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Emerging Radars Technologies for Arctic Surveillance

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Abstract and Figures

This talk presents an overview of the challenges associated with providing wide area surveillance of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago - an area about the size of Europe. The talk discusses existing and emerging technologies for providing Arctic Domain Awareness.
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Emerging Radars Technologies for Arctic
Surveillance
"RAYTHEON PROPRIETARY DATA
THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS PROPRIETARY DATA OR INFORMATION PERTAINING TO ITEMS, OR COMPONENTS, OR PROCESSES, OR OTHER MATTER DEVELOPED OR ACQUIRED
AT THE PRIVATE EXPENSE OF RAYTHEON COMPANY AND IS RESTRICTED TO USE ONLY BY PERSONS AUTHORIZED BY RAYTHEON IN WRITING TO USE IT. DISCLOSURE TO
UNAUTHORIZED PERSONS WOULD LIKELY CAUSE SUBSTANTIAL COMPETITIVE HARM TO RAYTHEON’S BUSINESS POSITION. NEITHER SAID DOCUMENT NOR SAID TECHNICAL
DATA OR INFORMATION SHALL BE FURNISHED OR DISCLOSED TO OR COPIED OR USED, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, BY PERSONS OUTSIDE RAYTHEON WITHOUT THE EXPRESS
WRITTEN APPROVAL OF RAYTHEON."
Dr. A.M. (Tony) Ponsford
Principal Engineering Fellow
Technical Director, Raytheon Canada Limited
Tony_Ponsford@Raytheon.com
The views expressed are my personal views and do not necessarily reflect those of
Raytheon Canada Limited
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Agenda
Arctic Mission
Current Surveillance Options
Space-based Active and Passive
Ground-based Radar
Emerging Radar technologies
Wide Area Surveillance
Space-based Radar
Over-the-Horizon Radar
HF Surface wave Radar
Microwave Radar
Environmental Monitoring
Integrated Observing System for Arctic Domain Awareness
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Sovereignty over the Arctic
The Arctic Ocean is an
extension of the continental
shelves of Europe, Asia and
North America. All five nations
with Arctic borders, Canada,
USA, Denmark and
Greenland, Norway and
Russia are currently
determining if they can claim
sovereignty over ‘their’ part of
the Arctic Ocean. 27 July 2015, Collective Defense in the High North: It’s Time for NATO to
Prioritize the Arctic. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-
Library/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=192474
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Canada’s Arctic
©17 Wing Publishing Winnipeg
Vast area and limited response assets dictate the need to detect targets of
interest at far range to allow sufficient time for action to be taken
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Canadian Archipelago
Canadian Arctic
Archipelago is an
inland waterway.
The hamlet of Resolute
has a population ~ 250
and is one of the coldest
inhabited places in the
world, with an average
yearly temperature of
−15.7 °C (3.7 °F)
http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/eng/content/meridian-
newsletter-fallwinter-2011-springsummer-2012-1
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North West Passage
http://www.theglobeandmail.com/new
s/british-columbia/groundbreaking-
northern-voyage-almost-foundered-
over-insurance/article14649393/
Nordic Orion
Crystal Serenity
http://www.adn.com/article/20140802/
luxury-cruise-line-plans-northwest-
passage-voyage
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All Domain Situational Awareness
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Monitoring Collaborative targets from
Space
Air Surveillance:
Aircraft positions picked up by ESA’s Proba-V
minisatellite, using an experimental Automatic
Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)
receiver. These signals are regularly broadcast from
aircraft, giving flight information such as speed,
position and altitude. All aircraft entering European
airspace are envisaged to carry ADS-B in the coming
years. Credit: ESA/DLR/SES
Maritime Surveillance:
Ship positions picked up exactEarth’s constellation of
satellites, using an Automatic Independent
Surveillance Broadcast (AIS) receiver. These
signals are broadcast from ships, giving voyage
information such as speed and position. All ships
over 300 tons, except fishing vessels, are required by
the IMO carry AIS systems. In Canada Fishing vessel
report via the VMS system
Monitoring requires a cooperative asset; reports are last
known position not necessarily current position
http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2015/05/Proba-V_detecting_aircraft
http://www.exactearth.com/
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Radar Surveillance from Space:
Radarsat Constellation available 2018
Ship Monitoring
25m vessel over a 350 km swath up to sea sate 5
Positional update ~ twice a day in Arctic
Position report accuracy better than 50m
Classification through image analysis requires
satellite operated in higher resolution modes
Used with permission MDA Corp.
