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Atlas of New Zealand fish and squid distributions from midwater trawls, tuna longline sets, and aerial sightings

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... Carcharhinus brachyurus is an essentially warm temperate and subtropical species (Garrick 1982; Compagno 1984b; Muñoz-Chápuli 1984; Cappo 1992; Cliff and Dudley 1992; Chiaramonte 1998b). It is a widespread but patchily distributed coastal and shelf species, occasionally reported from oceanic areas close to the continental shelf (Amorim et al. 1998; Marín et al. 1998; Bagley et al. 2000) Cappo 1992; Cliff and Dudley 1992; C. Duffy unpublished data). Reproductive periodicity is probably biennial like most other large carcharhinids (Castro et al. 1999). ...
... and Galeorhinus galeus (Compagno et al. 1989; Cappo 1992; Bentley In: Rose 1996; Chiaramonte 1998a, b). It also forms a minor component of bottom trawl and pelagic longline fisheries (Compagno et al. 1989; Parry-Jones 1996; Amorim et al. 1998; Marín et al. 1998; Bagley et al. 2000). Carcharhinus brachyurus is fished commercially in New Zealand (Francis 1998; Bagley et al. 2000, Ministry of Fisheries, catch effort data), Australia (Cappo 1992); South Africa (Compagno et al. 1989); Brazil (Amorim et al. 1998); Uruguay (); Argentina (Chiaramonte 1998a, b); Mexico (Appelgate et al. 1993) and China (Parry-Jones 1996). ...
... It also forms a minor component of bottom trawl and pelagic longline fisheries (Compagno et al. 1989; Parry-Jones 1996; Amorim et al. 1998; Marín et al. 1998; Bagley et al. 2000). Carcharhinus brachyurus is fished commercially in New Zealand (Francis 1998; Bagley et al. 2000, Ministry of Fisheries, catch effort data), Australia (Cappo 1992); South Africa (Compagno et al. 1989); Brazil (Amorim et al. 1998); Uruguay (); Argentina (Chiaramonte 1998a, b); Mexico (Appelgate et al. 1993) and China (Parry-Jones 1996). In the Mediterranean it is taken in net fisheries and is usually grouped with other carcharhinids (e.g. C. plumbeus) when landed (Fergusson and Compagno 1995). ...
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The first regional SSG Red List Workshop was held by the AO Regional SSG on 7–9 March 2003 at the University of Queensland’s Moreton Bay Research Station on North Stradbroke Island, Australia. This group is responsible for the largest geographical SSG area, encompassing the Western Central Pacific, Southwest Pacific and Eastern Indian Oceans. This area includes the EEZs and adjacent waters of Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea (Papua New Guinea and Indonesian Irian Jaya) and many smaller Pacific island nations (see SSG map at http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/ fish/organizations/ssg/ssg.htm). The chondrichthyan fauna of this area is particularly diverse, with ~350 (approximately one third) of all known species occurring in this region. More than half of Australia’s chondrichthyan fauna is endemic (Last and Stevens 1994) and within New Zealand waters, Cox and Francis (1997) reported a total of 95 species, with approximately 20% endemic. The fauna from other parts of the region is less well documented. The assessments in this report were compiled by 26 experts during a 3-day Workshop. As much standardisation as practicable in the short time available was undertaken when compiling this publication. However, we have chosen to present assessments more or less as written at the Workshop, thus inevitable inconsistencies in writing style and content will be apparent. The main aim of this report is to make the Workshop outcomes available as soon as possible. These assessments form a baseline for future work in the region, some of which is urgent. The Red List assessments presented here will continually be updated as new information is obtained. For this reason, readers are urged always to consult the current Red List (www.iucnredlist.org), which is updated every year, to obtain the most up to date assessments.
... 2006). It was also compared with the list of fishes covered in Anderson et al. (1998), and with the midwater trawl species listed in Bagley et al. (2000). All protected species likely to be caught by bottom and midwater fishing are included in this guide. ...
... Red dots show the capture location, and the EEZ boundary and 1000 m contour are also plotted. Similar maps were produced by Anderson et al. (1998) and Bagley et al. (2000). 15. ...
... Family: Bagley et al. (2000), Carpenter & Niem (1999), May & Maxwell (1986), Paulin et al. (1989), Stewart (1995). ...
