical scavenging and wound
healing properties. In addition, CZ may lower blood
glucose, serum cholesterol and blood pressure, suggesting
beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects. However,
most studies have been conducted using animal models.
Future studies are necessary to determine whether these
effects are reproducible in humans, their public health
implications and their safety.
Conflicts of interests
There are no conflicts of interest.
4
Ceylon Medical Journal
Leading article
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Vol. 61, No. 1, March 2016
Leading article
P Ranasinghe and P Galappaththy, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo,
Sri Lanka.
Correspondence: e-mail: priyanga.ranasinghe@gmail.com.
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... Additionally, according to toponymical and historical evidence, C. zeylanicum has been used for medicinal purposes since the establishment of Aryan settlements in the Anuradhapura kingdom [3]. Moreover, the indigenous species of Ceylon cinnamon has been used in the Ayurveda system of Sri Lanka [3,4]. Ethnopharmacological studies show that ...
... Cinnamomum zeylanicum Greenish In panicles [10,13] Cinnamomum cassia White In panicles [13] Cinnamomum burmannii Whitish Yellow In panicles [14] Cinnamomum tamala Yellow In panicles [13] leaves from red to deep green and a larger size help to distinguish the C. zeylanicum from C. cassia, C. burmannii and C. tamala. The Cinnamon bark of C. zeylanicum is where most of the bioactive compounds exist, and, there are certain traits which help identify the plant, based on bark characteristics which are shown in Table 2 [4,12]. However, it is also shown that the bark of C. zeylanicum in powder form is practically impossible to distinguish from other wild species of cinnamon due to its identical appearance -a character which is often misused by Cinnamon producers for adulteration. ...
... The balance of free radicals and antioxidant defense mechanisms is critically important in health aspects from the perspective of mitigating oxidative stress [17][18][19][20]. Oxidative stress, which is induced by free radicals, is associated with many chronic diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and coronary heart disease [2,4,16,21]. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce oxidative stress and are responsible for the cumulative damage imparted on DNA, lipids, proteins and other molecules, subsequently resulting in even permanent damage [17][18][19]22]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the oldest spices used for culinary purposes in Asian countries. Its extracts have demonstrated a positive impact on controlling the progression of disease pathologies due to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimi-crobial, anticancer, anti-mutagenic, anti-tyrosinase and antidiabetic characteristics. C. zeylanicum also has its unique variations which makes it necessary to distinguish it from other species of cinnamon. Phenolic compounds such as cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, cinnamic acetate and thymol are the main compounds that can be found in essential oils of C. zeylanicum. However, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol act as the main bioactive antioxidant compounds found in C. zeylanicum because of their active functional groups in the structures. There are many examples of the use of C. zeylanicum extracts for medicinal purposes, specifically cinnamon metabolite proan-thocyanidins which suppress inflammatory compounds and help pathways such as insulin signaling. Moreover, the bioactive compounds in essential oils of this plant are used against many pathogenic (including food-borne) and spoilage bacteria.
... Besides their flavor profiles, C. verum and C. cassia are more diverse when used in traditional medicinal remedies [3]. For example, Cinnamomum verum has been used in traditional medical treatment of respiratory system, digestive system, and gynecological diseases [4,5]. Cinnamomum cassia bark demonstrates anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering effects [6]. ...
... The differences in their health benefits indicate that the chemical components in C. verum, C. cassia, and Cassia twig are far more different beyond their typical household uses [4][5][6]8]. The chemistry of herbal medicine is complicated, and it is easily affected by weather, producing area, harvesting season, processing technology, and other conditions, so the quality control method has limitations [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cinnamomum verum and Cinnamomum cassia are widely used as spice and herbal medicine around the world. However, it is challenging to differentiate and make a quality evaluation for both Cinnamomum types due to their similarities in morphological features and general chemical composition using traditional analytical methods. In this study, a simple and efficient method was developed for the comprehensive evaluation of the two Cinnamomum, together with Cassia twig, by combining UPLC fingerprint analysis combined with quantitative analysis using two internal standards for the determination of multiple components (TSDMC). The content of 9 components (procyanidin B2, cinnamtannin B1, coumarin, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, 2'-methoxycinnamaldehyde, and eugenol) in samples was determined using reliable relative conversion factor factors that were obtained using procyanidin B2 and cinnamic acid as two internal reference standards. The quantitative results combined with chemometrics analysis were employed to identify these samples. This simple and reproducible method revealed great differences among the three Cinnamomum in their chemical composition and provides a promising method for accurate differentiation and quality evaluation for the three Cinnamomum.
... Besides being an excellent taste enhancer, cinnamon has been used for its medical significance, which can be traced to prehistoric times [96]. The herb has been reported to regulate blood glucose levels, curb cholesterol levels, regulate blood pressure, exhibit antioxidant properties and even helps treat neuropathic conditions [97]. ...
