Book

Decolonizing Educational Research: From Ownership to Answerability

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Abstract

Decolonizing Educational Research examines the ways through which coloniality manifests in contexts of knowledge and meaning making, specifically within educational research and formal schooling. Purposefully situated beyond popular deconstructionist theory and anthropocentric perspectives, the book investigates the longstanding traditions of oppression, racism, and white supremacy that are systemically reseated and reinforced by learning and social interaction. Through these meaningful explorations into the unfixed and often interrupted narratives of culture, history, place, and identity, a bold, timely, and hopeful vision emerges to conceive of how research in secondary and higher education institutions might break free of colonial genealogies and their widespread complicities.
... The mere mention of Education invokes these divergent concepts and many more. What these narratives of education as a formalized structure actually do is obscure learning as unruly and constant, regardless of setting (Patel, 2016a(Patel, , 2016b(Patel, , 2019(Patel, , 2020. Each of us is always learning. ...
... The space itself isn't much-a large, windowless interior closet, really. But it is capacious enough to hold our collective brokenness, our tensions (Campt, 2017), and the unruly consequences of learning (Patel, 2016a(Patel, , 2016b. This modest space was once the Latinx Education Research Hub, as initiated by Dr. Juan Carrillo. ...
... However, since otherwise is a worlds-building project full of pluralities to create (Crawley, 2020;King et al., 2020) the messiness of competing visions filled the space with tension (Campt, 2017) because we were not yet prepared to "expect that we will not be perfect with one another…[or] embrace failure in an attempt toward intimacy" (Finley, 2020, p. 364). Instead of embracing imperfection toward an ethic of relationality (Finley, 2020;Grande, 2004Grande, , 2018Patel, 2016a;Tuck & McKenzie, 2015) or even incommensurability (Tuck & Yang, 2018), some friendships and potential alliances were fractured over the new future of the space and the potential convergence of interests between the Hub and the School. After two years of being starved of support and resources, access to breadcrumbs and recognition from the institution is awfully tempting. ...
... The deficit lens refers to the erroneous view long held by many educators that Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) students, transnational students, and other marginalized youth do not care about their education nor care about performing well academically; yet these same educators ignore the limitations and failures within education and teacher preparation programs that contribute towards a system that fails these same youth (de los Ríos, 2017a; Paris, 2012;Valenzuela, 1999). The deficit lens of MLLs stems out of the colonial legacy upon which the U.S. education system was founded (de los Ríos, 2017a; Mohanty, 2003;Patel, 2015). Because of the colonial legacy and the deficit lens, MLLs often do not feel like they belong in our schools and classrooms, nor do they feel authentically cared for, and as a result, their academic achievement is not supported (Bondy, 2016;D'warte, 2014;de los Ríos, 2017b;Valenzuela, 1999). ...
... 76). Based on Mohanty's explanation, it is important to trace and understand the colonial legacies still current in and upon which modern day research and education were formed particularly in regard to language practices in education (Mohanty, 2003;Patel, 2015, Smith, 2012. In the U.S., there has also been a long history of forced or heavily coerced assimilation for people who are not from the dominant culture or who have moved here from another country (Bondy, 2015;Dabach & Fones, 2016;Mackinney, 2017). ...
... Of course, the enslaved Africans resisted in creative and powerful ways, but nonetheless, there was an attempt to force assimilation into a role of a slave which inevitably created new cultural practices influence by their experiences being in this country. Further, first nations children were forcibly removed from their families and taken to abusive, Western, European based boarding schools (Brayboy, 2005;Love, 2019;Paris, 2012;Patel, 2015). The Indian boarding schools had the explicit mission to "kill the Indian" to "save the man" by stealing Indigenous children from their homes and tribes, prohibiting the practice of their cultures or speaking of their languages (Brayboy, 2005, p. 430). ...
Thesis
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The pervasive deficit lens of multilingual language learners (MLLs) in U.S. education dehumanizes and fragments students in ways that disconnect them from their cultural and linguistic identities (CLI). MLLs are first and foremost humans with rich linguistic heritages, complex cultural backgrounds, and multiple and non-mainstream knowledges and ways of knowing (de los Ríos & Molina, 2020; Kasun, 2016). The deficit lens is a legacy of colonization that persists in our schools. Colonial education saw Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) transnationals as savage and backwards with cultures and languages that needed to be erased in order for them to assimilate into dominant, mainstream U.S. culture. These colonial legacies persist in our schools today. The intent of this critical ethnographic, arts-based, youth participatory action research (YPAR) study was to explore the experiences of MLLs as they learned about and made sense of their CLI in the context of a critical multimodal, multiliteracies, ethnic studies, arts-based summer collaborative called Nuestra Escuelita. The study was framed overall by a decolonizing framework through which the researcher sought to address the persisting colonial legacies in schools and their fragmenting and dehumanizing effects on MLL students. The participants were fourteen high school, bilingual, Latinx MLLs. The overarching assertion is that the students experienced a decolonial journey towards healing, wholeness, and humanity. Specifically, this journey is reflected in the four findings: 1) feeling connections of community and care; 2) reweaving the tapestries of their identities and heritage; 3) activating critical consciousness through historical learnings, shadow work and shifts toward power; and 4) feeling inspiration for change and imagining a decolonial vision for new educational futures. These findings represent the students’ experiences, and their journey mirrored the seven stages of Anzaldúa’s (2015) conocimiento. Implications include centering MLLs’ CLI in curriculum and the need for implementing ethnic studies programs for the New Latinx/Global South youth.
... Similarly, although not using the same term, the Right2Learn Dignity Lab has made this concept central to its efforts, in that they are purposeful about treating each other with the dignity that they are trying to make central to teaching and learning in public schools Espinoza and Padilla-Chavez 2021). Drawing on this work, we use the idea of experimentation in this paper to refer to an "experiment in" new ways of living out our values and learning through the process, not "experimenting on" students and communities in extractive or destructive ways (Smith 1999;Patel 2015). ...
... Student voice programs, for example, are sometimes justified using market-based language and metaphors of the student-as-customer. In contrast, approaches to collaborative research influenced by approaches from South America, South Asia, and Africa situate knowledge production in the broader social change projects and critiques of Eurocentric knowledge regimes (Cammarota and Fine 2008;Fals-Borda 1987;Patel 2015;Reyes Cruz 2008;Smith 1999). ...
... In these ways, the work that we do together embodies the kinds of relationality, trust, and mutual accountability called for in critical community-engaged research (Patel 2015). At the same time, we must ask ourselves: where are the SVL students and teachers in this collaborative work? ...