... Year range of analysis Reference BAR 1 1989-90 to 2013-14 Baird (2016) 1989-90 to 2016 Baird (2019) BAR 4 1989-90 to 1999-2000Langley & Walker (2002b, a) 1989-90 to 2010 McGregor (2020) 1989-90 to Ballara & Holmes (2020) BAR 5 1989-90 to 1997-98 Harley et al. (1999) 1989-90 to 2010 McGregor (2020) 1989-90 to Marsh & McGregor (2021) BAR 7 1989-90 to 2010-11 McGregor (2020) 1989-90 to 2014-15 Marsh & McGregor (2021) 1989-90 to 2017-18 Ballara & Holmes (2020 2. FISHERY SUMMARY ...
... Barracouta occupy waters from shallow depths down to about 670 m, with catches indicating a peak distribution between 30 and 350 m, particularly in 100-200 m (Anderson et al. 1998, Bagley et al. 2000. Mature-sized fish (from 50-60 cm fork length: 2-3 yr old) are found throughout this depth range; juveniles are mainly caught in waters shallower than 150 m (Hurst et al. 2000). ...
... Barracouta occupy waters from shallow depths down to about 670 m, with catches indicating a peak distribution between 30 and 350 m, particularly in 100-200 m (Anderson et al. 1998, Bagley et al. 2000. Mature-sized fish (from 50-60 cm fork length: 2-3 yr old) are found throughout this depth range; juveniles are mainly caught in waters shallower than 150 m (Hurst et al. 2000). Because barracouta are semipelagic, they are also found in midwater and have been recorded in midwater trawl catches and occasionally by tuna longliners (Bagley et al. 2000). ...
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Barracouta have been primarily targeted by bottom and midwater trawls around mainland New Zealand. The barracouta fisheries at the Chatham Islands (BAR 4) and around the Auckland Islands (part of BAR 5) have been relatively small and sporadic. Fishing has taken place over the continental shelf down to about 400 m depth. Annual catches have usually been within quota limits since the 1986 introduction of the Quota Management System. Spawning locations and movements of tagged barracouta around New Zealand indicate that there are at least four main stocks of barracouta. Current quota management areas (are based around these stock definitions. Spatial analyses to investigate the current stock structure hypothesis for all barracouta stocks were undertaken using generalised additive mixed models (GAMMs) and biological data collected from the commercial fishery and research trawls. The GAMM results suggest that stock structure is complex. For the west coast (BAR 7), more than one spawning stock (possibly including fish from BAR 5) may be present during the spawning season. Fish from the western side of BAR 4 are likely spawning and intermixing with fish in eastern areas (BAR 1), and barracouta in BAR 1 are intermixing with BAR 7 fish. There was no evidence of distinct stocks, except for on the eastern Chatham Rise. Future CPUE analyses should be conducted including seasonality and using all available data (i.e., not constrained to the traditional stock boundaries), because they are likely to be more representative, less variable, and more stable over time. This study has also shown that the standard use of generalised linear model CPUE standardisations have not adequately accounted for spatial-temporal trends seen in the New Zealand barracouta commercial catch and effort data. Future barracouta CPUE abundance assessments should further explore the use of GAMMs for CPUE standardisation. Standardised CPUE indices were developed for 1989–90 (1990) to 2019–20 (2020) for the ‘Chatham East’ area of BAR 4 (Statistical Areas 404 and 410 and further east) and for the squid target fishery in BAR 5. No index for BAR 4 ‘Chatham West’ was possible, because effort was sporadic. The CPUE index for BAR 4 ‘Chatham East’ was accepted by the Deepwater Working Group (DWWG), but it was agreed that the index was highly variable and that fishing selectivities have likely changed with changes in fleet structure and targeting, with the arrival of the large vessel (offshore) fleet in 2014. The DWWG accepted the BAR 5 squid target index as representative of abundance, but agreed that further work is needed to develop an index for the non-squid target fisheries. Although observer sampling has increased, more samples are needed, in particular the collection of otoliths (and length measurements in BAR 4). Increased otolith collection and the funding of ageing work are being addressed by Fisheries New Zealand. Because barracouta are a relatively low value species, more information on changes in markets, market prices, and fishing practices would allow better interpretation of CPUE.
... Guide to species Species within each family are arranged alphabetically by scientific name, i.e., by genus name then by species name. Species were selected for this guide based on lists of species given by Griggs et al. (2008), and Bagley et al. (2000). Ministry of Fisheries observer data for these publications were extracted from the tuna longline database (l_line) and also from the aerial sightings database (aer_sight). ...
... Red dots show the capture location, and the EEZ boundary and the 1000 m contour are also plotted. Similar maps were produced by Anderson et al. (1998) and Bagley et al. (2000). 15. ...