Radarsat Constellation includes a AIS receiver within the Satellite: Will
provides a wide area overview of maritime traffic in the Canadian Arctic but
does not provide persistency
Missions:
Maritime surveillance (ice, surface wind, oil pollution
and ship monitoring);
Disaster management (mitigation, warning,
response and recovery); and
Ecosystem monitoring (agriculture, wetlands,
forestry and coastal change monitoring).
http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/satellites/radarsat/
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Canadian Segment of the NORAD North
Warning System
RED - AN/FPS-124 Short Range Radar (UNISYS,
1991)
BLUE AN/FPS-117 Long Range Radar (LM,
upgrade contract awarded in 2011)
PURPLE - LRR / Logistics Support Sites
The North Warning System replaced the earlier DEW line system in the late
1980’s
Lockheed Martins AN/FPS-117 radar
http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/100years/stories/fps117.html
Cape Lisburne
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Emerging Radar Technologies
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Skywave HF Over-The-Horizon Radar
A Canadian Perspective on High-Frequency Over-the-Horizon Radar R. J. Riddolls Defence
R&D Canada, Technical Memorandum, TM 2006-285
http://cradpdf.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/PDFS/unc64/p527279.pdf
Primary Mission Aircraft Tracking, Secondary Missions Maritime
and Environmental Remote Sensing
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Current Operational Systems Avoid
Auroral regions
Backscatter from fast-moving ionospheric irregularities in
the region of auroral plasma convection results in spread-Doppler clutter leading to loss
of target detection
Canadian HF Over-the-Horizon Radar
Experiments Using MIMO Techniques to
Control Auroral Clutter, IEEE NATIONAL
RADAR CONFERENCE -
PROCEEDINGS · JUNE 2010
http://www.aurorahunter.com/aurora-prediction.php
https://en.wikipedia.org/wi
ki/Over-the-horizon_radar https://en.wikipedia.org/wi
ki/Jindalee_Operational_
Radar_Network
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HF Surface Wave Radar
Primary Mission Maritime Surveillance, Potential Secondary
Missions Air Surveillance, Ocean Remote Sensing
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High Frequency Surface Wave Radar
provides continuous, persistent surveillance of surface vessels throughout a
nation’s 200 nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
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3rd Generation HFSWR Site
Transmit Antenna #1
Receive Array
Equipment Shelter
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3rd Generation HFSWR Design
Highlights
Monostatic, Dual Frequency/MIMO
Operation
Direct Conversion Receiver-Exciter
technology
A software based radar approach
Extensive use of COTS products
Linux OS
Custom Transmitter
excellent gain and phase linearity
Intelligent Spectrum Monitoring
Automated Pro-active Frequency
management
Cognitive Operation Enabled
Completed SysSAT in 1Q2015
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Cognitive Radar
Optimizer: Senses the
Environment and modifies TX/RX
parameters and processing to
maximize wanted signal to noise
ratio whilst minimizing the
unwanted signal to noise ratio
Correlator: Isolates and
Associates time sequential
responses with common
attributes to maximize probability
of track whilst minimizing
probability of both missed track
and false track.
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Parallels with Cognitive Radio
With the increasing demand of
wireless application, the insufficiency
of spectrum is more and more
serious; on the contrary, the
utilization of some licensed spectrum
is always low. In order to increase
the spectrum utilization, cognitive
radio makes it possible for
unlicensed users to access the
spectrum unoccupied by licensed
users.
Spectrum Sensing is a pre-requisite
to having a cognitive radio.