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Community-engaged research (CER) aspires to co-construct knowledge for action in groups that recognize people’s varied expertise and engage in democratic decision making. The CER literature has chronicled these processes in small participatory collectives but is less clear on the strategies or principles that guide collaborative approaches to data analysis in research partnerships that have hundreds of contributors playing distinct roles. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess and describe strategies for co-constructing knowledge with students and teachers who participated in a study that grew out of a broader research–practice partnership. In Part I of our findings, drawing on the concept of prefigurative experiments, we discuss the collaborative practices in our research team that took shape as we prepared data claims to share with students and teachers. In Part II, we discuss sessions interpreting the data with students and teachers in which they conveyed the emotional, embodied, and relational dimensions of student voice experiences. We conclude by discussing how this effort to be accountable to and in relationship with students and teachers, while incomplete on its own, spurred the design of new practices for democratizing data analysis and knowledge production in our research–practice partnership.
... The historical legacy of structural racism in the United States is a perpetual trauma machine grounded in White settler colonialism. Patel (2015) establishes that "Settler colonialism is a continuous process and logic with three mutually dependent components, all of which work in tandem and rely on each other to maintain the overall structure" (p. 33). ...
... In its most recent revision, the DSM-5 narrows the types of experiences that qualify as traumatic and it clarifies issues, such as witnessing other people's trauma-it notes that witnessing must be in-person and not through media outlets. Although these changes may seem trivial, they illustrate how state agencies and institutions uphold White dominance using westernized, colonial logics, namely by controlling resources and knowledge production (Marable, 2015;Matias, 2016;Patel, 2015). Such epistemological strongholds grounded in the DSM-5, for instance, can normalize the type of racial ideology that disregards the collective, vicarious trauma that Black, Indigenous, and other marginalized people of color can experience through observing televised acts of murder, bodily harm, and civil rights violations imposed by agents of the state. ...
... 281-282). Given the traumatic realities for many Black and Brown bodies and spirits, education must "unsettle" colonial Whiteness (Patel, 2015), not reproduce or weaponize it and should work to heal not harm, assisting students in dreaming and reclaiming identity and self-toward wholeness. ...
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In this article, we argue that healing from trauma in a racialized context requires an act of collective, critical resistance whereby educators and researchers reject a White-dominant colonial perspective of trauma on the grounds that it is pathologizing in several ways. We introduce a holistic trauma framework for understanding and responding to trauma within a racialized context. First, our framework seeks to draw on multiple forms of knowledge and experience to gain a deeper sense of trauma, suffering, and healing. Second, it uses an organic approach to promote relationships and support healing. Third, our framework explores multiple timepoints by introducing proactive, interactive, and reactive approaches for addressing trauma more comprehensively. We hope our framework will enhance the field of trauma research, which is, at present, overpopulated by White-dominant, colonial perspectives that mask systemic racial inequities.
... Public schools have always been challenging places to undertake extended, youth-centered, inquiry-based, critical work designed to create authentic change, and they have only gotten worse in two decades of neoliberal education reform (Cannella, 2008;Macedo, 2013;Patel, 2015). Further, public school teachers receive different preparation than university professors trained in doctoral programs, as most teacher preparation programs do not engage teachers in extensive research training or in critical pedagogy (Macedo, 2000;Duncan-Andrade & Morrell, 2008). ...
... This is even more true in the post-NLCB era, where learning and teaching (i.e., knowledge creation) inside of schools is becoming increasingly standardized by outside actors who espouse, incentivize, and often demand neoliberal conceptions of and purposes for knowledge creation (Cannella, 2008;Fox & Fine, 2013). This epistemology of schooling promotes individual achievement within a competitive, ostensibly meritocratic school system and mirrors the foundational principles of white supremacy, patriarchy, capitalism, and settler colonialism in the U.S. (Bowles & Gintis, 1976;Patel, 2015;Tuck, 2009). In short, the epistemology of schooling stands opposed to the critical and action-oriented principles of YPAR, which raises questions about whether teachers working in schools can adopt them. ...
... A final component of YPAR's epistemology where important questions were raised by my study is the nature, the prioritization and, when it came to school-based YPAR, the 102 Jean explained that youth questioning and potentially critiquing elders through a process like YPAR goes against cultural practices in the Indigenous community in which she would be teaching. Jean recognized that her outsider status as a white person of European descent adds another layer to an already complex situation, particularly in light of the damage white people of European descent have done and continue to do to Indigenous communities across Turtle Island (aka North America) using colonial research approaches (Guishard & Tuck, 2014;Patel, 2015). Of course, it should be noted that youth challenging adults through YPAR goes against cultural norms in many communities, so this issue is not limited to this particular Indigenous community or Indigenous communities in general. ...
Thesis
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Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) is an epistemological stance premised on the belief that young people can and should participate as researchers in an inquiry-based process designed to critique and take action against oppression. Over the past two decades, university-based researchers working largely outside of school settings have documented inspiring YPAR work. As a result, YPAR is gaining the attention of U.S. public school teachers, an increasing number of whom are implementing YPAR in core academic subjects with students. To date, however, few studies have examined the beliefs and experiences of teachers who implement YPAR as pedagogy with students in classrooms, and no study has done so across a wide range of contexts. In my study, I interviewed 28 current or former U.S. public school teachers who have experience implementing YPAR with students in core academic classes in order to determine how they think about the work. The teachers taught in grade levels ranging from fourth to twelfth grade, across multiple subjects (e.g., English, history, science), and in 24 different schools located in nine large urban districts across the United States. In my analysis, I examined how the teachers converged with and diverged from each other in their understanding and enactment of the epistemology of YPAR. Further, I compared teachers’ beliefs and experiences to what leading university-based researchers have written about the epistemology of YPAR in academic texts. Most teachers in my study, like virtually all university researchers, believe that YPAR must be critical in nature, centering issues of power and oppression in the work. Additionally, the teachers believe that action is an epistemological requirement of YPAR; however, they diverge on the nature and priority of action, similar to university researchers. Further, the teachers gave substantially more control and choice to students in setting the research agenda and driving the process than university researchers. Finally, a third of teachers asked students to engage in individual YPAR projects – an approach which has yet to be captured in the academic literature. The findings from my study provide insight to adults engaging youth in YPAR inside and outside of classroom settings.
... In situating research within the Indigenous paradigm, scholars challenge the colonial traditions inherent within the academy (Kovach, 2009;Patel, 2016;Smith, 1999). Furthermore, conducting research from within an Indigenous paradigm centers Indigenous futures, which some Indigenous scholars argue is paramount to the survival of all who live on this earth, and which embodies conditions of peace, human rights, and social justice (Chilisa, 2020). ...