... Found beyond the 1000 m depth contour. Bagley et al. (2000), Chapman et al. (2006), Francis (1981), Paulin et al. (1989), Stewart (2000). ...
... Occurrences of species caught by midwater trawl were also compiled from the Ministry of Fisheries observer (obs) database and any additional species frequently caught were added to the master draft list. This list was also compared with the list of fishes covered in Anderson et al. (1998), and with the midwater trawl species listed in Bagley et al. (2000). The first guide (Volume 1) covers 252 species and the remainder are included here. ...
... Biology & ecology: Probably pelagic. Bagley et al. (2000), Stewart (1999a ...
... Biology & ecology: Oceanic, pelagic on the continental slope and seafloor rises. Bagley et al. (2000), Chapman et al. (2006), Nakamura & Parin (1993), Stewart (1999c), Stewart & Roberts (1999) Distinguishing features: Spinous first part of dorsal fin about half length of soft second part. Notch between spinous and soft parts of dorsal fin. ...
... Rig distribution has been analysed by Anderson et al. (1998) and Bagley et al. (2000). The locations of some nursery grounds were determined by Hendry (2004). ...
... School shark distribution has been described by Anderson et al. (1998), Bagley et al. (2000), and Hurst et al. (2000). Age and growth has been reviewed by Francis & Mulligan (1998). ...
... McMillan (1985), Clarke & King (1989), Tracey et al. (1997), Anderson et al. (1998), Hart & McMillan (1998), Clark & Anderson (1999), and Bagley et al. (2000) reported biomass surveys, or exploratory trawls of new fishing areas. They all provide essentially the same information about the target species (length, weight, sex, gonad stage), or a number of commercial species, with little or no information about invertebrate bycatch. ...
... This report details the spatial distribution of a wide range of New Zealand fish and squid species (see also Anderson et al. (1998) and Bagley et al. (2000)). This information is gathered from research trawls 1961-1997, and scientific observer trawls 1980-1998. ...
... Swordfish are the ninth to eleventh most abundant species caught on tuna longlines in the New Zealand EEZ, making up about 1.5% of the catch by number from 1986-87 to 2001-02 ,2000,2001, Ayers et al. 2004). ...
... In New Zealand, red cod is most commonly harvested by commercial operations in waters ,200 m (Beentjes 2000) and the fishery is dominated by 2þ-and 3þ-year-old fish (Horn 1996). However, red cod has a depth range in New Zealand that extends to at least 1000 m (Anderson et al. 1998;Bagley et al. 2000) and a longevity of at least 4þ years (Horn 1996). Although red cod grows up to 800-mm TL (Gomon et al. 2008), the largest individual sampled from Australian waters for the present research was 598 mm in TL. ...
Article
Understanding the life-history parameters that influence productivity is important in assessing the intrinsic resilience of a species to exploitation. The life-history characteristics of red cod, Pseudophycis bachus, were investigated to assess the intrinsic resilience of this important prey species to increased predation pressure by a range of high trophic-level predators. Red cod has a particularly short longevity; in Australian shelf waters it is uncommon to encounter individuals older than 2+ years. There are few shelf-water species that exhibit the rapid rate of growth that was observed where females and males attained similar to 300-mm total length in the first year. A particularly rapid growth rate, and a reproductive strategy characterised by early maturity and high fecundity, suggests that the species is relatively resilient. However, red cod is short lived, which exposes populations to large shifts in biomass. Harvesting of this species by predators, particularly during years of poor recruitment, may be significant in shaping the dynamics of red cod populations.
... This may be, because longline fishing effort for tuna species in Australia and New Zealand peaks in March until September (Gales et al. 1999), when most birds have migrated north of the equator (Serventy 1953). Most of the tuna longline sets in New Zealand are observed west of the South Island and northeast of the North Island (Bagley et al. 2000), both areas where sooty shearwaters rarely occur (P. Scofield, pers. ...
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The magnitude of the incidental ‘bycatch’ of two petrels, sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) and short-tailed shearwater (P. tenuirostris) in Pacific and Atlantic Ocean fisheries was estimated from a review of 46 published and unpublished documents. Though abundant, both species are harvested for food, and high levels of bycatch could affect the sustainable management of harvested populations. Bycatch of P. griseus and P. tenuirostris was evidenced from 14 net fisheries (21 reports), 5 longline fisheries (13 reports) and a trawl fishery (3 reports). In the past, these species were frequently captured by driftnets of fisheries in the central North Pacific, with sooty shearwaters especially in nets of the Japanese squid fishery from 1978 to 1991 and shorttailed shearwaters in the Japanese mothership salmon driftnet fishery from 1952 to 1988. These and several other ocean fisheries are now closed, and mortalities in present fisheries are much reduced. However, many fisheries have no observers, and available information may often be inaccurate, so that estimating total magnitude of bycatch within robust statistical limits is difficult.