RF
Environment
ReceiverTransmitter
Interference
Information
Control
Cognitive Radio Systems, Edited by Wei Wang, ISBN 978-953-307-021-6,
Hard cover, 340 pages Publisher InTech, Published online 01, November,
2009
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Intelligent Spectrum Management
00:00
02:00
04:00
06:00
08:00
10:00
12:00
14:00
16:00
18:00
20:00
3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.25 4.5 4.75 5
Frequency MHz
Time
00:00
02:00
04:00
06:00
08:00
10:00
12:00
14:00
16:00
18:00
20:00
3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.25 4.5 4.75 5
Frequency MHz
Time
PRO-ACTIVE REMOTE INTELLIGENT
SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT (PRISM)
PRO-ACTIVE REMOTE INTELLIGENT SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT (PRISM) ENABLES COGNITIVE
OPERATION WHERE THE SYSTEM ADAPTS TO THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT
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THREAD 1 OF 2
PRISM - Intelligent Spectrum Management
PRISM: Performance Stats over 192 hour period
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Virtual Aperture Array* (MIMO)
* Patent Pending US20140197984 A1
During operation, the HFSWR sends pulses
simultaneously through the two transmit
antennas. On receive, the pulse return from
both antennas are separated to form the
virtual array (2 x physical aperture in size).
Raytheon’s VAA Technique Enhances Small Vessel Tracking
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Detector: Adaptive (Cognitive) CFAR Engine
CFAR processing adapts to
specific range, Doppler and Beam
areas of the detection region
OS-CFAR used for clutter regions
and CA-CFAR noise limited
regions
Handles edge effects by freezing
evaluation area at edges and
moving test cell within evaluation
area
Patent pending: A System and Method for Knowledge Aided Detection
Constant false Alarm Rate (CFAR) sets the threshold
so that the rate at which the false alarm occurs is
constant
Allows for unique parameterization at each test cell
including, range, Doppler and azimuth dimensions
and CFAR type: Cell Averaging(CA) or Ordered
Statistics (OS)
Performs PLOT EXTRACTOR function by deriving
centre-of-mass of detection cluster
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Why Adaptive CFAR
ADAPTIVE CFAR SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCES THE FALSE ALARM RATE ALLOWING THE
DETECTOR THRESHOLD TO BE LOWERED WITHOUT OVERPOWERING THE TRACKER
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Adaptive Track Promotion Logic
Adaptive track promotion logic1reduces
the number of false tracks in areas of
excessive clutter.
Adaptive track promotion logic relies on a
“plot” concentration map to monitor the plot
activity within the instrumented range of the
radar and to identify areas with excessive plot
activity.
In areas of excessive plot activity, the
likelihood of false track confirmation from a
sequence of extraneous plots is high, thus, the
number of misses to delete a tentative track or
the number of associations to confirm a
tentative track is adapted within the immediate
vicinity of these areas.
Other parameters can be adapted and the
adaptation may even be augmented by
knowledge of the local infrastructure or terrain,
for example
1US Patent 7,626,535 A Track Quality
Multi-Target Tracker, Raytheon
Canada Limited
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Example SysSAT Text Run
The test asset MV Strait Explorer is
classified as a category 2 target.
Sea States at the time of the trials were
Gale Force >7
Vessel was tracked continuously
throughout the day/night
System maintained track on vessel
whilst operating in Frequency Agile
Mode.
The Tracker correlated PLOT Data from
two frequency threads each with two
processing streams (CITS).
Vessel tracked to predicted night-time
range
Lgth: 46m, Beam: 11m, Displ: 1100 tons
VESSEL CONTINUOUSLY TRACKED FOR ~ 27 HOURS THROUGH EXTREME MANOEUVRES,
INCLUDING STOP-GO, WITH 2058 ASSOCIATED PLOTS (APPROX 1 MIN UPDATE RATE)
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Associating HFSWR data with AIS
Vessel manoeuver recorded by the HFSWR
track but missed by S-AIS
All tracks
Non-reporting tracks
COMBINATION OF RADAR AND
SPACE-BASED AIS HELPS
ISOLATE THE UNKNOWNS OR
VESSELS OF INTEREST AT A
RANGE WHERE APPROPRIATE
ACTION CAN BE TAKEN
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Microwave Radar
Only operates in a Line-of-Sight mode
Maritime Coverage generally limited to first 20 or 30
nautical miles (nm).