... xi). This lends to the transformation and decolonization of the academy (Chilisa, 2020;Patel, 2016), thus informing the policies and social transformation of communities at a structural level (Dei, 2016;Goodyear-Kaʻōpua, 2013). ...
... Indigenous theories have a particular potency in informing the transformation of educational spaces, in recentering the transmission of cultural, linguistic, and ontological knowledge authentic to each community. Critical Indigenous scholars (i.e., Chilisa, 2020;Dei, 2016;Kovach, 2009;Patel, 2016;Smith, 1999) recognize the crucial work of conducting research which shapes pedagogy within communities of Indigenous and non-Indigenous folks alike as they strive for self-determination, decolonization, and collective movement to actualize postcolonial and decolonized realities and Indigenous futures. ...
Article
In wondering “How are decolonizing, place/land-based, and community-grown learning places created and sustained as alternatives to dominant settler-colonial systems, and what stories would they share about their creation and existence?”, I formed relationships with two alternative, autonomous, decolonizing schools through a teacher-guide at each school who served as guides for me to enter their spaces with invitation. In developing these relationships over 2-3 years and spending 2-3 weeks alongside each of them at their school sites, I was able to sustain natural and deep conversation with my teacher-guides, who then served as co-storyers of this research to collectively consider research questions through the lens of their stories and lived realities in their schools. This study was carried out through narrative storywork, Indigenous and culturally responsive methodologies, and critical autoethnography, as my experience of entering these school communities and forming these relationships over time became a supporting contribution to the data. Data is regarded as all the stories, conversations, reflections, observations, intuited moments, and elements of portraiture that were gathered through this process of sustained relationship with my co-storyers and my dedicated time in being within and experiencing each school space. I identified four major themes as emergent from the data: (1) a necessary process, (2) school as communion, (3) a radical existence, and (4) belonging. Dialogue with my co-storyers about the emergent themes suggests that this work of creating decolonizing, community-grown, place-specific alternatives to settler-state educational systems is necessary across many communities; yet, entering this work requires a necessary process of individual and collective work to align to place-appropriate, decolonized, and Indigenous principals of place, community, culture, and work. Data also suggests that creating such schools is radical yet sustainable and that these schools embody a paradigmatic shift from colonizing, individualistic systems toward collective, communal systems aligned with Indigenous and anti-colonial communities. Furthermore, the data and dialogue suggest that within this work of growing such place-specific communal schools, members of the community are often afforded a greater sense of belonging and collective ownership over their educational experience. Both schools in the study also demonstrated a positive impact on the place and land on which their school was situated. Therefore, this study implicates that there is value in seeking and growing schools outside of the dominant system and that communities who seek to grow such place and person-specific schools can experience great benefit for both human and more-than-human members of the community. Keywords: alternative-autonomous school, communal school, school as communion, decolonizing, anti-colonial, Indigenous-aligned, Indigenous methodology, decolonizing communities, portraiture, critical autoethnography, co-storying research, narrative storywork, belonging, culturally responsive methodologies, place-based, land-based, resisting settler-state, sustainable systems thinking, Hālau Kū Māna, Angeles Workshop School, revolutionary schools, diverse communities, students of color
... According to de Sousa Santos (2014), epistemicide is the death of knowledge through unequal exchanges and imposition of culture, which causes the destruction and loss of social practices and norms. Coloniality is the legacy of colonization's violence; including continuously ignoring and marginalizing BIPOC epistemologies and lived experiences (Battiste, 2013;Khalifa et al., 2018;Mackey, 2017;Patel, 2015). Thus, problematizing the legacy of Eurocentric epistemologies begins with the pivotal U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education Topeka (1954), which launched the most significant educational reforms in U.S. history (ESEA 1965). ...
... Resistance to and struggle against White supremacy and epistemicide exemplify the Blackamerican experience, before and after Brown. Eurocentric systems and the people operating and reinventing these systems fought and still fight valiantly to keep BIPOC epistemologies on the margins and ignored as Eurocentric epistemologies continue to dominate all aspects of school leadership (Battiste, 2013;Dunbar-Ortiz, 2014;Khalifa et al., 2018;Mackey, 2017;Patel, 2015). White supremacy and epistemicide are central to coloniality, thus identifying, naming, and critiquing these constructs are paramount. ...
Article
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Purpose: This article is a critical analysis of educational leadership and administration’s historically privileged Eurocentric epistemologies, research methodologies, and intellectual norms, shaping the field through conceptions of coloniality. The purpose of this article is toward decolonizing educational leadership. Problem: Dominant, Eurocentric knowledge systems are epistemically imposing. Racialized and ethnic critiques of Eurocentric epistemologies and educational leadership norms are relatively new in dominant knowledge production institutions such as University Council of Educational Administration and peer-review journals such as Education Administration Quarterly. Questions: Why are BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, and People of Color) epistemologies a critical issue in educational leadership, research, practice, and leadership preparation? In what ways have educational leadership research, practice, and training represented BIPOC epistemologies? Conceptual Framework: This article refines and advances theories of coloniality by a concept that I coined Coloniality Racial-Capitalism and Modernity. Coloniality, the darker side of modernity, is highlighted in educational leadership practices and reform for perpetuating epistemicide in the service of racial capitalism. Contributions to the Field: This article reconnects the struggles of Blackamericans to a global struggle, such as the progenitors in the Blackamerican struggle understood. Furthermore, placing coloniality in conversation with other critical work in educational leadership around coloniality’s articulations of racism and inequity is useful for BIPOC and their allies in fights for educational justice for BIPOC children.
... As decades of research on languaging has shown, a theory of language has been constructed within the colonial matrix of power (Heller and McElhinny 2017;Makoni 1998;Makoni and Pennycook 2007;Patel 2016;Rosa and Flores 2017). Understood as part of a legacy of European nation-state building, and the abiding legacy of Enlightenment of the 18th century language is recognized as a marker of one's ethnic identity, buttressing the pervasive monolingual notion of one nation, one language, and one identity. ...
... In this regard, Patel's (2016) call for approaching our research in terms of answerability provides us an ethical and humanizing way of thinking of research in the "streets." Patel problematizes how the colonial logic of "ownership" is deeply entrenched in educational research, as shown in our understanding of knowledge from our research projects as something we "own" and the frequent pathologizing approach to and portrayal of communities of color as those who "need" and "lack." ...