... comm.). The shortfin mako occurs throughout New Zealand's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and is regularly taken as bycatch on tuna longlines, and less frequently in set nets, trawls, and on benthic longlines (Martinsohn & Muller 1992;Francis 1998;Bagley et al. 2000;Francis et al. 2000). Reported commercial landings have averaged c. 60 t per year since 1993 (Francis 1998), but catch estimates based on scientific observer reports indicate that the tuna longline fishery alone takes 100-200 t annually . ...
Article
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A litter of eight near‐term shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque 1810) embryos is described from a 317.5 cm total length (TL) female caught off Hawke Bay, south‐east North Island, New Zealand on 5 February 1999. The embryos (3 males and 5 females) were 67.2–77.0 cm TL. Embryo length, condition, hepato‐somatic indices, and mass of yolk in their stomachs all indicate they were close to birth. This is the first shortfin mako litter reported from New Zealand and is outside the late winter‐early spring parturition period predicted from estimated embryonic and juvenile growth rates. Uterine width data from four mature non‐pregnant females and age‐0+ length‐at‐capture data suggest parturition occurs from September to late February (late winter‐mid summer) but is infrequent after January. We suggest that shortfin makos have an extended parturition period, possibly year‐round, with peak parturition occurring in late winter‐spring.
... Ling were recorded in over 80% of New Zealand research bottom trawl tows in depths from 350 to 750 m (Anderson et al. 1998). They are a predominantly demersal species, caught regularly over both smooth trawlable and rocky untrawlable substrates, but have been captured in midwater, both feeding and spawning (Livingston 1990) predominantly in depths from 350 to 750 m (Bagley et al. 2000). Little is known about the distribution of juvenile ling, although they have been recorded from shallow depths out to about 500 m (O'Driscoll et al. 2003). ...
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This report aims to review the available literature and data on ling (Genypterus blacodes), primarily to provide synopses on the biology and life history of the species from worldwide sources, but also to provide references should the reader wish to investigate particular aspects in more detail.
Thesis
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The school shark (Galeorhinus galeus) is a coastal bentho-pelagic species that is highly migratory and has a widespread distribution in temperate waters. This species matures late, has a relatively low fecundity and is slow growing, which makes it vulnerable to overfishing. They are commercially fished throughout their distribution, and some global stocks have been under pressure because of poor management. In Australia, longline and gillnet fisheries targeted pregnant females and juveniles around Victorian and Tasmanian nursery grounds, resulting in loss of historical inshore nursery habitat. School shark tagging programmes have reported migration between Australian and New Zealand stocks, but preliminary genetic studies have suggested that there are slight genetic differences between the stocks. Currently, the Australian and New Zealand school shark fisheries are assessed and managed as separate stocks. However, the question of whether this species is comprised of a single population or multiple sub-populations in the South Pacific remains unresolved. Given the commercial importance of the school shark fisheries and the concern about stock levels on the regional and trans-Tasman scales, knowledge of stock structure is essential for effective management. The aim of this thesis research was to determine the levels of genetic diversity and population structure of G. galeus in New Zealand and Australia, and compare these to a population in Chile, using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing and microsatellite DNA markers. The DNA sequence of an 893 base pair region of the mtDNA control region (CR) was determined using 475 school shark samples and nine microsatellite DNA loci were genotyped in 239 individuals. Analyses of the data revealed strong evidence of genetic differentiation between G. galeus populations in Australasia and Chile, suggesting restricted gene flow among populations in the western and eastern areas of the Pacific Ocean. The FST values ranged from 0.188 to 0.300 for CR mtDNA, and 0.195 to 0.247 for microsatellite DNA in G. galeus. However, there was no evidence of stock differentiation among New Zealand/Australian sample sites for either mtDNA or microsatellite DNA data. These results support the model of a single panmictic stock across the Tasman Sea. The similarity of the results obtained from the maternally inherited mtDNA and biparental inherited microsatellite loci did not support the suggestion of sex-biased dispersal of G. galeus in the New i Zealand/Australia region and it was concluded that females and males had similar patterns of dispersal. Sharks can be either monogamous or polygamous, which is important when considering stock assessments and harvesting models. Multiple paternity has been reported in several shark species, however, the number of sires per litter varies considerably among species. An investigation of multiple paternity (MP) was conducted in G. galeus by assessing the levels of relatedness within progeny arrays using six polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. Five “families” (mother and litters) were sampled from the North Island of New Zealand and a parentage analysis was conducted. The minimum number of males contributing to each progeny array was estimated by identifying the putative paternal alleles by allele counting and reconstructing multilocus genotypes method. The analysis showed the occurrence of genetic polyandry in G. galeus; two of five litters showing multiple sires involved in the progeny arrays (40%). The minimum number of sires per litter ranged from one to four. Although MP was only detected in two litters, this finding is consistent with the known reproductive characteristics of G. galeus. It can potentially store sperm for long periods of time and has a specific mating season when males and females typically mix on the edge of the continental shelf. Detecting MP within a litter has highlighted the importance of the post-copulatory selective processes in the G. galeus mating system, and this has implications for the management and conservation of genetic diversity.