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Choke Point Surveillance
Primary Mission Maritime Surveillance, Potential Secondary
Missions Air Surveillance, Ocean Remote Sensing
Surveillance of Canada’s High Arctic
Projechttp://www.arcticnet.ulaval.ca/pdf/talks2007/Forand.pdft
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Example of Choke-Point Surveillance
MSTT's are a core part of Spain's 300-million-euro ($430-million) border surveillance system
SIVE. SIVE Officials report that " ...the significant thing about the system is that, both day
and night, it can track and make visible swimming objects that barely stick out of the water's
surface and are less than a meter (a yard) long“. http://www.dw.de/spains-border-surveillance-
system-remains-controversial/a-2835465-1.
MSTT deployed in military theatres " ... we used another equipment called Marine Small
Target Tracker made by Raytheon Canada which was a wonderful detection enhancement
plus a tracker which could see semi submersibles as well as swimmers ….". Cmde.
Prasanna Alahakoon Sri Lankan Navy (Coastal Surveillance Networks a Linkin Discussion
Group, 04/05/2013)
MSTT Montenegro “..changes the way we do business..” MoD reporting on Coastal
Surveillance System
Raytheon’s Auxiliary
Radar Processor, the
MSTT, used to
significantly enhanced
detection and tracking
capabilities of maritime
surveillance radars
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Benefits of Enhanced Surveillance: SIVE
report
Drug smuggling
interception and
capture increases
from 20% to 85%
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0
20
40
60
80
100
DRUG SMUGGLING
Conventional surveillance
DETECTION
CAPTURE
DRUG SMUGGLING
SIVE Surveillance System
DETECTION CAPTURE
ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION
SIVE Surveillance System
0
20
40
60
80
100
DETECTION CAPTURE
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
DETECTION
CAPTURE
ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION
Conventional surveillance
Illegal immigration
interception and
capture increases
from 45% to 99%
NOV 02
APR 02
NOV 02
APR 02
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
DETECTION
CAPTURE
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Multi-Function Phased Array Radars
Compact
Low Power
Easy Installation
Low Cost
Highly reliable
Multifunction
Air & Surface Surveillance
Winds
Precipitation
Sea Ice
Raytheon’s X-band LPAR radar
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Maritime Navigation Radar
September 2011 Ship Track Data as per
exactEarth AIS
The MV Nunavik is the world's largest icebreaker. It
is also a cargo ship that hauls nickel through the
Arctic. Photo ©Fednav
How to detect and tracking of small “dark vessels” over a wide area far
from shore.
One Solution Make use of existing
infrastructure:
Every cooperative vessel has a radar and a
AIS system. Reporting radar track data via
the AIS broadcast develops a mosaic of
vessel activity that enhances the MDA picture
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Distributing Navigation Radar Tracks
TracShare is a Raytheon Canada system that broadcasts radar observed
tracks via the existing AIS infrastructure (terrestrial and space). This allows
observations from commercial ships to contribute to the overall Maritime
Domain Awareness picture.
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Can we use data from Commercial
Airliners
Arctic flight paths. http://cryopolitics.com/2014/03)
Commercial airliners are not required to carry a radar that is capable of detecting and tracking
other aircraft in the area. Instead they rely on a transponder based system known as TCAS
(traffic collision avoidance system). However Weather Radar data may be available.
It is feasible however to broadcast observed data to ground stations using the ADS-B
http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/airlines-
cleared-to-use-santas-short-cut-6281263.html
In December 2011, FAA granted
permission to fly twin-jet aircraft
over the North Pole, saving
millions on fuel costs
A System and Method for Social Networking of Aircraft
for Information Exchange Using ADS-B, US Patent App.
US20140197982 A1
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Integrated Observing System SARImaging
Top of Atmosphere Wind
PCW
Doppler Lidar for wind
profiling
ADM-Aeolus
radar & radiometers
Precipitation
GMP
ASR VTS HFSWR & OTHR Radar/Met
Air Patrols SIGINT
Big Data
Autonomous
Platforms
Commercial
Aircraft
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Conclusion
Commercial assets will contribute significantly to deriving
Arctic Domain Awareness
Arctic Domain Awareness will be derived from a
combination of Wide Area Surveillance options supported
by local choke-point surveillance
Valuable contributor could be commercial vessels and
aircraft sharing observations/knowledge
Domain Awareness will require Information Sharing and
Compilation between Nations, Government Agencies,
Industry and local stake-holders.
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Questions?
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