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In scholarly discussions on “language” and “diversity,” much critique has been offered as to how research on languaging is implicated in perpetuating coloniality and pursuing decolonial options, including the white-gaze understanding and approach to the term, “diversity” (Heller and McElhinny 2017; Mignolo 2009; Rosa and Flores 2017; Walcott 2018). Extending these discussions, this article calls for centering languaging in the “streets” as an important way for sociolinguistics to contribute to building decolonial futures. We see “streets” as an embodied, dynamic space, organized by the goal of decolonial future making, layered with conflicting struggles, discourses, and historicities. Examining languaging in the “streets” can highlight how those oppressed by various colonial conceptualizations and ongoing coloniality work toward social justice and transformation in and beyond classrooms. We suggest three important considerations in sociolinguistic research on languaging in the “streets,” and conclude by emphasizing the importance of reflexivity of individual researchers and the field as a whole.
... An immediate action we can do is to begin the process of education, re-education, and decolonization (Patel, 2015) [21]. First, we must do the internal work within ourselves as faculty who currently generate research using these methods. ...
... An immediate action we can do is to begin the process of education, re-education, and decolonization (Patel, 2015) [21]. First, we must do the internal work within ourselves as faculty who currently generate research using these methods. ...
Article
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Higher education is in a moment of pause, facing an opportunity to transform or continue to perpetuate the status quo. The COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with the recognition of racial violence, has created an opportunity for institutions to question their own policies and practices. The purpose of this inquiry is to question the science behind established statistical practices. Specifically, the question guiding this investigation is: How can higher education quantitative scholars (students and faculty) identify and be critical of statistical practices that perpetuate inequity, forms of oppression, and White supremacy? Using a QuantCrit framework, five examples are presented that illustrate multiple forms of oppression, subjectivity, and bias including: (a) comparing across groups, (b) eliminating outliers, (c) addressing non-response bias, (d) small sample sizes, and (e) theory development. Two recommendations are discussed that could help transform higher educational quantitative research and training into a more inclusive, equitable, and anti-racist educational environment.
... 532). Similarly, Participatory Design Research (Bang & Vossoughi, 2016) has emerged as a method that leverages design research (Brown, 1992;Cobb et al., 2003;Sandoval & Bell, 2004), design-based implementation research (Penuel et al., 2011;, and formative interventions (Engestr€ om, 2011;Engestr€ om et al., 2014;Sannino, 2015) and has resonance with critical and participatory research such as social design experiments (Guti errez & Vossoughi, 2010;Guti errez & Jurow, 2016), decolonizing methodologies (Paris & Winn, 2013;Patel, 2016;Smith, 1999;Zavala, 2013), and participatory action research (Fine et al., 2003;Whyte, 1991). Through teacher solidarity co-design, we intend to continue this productive entwining of co-design and participatory research. ...
... As a novice researcher, I focussed on how my position as a White researcher from a foreign and internationally esteemed university, in a context that did not yet have music education or music teacher education at the university level could position me as an expert in Nepal. I thus consciously sought not to erase local knowledge and practices to be replaced by my own (e.g., Patel, 2016;Tuck & Yang, 2012), relying on an appreciation of local knowledge, traditions, and educational approaches to do so. The school administrators' decision thus surprised me and caused feelings of shame and embarrassment about this "mistake" I had made, which led me to try too quickly to recover and return to my interview guide. ...
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Responding to the identified need for reflection, critique, and evaluations of appreciative inquiry (AI), a form of action research, this article presents a critical reflection on an application of AI in a cross-cultural music education research project. AI was selected as it appeared to both have potential for addressing the complexities related to power imbalances, ethnocentrism, and coloniality inherent in a project aiming to co-develop music teacher education in Finland and Nepal, and because its 4D model supported the co-constructing of visions, which was central to the project. The critical reflection presented in this article focused on three situations of breakdown that occurred during the research process. Analysis of these breakdowns highlighted the need for researchers to engage responsibly in research as participants, account for dreaming as an unevenly distributed capacity when working with visions or aspirations, and develop skills facilitating collaborative spaces that cultivate listening for and appreciating difference. The article concludes by recognising the limitations of undertaking this reflection independently rather than collaboratively and by cautioning against the instrumentalization of appreciation, calling instead for sincere appreciation. Overall, the article contends that the process of identifying and generating new understandings of breakdowns is a powerful approach for stimulating researcher reflexivity.
... As far back as the sociological writings of Du Bois (1898, 1935, 1897), qualitative inquiry has played a crucial role in conveying the lived realities of African Americans and other systematically oppressed or subjugated communities. Bodies of work leveraging such critical epistemologies include general feminist approaches and their subdomains such as Black feminist thought (Berry, 2010;Dillard, 2000), Chicana feminist epistemologies (Anzaldúa, 1987(Anzaldúa, , 2009Delgado Bernal, 2002), and other criticalities that question and dismantle colonialist and normative perspectives in education and the social sciences writ large (Delgado and Stefancic, 2017;Patel, 2015;Tuck and Yang, 2012). While space does not permit a thorough analysis of the values of every theory used in qualitative applications, students and novice researchers should keep in mind that being able to articulate one's values as a researcher and how these inform the choice of a theoretical framework is prerequisite to selecting a methodological sub-approach and research design. ...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an overview of the philosophical assumptions that underly qualitative research, including the types of logics employed as well as the axiological, epistemological, and ontological perspectives of various designs, methods, and methodologies. Readers new to qualitative inquiry will gain an introductory understanding of the historical forces that enabled qualitative research to develop in response to positivist, quantitative designs in which the researcher was seen as an objective, impartial expert. The chapter centers participants as experts in a qualitative project and describes the specific design rationales and procedures that qualitative researchers employ in order to maintain this focus on participant perspectives.
... 3. This grammatical choice is also modeled after the use of the slash in recent de/colonizing work (Bhattacharya, 2009;Patel, 2016;Tuck & Yang, 2012), which recognizes that efforts to dismantle settler colonial logics occur within institutions that were built on and continue to operate under those very colonial systems. For Kakali Bhattacharya (2009), the slash is used to "denote interactions between traditional colonizing discourses and the resistance against such discourses. . . . ...
Book
The current socio-political moment-rife with racial tensions and overt bigotry-has exacerbated longstanding racial inequities in higher education. While educational scholars have developed conceptual tools and offered data-informed recommendations for rooting out racism in campus policies and practices, this work is largely inaccessible to the public. At the same time, practitioners and policymakers are increasingly called on to implement quick solutions to what are, in fact, profound, structural problems. Racial Equity on College Campuses bridges this gap, marshaling the expertise of nineteen scholars and practitioners to translate research-based findings into actionable recommendations in three key areas: university leadership, teaching and learning, and student and campus life. The strategies gathered here will prove useful to institutional actors engaged in both real-time and long-term decision-making across contexts-from the classroom to the boardroom.