Article
The reproductive strategy of red cod, Pseudophycis bachus, was investigated as a contribution towards understanding the population dynamics of this important prey species in the shelf waters of Australia. Gonad organization and development revealed that red cod gametes are produced annually, and fertilization occurs externally. Histological observations revealed that imminent spawning was characterized by yolked, hydrated and migrated nucleus stage oocytes in females and an abundance of spermatozoa in males. Seasonal changes in gamete development and somatic indices for females and males were asynchronous. Seasonal changes in reproductive development together with somatic indices revealed that the main spawning period for red cod was during spring (September to November). While individuals in spawning condition were observed as early as April, spawning activity was most prevalent during September. Individuals in spawning condition were observed in the shelf waters of Bass Strait off the mainland ports of Queenscliff, San Remo and Lakes Entrance. The condition of all individuals collected from the shallow waters of Port Phillip Bay and Western Port was immature or undergoing maturation. Red cod spawn in shelf and slope waters, larvae are recruiting to coastal environments, and early juveniles are found in both bay and coastal environments. Early juvenile red cod were present in Western Port as early as October, and were present within the bay for a substantial part of the first year of growth. Mean size at sexual maturity was 315 and 340 mm total length for females and males, respectively, resulting in an age at sexual maturity of 1+. This suggests that movement of this species from bay and coastal environments to deeper waters during the first year of growth may depend substantially on reproduction. Red cod have a high annual fecundity (between 0.363 million and 5.059 million oocytes per fish) which was positively correlated with total length and gutted weight. Predation pressure is important in structuring ecosystem trophic interactions, and consumption of red cod by a range of high trophic level predators may be significant in shaping the dynamics in red cod populations. A reproductive strategy that is characterized by early maturity and high fecundity, coupled with a particularly fast growth rate, suggests that red cod populations are quite resilient to increased predation pressure.
Article
Catch rate data for fish species caught in 200–800 m depths during summer trawl surveys of the Chatham Rise to the east of New Zealand in 1992–99 were explored to assess community structure and species associations and to identify changes that occurred within the time series of surveys. The community was dominated by hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector), a Southern Hemisphere merlucciid hake, which was more abundant than all other species combined and occurred at 97% of the 1048 trawl stations. Three groupings offish species were identified on the basis of descriptive and cluster analyses, associated with the 200–350, 350–550, and 550–800 m depth ranges. Redundancy analysis showed that depth, latitude, and to a lesser extent longitude explained most of the variation in abundance and composition of catches. Spatial patterns in species diversity and fish density were investigated. Trends within the time series show a significant decline in the biomass of hoki and changes in biomass of several other abundant species. However, there was little change in diversity, density, or division into groupings. The changes in abundance may be related to increased fishing activity and/or other factors such as changes in catchability because of the rising bottom temperatures observed during the surveys.
Article
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The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine diversity in the EEZ may be expected to equal that in the ERMS region. This equivalence invites testable hypotheses to explain it. There are 177 naturalized alien species in New Zealand coastal waters, mostly in ports and harbours. Marine-taxonomic expertise in New Zealand covers a broad number of taxa but is, proportionately, at or near its lowest level since the Second World War. Nevertheless, collections are well supported by funding and are continually added to. Threats and protection measures concerning New Zealand's marine biodiversity are commented on, along with potential and priorities for future research.
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