Article
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Novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 was discovered in 2019 in patients with severe pneumonia in Wuhan, China. This virus infects the respiratory tract of humans, showing symptoms nil or mild to lethal. It spreads via human-to-human contact or via air droplets. Finding a cure to combat this global pandemic is a need of the hour, and unfortunately, no single drug has been approved against COVID-19. Thus, researchers worldwide are screening natural compounds having potent antiviral effects against COVID-19. As nature has been a significant source of drugs for human beings since ancient times, pharmacists have been investigating several therapeutic herbs, their extracts and the secondary metabolites like flavonoids, stilbenoids, fatty acids, ta nnins, terpenes and alkaloids against COVID-19, virtually via in-silico methods as well as, via in vitro techniques. Several molecules extracted from natural sources like stilbene, isoflavones, quercetin, terpenoids etc., have been found to have potential antiviral efficacy against COVID-19. This chapter intends to discuss the structure, virology, various target sites of the SARS-COV-2 and review several potent antiviral herbs, their extracts and molecules extracted from them that are effective against COVID-19. The efficacy, required concentrations, side effects and challenges associated with their future developments are also discussed. This study will help provide new ideas for a therapeutic intervention that can selectively target the novel SARS-COV-2.
... It was previously reported that the bark extract of Ceylon cinnamon has numerous antioxidant compounds, which can effectively counteract with reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions as well as other free radicals. Many in vitro studies reported the antioxidant effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume in the recent past (Rao and Gan, 2014;Ghosh et al., 2015;Ranasinghe and Galappaththy, 2016;Premakumara and Abeysekera, 2020). The essential oils obtained from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and eugenol have shown very powerful antioxidant activities (Chericoni et al., 2005) and in vitro studies revealed that Cinnamomum bark extracts effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2 0 -azino-bis(3-et hylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cations (Ranasinghe et al., 2013). ...
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Anti-tumour efficacy of doxorubicin is hindered by the cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity induced by reactive oxygen species during its metabolism. As Cinnamomum zeylanicum has proven antioxidant potential, objective of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective activity of Cinnamomum bark extract against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats. Physicochemical and phytochemical analysis was carried out and dose response effect and the cardioprotective activity of Cinnamomum were determined in vivo. 180 mg/kg dexrazoxane was used as the positive control. Plant extracts were free of heavy metals and toxic phytoconstituents. In vivo study carried out in Wistar rats revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in cardiac troponin I, NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide, AST and LDH concentrations in the doxorubicin control group (18 mg/kg) compared to the normal control. Rats pre-treated with the optimum dosage of Cinnmamomum (2.0 g/kg) showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in all above parameters compared to the doxorubicin control. A significant reduction was observed in the total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity while the lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly increased in the doxorubicin control group compared to the normal control (p < 0.05). Pre-treatment with Cinnamomum bark showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity and significant increase in rest of the parameters compared to the doxorubicin control (p < 0.05). Histopathological analysis revealed a preserved appearance of the myocardium and lesser degree of cellular changes of necrosis in rats pre-treated with Cinnamomum extract. In conclusion, Cinnamomum bark extract has the potential to significantly reduce doxorubicin induced oxidative stress and inflammation in Wistar rats.
... It was previously reported that the bark extract of Ceylon cinnamon has numerous antioxidant compounds, which can effectively counteract with reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions as well as other free radicals. Many in vitro studies reported the antioxidant effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume in the recent past (Rao and Gan, 2014;Ghosh et al., 2015;Ranasinghe and Galappaththy, 2016;Premakumara and Abeysekera, 2020). The essential oils obtained from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and eugenol have shown very powerful antioxidant activities (Chericoni et al., 2005) and in vitro studies revealed that Cinnamomum bark extracts effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2 0 -azino-bis(3-et hylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cations (Ranasinghe et al., 2013). ...
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... C. zeylanicum is likewise determined to be effective in opposition to Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis, which inside the beyond have verified a few resistance to conventional antifungal agents. Similarly to this, C. zeylanicum is also validated to demonstrate antiparasitic hobby [13]. ...
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The present review establishes the medicinal and nutritional perspectives of Cinnamon. In today’s era, there are so many processed foods available in the market that saves time but processed foods have many adverse effects on health. Cinnamon has significant benefits for human health, particularly as an anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-hypertriglyceridemia agent, mainly due to its phytochemical constituents such as phenolic and volatile compounds. So, people are more aware of the usage of the natural herbal product in the diet. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) is the most consumed spice in the world. Cinnamaldehyde is the bioactive component present in the cinnamon. The nutrient content found in cinnamon is in a good amount. Macro and micronutrients such as energy, carbohydrate, vitamin A and C, calcium, iron, magnesium are present. Cinnamon is also known for its health benefits such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, immunomodulatory and metabolic syndrome. Thus, cinnamon is very beneficial to combat diseases. It is concluded that cinnamon is very useful and beneficial for the maintenance of health and it is helpful in the prevention of diseases.
... C, zeylanicum also has anti-microbial, antiparasitic, anti-oxidant, free radical scavenging and wound healing properties. In addition, C. zeylanicum (CZ) may lower blood glucose, serum cholesterol 2 and blood pressure, suggesting beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects [4]. The potential of the Indonesian Ceylon cinnamon market has the opportunity to fill the international market, because in addition to the low coumarin content, it also has an essential oil yield of> 1%, cinnamaldehyde content> 6% and leaf eugenol> 85% [5] [6]. ...
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The inner bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of cinnamon bark extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. Administration with cinnamon extracts (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg) for 28 days significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. In addition, treatment of cinnamon extract resulted in markedly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes in rats. The histopathological studies in the liver of rats also supported that cinnamon extract markedly reduced the toxicity of CCl4 and preserved the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue to near normal. Thus, the results suggest that cinnamon extract acts as a potent hepatoprotective agent against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
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