... As I considered how I would offer this positionality statement, I reflected on Patel's (2015) questions and asked "Why me?," "Why this study?," and "Why now?" My answers were girded by my own identity as a first-generation college student and the eldest child of parents who immigrated to the U.S. for the American Dream. ...
... Our experiences in four different colleges at the same institution evidence the imposition of disciplinary silos and its implication in the forms of academic fragmentation that frame Indigenous worldviews as special interest agendas (Sumida Huaman & Mataira, 2019), rather than central to holistic knowledge relationships across peoples, land, and cultures (Patel, 2016). Telling our stories of everyday life in the academy is important as our experiences appear most in line with public institutional norms. ...
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This article situates the experiences of faculty members, as tribal nation builders, within the academy of higher education. As creators of a 2020 convening on nation building in higher education, we ascertain the logic for interdisciplinary faculty collaboration as essential for performing and centering tribal nation-building efforts in higher education. We argue that the academy cannot honor its relationship with Indigenous lands and peoples without equitable investment in Indigenous faculty and cur-ricular programs that engage deeply with Indigenous lifeways and lead restorative relationships with Indigenous communities and their citizens. As junior scholars using personal narrative to illuminate the complexities of advancing Indigenous programming, we propose investment in interdisciplinary work as a reflection of Indigenous knowledge. We conclude by highlighting ways for institutions to invest in Indigenous faculty and the co-conceptualization of nation building as a vital cornerstone of public education.
... 141). Leigh Patel (2016) extends this conversation when she writes, "Learning is fundamentally a fugitive, transformative act. It runs from what was previously known, to become something not yet known" (p. 6). ...
... Opening perspectives for research methods that are more holistic and enhance a query offers greater avenues for exploration and understanding our complex world at deeper levels. Patel (2016) reminded, "The courses in research methodologies to study the ways in which research knowledge is framed, gathered, and communicated" (p. 21) originated from a Western research perspective of compartmentalizing facts, control over data, and the primacy given accuracy. ...
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This research aimed to deepen understanding about effective Montessori teachers and broaden the context of the topic by examining aligning Montessori theory with Indigenous theory and sustainability theory. The research was guided by an Indigenous research paradigm and involved using appreciative inquiry and tapping into the wisdom of experienced Montessori educators, considered as coresearchers and elders. Using Bohm's dialogue process, six small groups of elders pondered together about the essence of Montessori and their insights about teachers who effectively implement the Montessori concept. The total of 20 coresearchers concluded that the essence of Montessori was when Montessori became a way of life, a process, coresearchers believed, is lifelong. The elders determined effective Montessori teachers are those who can apply the Montessori concept in their classroom. Key attributes of effective Montessori teachers included ability to trust, exercise keen observation skills, and develop mindfulness. One insight offered for teacher educators included allowing more time for adult learners to practice implementation of the theory. For administrators, elders believed that teachers' development unfolds just as students' and requires in-kind support. Findings help inform prospective and current Montessori teachers, teacher educators, and school administrators. Findings show an alignment between Maria Montessori's educational theory and how it is practiced, reveal the complex nature of the Montessori concept, and indicate Montessori education fosters a sustainability mindset.
... The U.S. has a long history of social and educational disinvestment in indigenous, Black, and Latinx communities (Patel, 2016;Tuck, 2009). While the need for qualified and effective teachers to serve MLs has been a focus of federal and state level policies for decades, the pervasive English-only legislature has stifled efforts to produce a bilingual/multilingual teaching force stemming from our historic disinvestment in the bilingualism and biliteracy of racialized immigrant communities. ...
Article
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Drawing on decades of lessons from a Bilingual Teacher Education Program (BTEP) in California that has persevered both restrictive and additive federal and state educational language policies, this manuscript provides an ethnographic snapshot of how this BTEP has strategically navigated through and around anti-immigrant ideologies and policies to survive incessant attacks on bilingual education and educational equity for multilingual learners. Utilizing a critical language policy framework, the authors analyze how the Castañeda v. Pickard case and other educational language policies shape the work of bilingual teacher educators as language policy agents. They rely on autoethnographic accounts to illustrate how they navigate the complex relationship between policy and practice and offer a critical analysis of the bilingual teacher shortage. The authors propose that developing critically conscious bilingual educators with ideological clarity may mitigate this larger systemic issue.
... This methodology is rooted in design-based research in education, which is about advancing educational theory and practice by enacting, studying, and revising educational interventions in real-life learning situations (Collins et al., 2004). At the same time, solidarity-driven codesign draws from participatory and community-based research approaches (Beckman & Long, 2016;Strand et al., 2003), as well as decolonizing methodologies (Patel, 2015;Smith, 2013). It involves a structural critique of power hierarchies and an examination of how those hierarchies shape the topics under investigation and the relational dynamics and learning possibilities in the process of partnering. ...
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We share school leaders’ perspectives on Zoom videos concerning the needs of immigrant and refugee families in Title I schools. In these videos, participants crafted and shared personal narratives about their leadership experiences during the COVID-19 era of education. Rooted in participatory design research methods, the process of designing these videos were both a research project and an intervention to assist families and school leaders to better understand each other. We present a close analysis of administrators’ perspectives and describe how our codesigned video methodology enabled participants to coconstruct new meanings of school-community relationships during the pandemic through a radical care framework. We conceptualize these reimaginings as aperturas—cracks in the dominant family engagement paradigm that allow us to collectively work towards transformative ends which we term community-centered school leadership. We conclude the article with recommendations for how both school leadership and research can approach and reimagine family engagement postpandemic.
... Author 2 is a scholar of Puerto Rican descent whose work is grounded in Black feminist and decolonial theory. My scholarly and pedagogic commitment to African diasporic and 4 We focus on psychology because while other disciplines have engaged in efforts to decolonize scholarship, including critical management studies (Alvesson, Bridgman, & Willmott, 2009;Kwek, 2003), education (Lopez, 2020;Patel, 2015;Smith et al., 2018), and environmental justice (Álvarez & Coolsaet, 2020), these efforts have not been taken up consistently across the branches of psychology (i.e., neuroscience, biopsychology, developmental, clinical, social, community, cultural, comparative, sports, organizational-industrial) and are imperative to rethinking our own knowledge project as psychologists and its liberatory potential as a discipline. multi-ethnic cultural production originates in my own intimate and familial relation to absences within the colonial archive. ...
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... As researchers who seek to engage in assetbased, decolonized inquiry, we acknowledge our positionality to not only the topic, but also the racially, ethnically, and economically marginalized participants with whom we worked (Milner, 2007;Patel, 2015). Our research team was made up of three Black men (two African Americans and one second-generation Caribbean American) and one Afro-Latinx woman of Dominican origin. ...
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Inspired by Black Lives Matter activism, we used racialized lenses on social-psychological “mattering” to investigate how Black high school boys’ interactions shaped their perceived mattering. Researchers conducted interviews with 17 self-identified Black boys who were part of a larger school-based partnership called The Black Boy Mattering Project. Participants reported experiencing and resisting interpersonal marginal mattering (e.g., evidenced in negative interactions with educators and peers and fueled by racist stereotypes) and described mattering partially through selective love (e.g., inferring significance through athletics, yet deemed anti-intellectual). Our study exhibits how schools uphold systemic anti-Black racist notions that shape relationships between Black boys and their peers and educators and diminish adolescents’ self-concepts. Implications aim to support educators and researchers in radically affirming Black boys in school contexts.
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This paper argues for a methodological approach, a multi-sited place project, to center place within ethnographies of schooling and facilitate deeper understandings of socialization into settler relations stemming from and supporting the white settler nation-state. This approach draws upon language socialization and critical place inquiry, tracing settler colonial narratives between schools and local history sites such as California missions, historic city walking tours, and township festivals. The multi-sited place project reveals emplaced narratives, stories that socialize people to particular relations and logics to and within specific places, connecting histories and identities to a particular place in the present, and in the process, shaping possibilities of who people can be in the future. Compelling this approach is a desire for greater understandings of incompatibilities within racialized peoples’ work towards liberation on Indigenous lands that are not our own. Its purpose is to bring together approaches for studies of schooling and place in ways that challenge rather than accept settler futures. A multi-sited place project carried out on unceded Ohlone territory illustrates the approach, advancing understandings of how “Latinx” youth and families, primarily of Mexican origin, were socialized into Californian settler histories and identities via a family day at a historic rancho.
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Babchuk, W.A. and Boswell, E. (in press). Qualitative research approaches and designs: Grounded theory. For R. Tierney, F. Rizvi, K. Ercikan, & G. Smith (Eds). International Encyclopedia of Education Volume 4. Elsevier LTD: Oxford.
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There is a paucity of research on the educational experiences of Filipinx Americans, the second-largest Asian American group in the United States. Studies that do exist often lump Filipinxs with other Asian Americans or present them devoid of critical contexts that shape their experience, namely, colonialism and racialization. Using a desire-based framework and empire as an analytic, we conducted a semi-systematic review of 74 journal articles to better understand how Filipinx Americans are presented in the research. Our analysis suggests that researchers often position Filipinx Americans relative to whiteness or utilize critical educational framings to interrogate the complex ways they are racialized. We offer implications for research focused on Filipinx Americans and minoritized groups. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary research as well as the necessity for desirability and empire as a lens for future education research.
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Using a chronicle, this paper examines teacher evaluation systems to highlight how neoliberal reforms produce unjust conditions for both teachers and students of color. I specifically center Black women and their ways of knowing to provide a (re)imagining around what is possible when educational leaders move beyond reforms to create a system that holds teachers answerable to students and is rooted in love.
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Research demonstrates the significant impact that Black educators have in the classroom on students across all racial demographics. Despite this, Black teacher retention is often lower than for their white counterparts. While there is extant literature that addresses the issues of why Black teachers leave, there is a need for more research that centers the perspectives and experiences of why veteran Black educators remain in the classroom. Found within this group of teachers are those who have willfully taken on potential risks, in service of their students’ achievement and their commitment to educational justice. This phenomenological study of 16 Black educators is grounded in Critical Race theory and employs surveys and interviews as primary data sources to examine and analyze the ways in which Black educators engage in and derive meaning from “risk taking” in their respective classrooms and schools. The findings suggest that school-based definitions for risk-taking require a critical lens in how such behaviors and actions are promoted, encouraged and enacted within classrooms. This study has implications on the ways that individual teacher characteristics and socio-cultural factors influence teacher decisions and practices.
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Education is an essential aspect of any society in the world. As such, it has been a topic studied by many sociologists since the origins of the discipline. Today it is one of the most common subjects in sociology, in part because it has been recognised as a crucial environment for the (re)production of inequalities. This article explores the role of education in the (re)production of social inequalities and its potential to challenge such inequalities. In addition, the article presents some of the distinctions between research in the Global South and North, both in geographical and metaphorical terms. Since this article is the introduction to the special issue Education and the Production of Inequalities: Dialogues from the Global South and North, a synopsis of the published articles is presented at the end.
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This chapter focuses on the unifying commitments that are core to the scholarship and related activisms and movements of postcolonial theologies. The function of colonialism remakes colonized people into the colonist's or oppressor's imagination, until the oppressed can no longer recognize themselves apart from the oppressor. Postcolonial theology and discourse emerge from the experiences of coloniality and imperialism which extend to the erasure of Indigenous religions, spiritual practices, and beliefs and the introduction of new colonially imported religions, spiritual practices, and beliefs. Beyond qualitative research, postcolonial theological commitments are found in other areas of scholarship. Postcolonial theologies hold commitments to intersectionality and making visible the connections between various types and sources of oppressions in the lives of minoritized peoples. Religious education as part of the field of practical theology centers everyday lived religious experiences and how the practice and ritual related to lived religious experience leads to personal and communal formation.
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Race theories generate method-making and onto-epistemological connections central to inquiry. In this article, the authors share a conversation that created methodological openings about what constitutes ‘racially just’ in this particular moment of qualitative research. Is the call for ‘racially just’ a form of disruption or rupture? Is it a logic of inclusion, or a logic of obliteration? While the racial character of knowledge systems has become more explicit, it is important to consider how the analytics of raciality, a social scientific apparatus that produces racial subjugation, is already configured and entangled within sociopolitical systems. Following the work of Denise Ferreira da Silva, the authors argue that attention to raciality requires a different set of critical strategies for troubling ‘racially just’ approaches in the name of racial justice, asking more of themselves, of each other, and of their collective aims to unsettle colonial and racial logics within and outside of higher education institutions. The potential for transforming research practises and the teaching of research methods, by building on radical women of colour feminisms, are also discussed.
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Background/Context Bi/multilingual students’ STEM learning is better supported when educators leverage their language and cultural practices as resources, but STEM subject divisions have been historically constructed based on oppressive, dominant values and exclude the ways of knowing of nondominant groups. Truly promoting equity requires expanding and transforming STEM disciplines. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study This article contributes to efforts to illuminate emergent bi/multilingual students’ ways of knowing, languaging, and doing in STEM. We follow the development of syncretic literacies in relation to translanguaging practices, asking, How do knowledges and practices from different communities get combined and reorganized by students and teachers in service of new modeling practices? Setting and Participants We focus on a seventh-grade science classroom, deliberately designed to support syncretic literacies and translanguaging practices, where computer science concepts were infused into the curriculum through modeling activities. The majority of the students in the bilingual program had arrived in the United States at most three years before enrolling, from the Caribbean and Central and South America. Research Design We analyze one lesson that was part of a larger research–practice partnership focused on teaching computer science through leveraging translanguaging practices and syncretic literacies. The lesson was a modeling and computing activity codesigned by the teacher and two researchers about post–Hurricane María outmigration from Puerto Rico. Analysis used microethnographic methods to trace how students assembled translanguaging, social, and schooled practices to make sense of and construct models. Findings/Results Findings show how students assembled representational forms from a variety of practices as part of accomplishing and negotiating both designed and emergent goals. These included sensemaking, constructing, explaining, justifying, and interpreting both the physical and computational models of migration. Conclusions/Recommendations Implications support the development of theory and pedagogy that intentionally make space for students to engage in meaning-making through translanguaging and syncretic practices in order to provide new possibilities for lifting up STEM learning that may include, but is not constrained by, disciplinary learning. Additional implications for teacher education and student assessment practices call for reconceptualizing schooling beyond day-to-day curriculum as part of making an ontological shift away from prioritizing math, science, and CS disciplinary and language objectives as defined by and for schooling, and toward celebrating, supporting, and centering students’ diverse, syncretic knowledges and knowledge use.
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A key challenge for the cross-cultural researcher is how to maintain authenticity in the stories of participants, paying careful attention to any inherent power imbalances. In this article, we share our respective experiences of conducting research with Pacific students and their families in Aotearoa New Zealand as non-Pacific researchers. We discuss tensions we encountered regarding power and positionality, highlighting the importance of engaging with Pacific perspectives and methodologies to help counter these tensions. In our respective studies, we aimed to promote the voices of our participants and conduct research which prioritised Pacific values. We further appreciated that we must not let our own research agenda override the needs of our participants. We explain why we believe these ideas to be so important and draw tentative conclusions on ways to engage in research with Pacific families based on what we have learnt. The data presented from our respective studies highlight our approaches and present some of the challenges, as well as our efforts to engage in reciprocal, respectful relationships with our participants and their families. We hope that, in sharing our reflections, we may offer some useful insight to other researchers embarking on a similar journey to us.
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This article centres a transnational feminist framing that engages racial capitalism and colonialisms in the study of “the global” within childhood studies. We unsettle the dichotomies of North/South and rather theorize their imbrications. We argue for attending to the conjunctions racial capitalism and colonialisms to make visible different yet overlapping forms of extraction. We offer intimacies as a reading practice that intervenes in and opens up notions of the global within childhood and youth studies, making two provocations.
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The temporalities of COVID‐19 and resultant economic crisis, along with increased visibility of white supremacy and anti‐Blackness, have exacerbated the longstanding challenges Women of Color (WOC) faculty experience, particularly around negotiating labor and navigating the academy. Through Anzaldúa's borderlands framework, and an interwoven methodology of testimonios and pláticas, this paper's findings illuminate how the fixed, shifting, and messy boundaries of academic work have, especially for WOC faculty working through COVID‐19, violated the limits of the personal and professional, intruded into the homes as sacred spaces, and continued and expanded demands to provide labor. Institutions have placated these fraught borders with professional development and networks of mentorship—all while pivoting away from addressing the material and structural conditions that disintegrate the borders, particularly for WOC faculty. By exploring the layered complexities of traversing the academy–a space not made for our existence as WOC within them–we offer a nuanced understanding of academic borderlands. As a part of this, we highlight our resistance to carve out spaces of solidarity and collectivity in the face of Eurocentric, individualistic institutions to imagine new possibilities, a practice necessary toward transforming the academy.
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The Anthropocene context has aroused several debates in the academic environment, among them the dialogues on post-humanist thought. The fact that human activity on the planet has unleashed catastrophic consequences leads us to urgently propose other forms of intersections between other cultures, which perhaps are not experiencing with such intensity the fruits of a totalizing and universalist thought. In this context, this article proposes creating a framework that connects the Andean cosmovision of the cosmos and the human and non-human relationships proposed by decoloniality and posthumanism and discusses the relationships between them. We do not intend to discuss the differences or vulnerabilities of each thought, but to identify ethical positions that lead us to recognize other knowledge that has long been silenced by European hegemony. Through the bibliographic review based on Decolonial Theories, we concluded that intercultural dialogue could build ways for us to build loving relationships between the beings that inhabit the universe.
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How can researchers in settler colonial states align their research and partnership practices to demonstrate reciprocity and solidarity with Indigenous communities and nations—especially researchers with dominant identities and training? This self-study investigates a recent research-practice partnership focused on Native curriculum implementation in schools on Coast Salish Lands (Washington State, USA). Using research memos, journals, and correspondence, I analyze my experiences as a white settler and dominantly-trained researcher conducting and relearning qualitative inquiry with eight Native education leaders during a participatory design-based study. Findings show that researcher actions and decision-making consistent with goals of solidarity and reciprocity depended on embedded structures of Indigenous sovereignty across multiple levels and phases of the project. Clarified through relationships with Indigenous advisors/co-designers and others, these structures created mechanisms of accountability to Coast Salish nations and knowledges that counteracted slippage into colonizing and less participatory research methods and relationships. By connecting researcher agency to specific research structures supporting Native sovereignty, this inquiry offers implications for participatory research and research-practice partnerships that support Indigenous sovereignty in ongoing and accountable ways.
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This article is derived from a webinar series conversation titled “Post Philosophies and the Doing of Inquiry,” co-hosted by Candace R. Kuby and Viv Bozalek. This article is based on a conversation that the authors had, facilitated by Candace Kuby, on November 19, 2020.
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Background/Context For educators committed to unraveling racism and colonial bias in world history courses, challenges persist—particularly with Indigenous peoples and knowledges. Typical history curriculum, standards, and instructional tools misrepresent Indigenous peoples and knowledges in damaging and inaccurate ways. In cities, where Indigenous peoples and the natural world are often presumed distant, teachers may especially struggle to disrupt these patterns. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study This study explores the efforts of two experienced urban secondary teachers nominated by local Indigenous educators, asking: How do teachers craft globally-oriented history instruction that engages Indigenous knowledges in historical inquiry? Population/Participants/Subjects Both participants were experienced social studies teachers in or near West Coast cities, in public schools with strong racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic diversity. Julie (a white woman in her late 50s) taught in a small alternative middle school, while Teacher X (a Xicano/Latino man in his early 40s) taught in a large comprehensive high school. Research Design This qualitative comparative case study relied on teacher interviews, class observations, and document analysis. Student and colleague interviews supported triangulation. Findings/Results Findings indicate three teaching practices for desettling expectations (Bang et al., 2012) in historical inquiry: (1) strengthening context for Indigenous knowledges and sovereignty to counter colonial patterns of erasure; (2) using historiographical counter-narratives to show how interpretations of history are situated in colonial power relations; and (3) offering experiential and place-based learning with Indigenous knowledges beyond the classroom. Although both teachers worked to desettle expectations in these ways, only one showed consistency with centering Indigenous knowledges in observed practice. Conclusions/Recommendations Personal resonance with relational and place-based learning appears crucial for teaching Indigenous historical perspectives meaningfully, which may prove challenging for teachers who identify as “urban” in ways perceived as distant from the natural world. Combined with the three practices above, teachers’ ongoing, reciprocal relationships with Indigenous peoples and homelands shaped their effectiveness in engaging Indigenous knowledges as valid and generative for historical inquiry, offering implications for practitioners and scholars in global historical inquiry and teacher education.
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For teachers who exit the classroom to enter higher education, leaving can be heart wrenching and to many, unthinkable and unknowable. Consequently, in seeking change, such as the authors of the stories collected here, they do so to position themselves in ways that allow them to transform educational systems by contributing research-based understandings and offering new and unique ways to challenge the status quo. The authors hope that in sharing their stories they can also develop their own understandings of self as becoming researchers and teacher educators. This collective process shows the criticality of being able to lean on each other to actualize our goals of conducting humanizing education research that centers social justice teaching and results in action-oriented change. A departure from what the academy might expect, the narratives are honest and written with whole hearts as the authors provide insight into who they have been, how they are connected, and who they are becoming.
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Background/Context In light of the consistent underperformance of the comprehensive high school, districts across the country, mostly urban, have begun creating small schools, believing that they may offer a more personalized, supportive, and demanding learning environment. To explore this assumption, this article examines small-school reform through the lens of complexity theory, considering both the promise and problems associated with this approach to educational change. Purpose/Objective With complexity theory as an analytic lens, this article looks at extant research in the area of small-school reform. Specifically, the article draws on fundamental features of complexity theory (e.g., initial conditions, distributed authority, control parameters, fractals, and synergy) as a way to assess both the problems and promise of small-school reform. Intervention/Program/Practice This article focuses on the effects of small-school reform— specifically, the impact of small schools, defined in general as those that enroll between 300 and 450 students, have an explicit thematic focus, promote broad democratic participation for all community members, and attempt to personalize students’ education as a means to enhance educational achievement. Research Design Drawing on the lens of complexity theory, this article offers a secondary analysis of research that I and others have conducted. Employing specific features of complexity theory, this article offers an analysis of these studies from a new analytic perspective. Conclusions/Recommendations Overall, complexity theory is “good to think with.” It offers a systematic way to conceptualize and direct reform in a dynamic, nonlinear system. It is not precise, and certainly not predictive, but complexity theory—with its attention to changed interactions, initial conditions, distributed authority, control parameters, and fractals—offers a holistic framework for understanding the systemic nature of educational reform. Too often, efforts at educational change have been atheoretical, ignoring the multiple, interrelated, and interacting elements of our schools and school systems. Viewing the educational system as composed of isolated and discrete structures, such efforts assumed that complicated phenomena could be understood by analyzing their constituent parts, when in fact the sum of the whole was greater, and more complex, than the sum of the individual parts. Consequently, reforms modified one or two elements in a system apart from related elements, assuming that these actions would produce the intended outcome through a linear, cause-and-effect relationship. But often, the status quo endured. Rather than assuming such predictable and linear interactions among discrete elements in an educational system, complexity theory draws attention to the evolving interrelationships among system elements at various levels of the system. It offers a means to analyze emerging patterns and trends to illuminate how the disparate system parts are, or are not, working together.
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Presumed Incompetent is a pathbreaking account of the intersecting roles of race, gender, and class in the working lives of women faculty of color. Through personal narratives and qualitative empirical studies, more than 40 authors expose the daunting challenges faced by academic women of color as they navigate the often hostile terrain of higher education, including hiring, promotion, tenure, and relations with students, colleagues, and administrators. The narratives are filled with wit, wisdom, and concrete recommendations, and provide a window into the struggles of professional women in a racially stratified but increasingly multicultural America.
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Our goal in this article is to remind readers what is unsettling about decolonization. Decolonization brings about the repatriation of Indigenous land and life; it is not a metaphor for other things we want to do to improve our societies and schools. The easy adoption of decolonizing discourse by educational advocacy and scholarship, evidenced by the increasing number of calls to “decolonize our schools,” or use “decolonizing methods,” or, “decolonize student thinking”, turns decolonization into a metaphor. As important as their goals may be, social justice, critical methodologies, or approaches that decenter settler perspectives have objectives that may be incommensurable with decolonization. Because settler colonialism is built upon an entangled triad structure of settler-native-slave, the decolonial desires of white, non-white, immigrant, postcolonial, and oppressed people, can similarly be entangled in resettlement, reoccupation, and reinhabitation that actually further settler colonialism. The metaphorization of decolonization makes possible a set of evasions, or “settler moves to innocence”, that problematically attempt to reconcile settler guilt and complicity, and rescue settler futurity. In this article, we analyze multiple settler moves towards innocence in order to forward “an ethic of incommensurability” that recognizes what is distinct and what is sovereign for project(s) of decolonization in relation to human and civil rights based social justice projects. We also point to unsettling themes within transnational/Third World decolonizations, abolition, and critical space-place pedagogies, which challenge the coalescence of social justice endeavors, making room for more meaningful potential alliances.
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What are the origins of educational rights? In this essay, Espinoza and Vossoughi assert that educational rights are "produced," "affirmed," and "negated" not only through legislative and legal channels but also through an evolving spectrum of educational activities embedded in everyday life. Thus, they argue that the "heart" of educational rights the very idea that positive educative experiences resulting in learning are a human entitlement irrespective of social or legal status has come to inhere in the educational experiences of persons subjected to social degradation and humiliation. After examining key moments in the African American educational rights experience as composite historical products, the authors determine that learning is "dignity-conferring" and "rights-generative." They revisit African slave narratives, testimony from landmark desegregation cases, and foundational texts in the history of African American education where they find luminous first-person accounts of intellectual activity in the shadow of sanction, suppression, discouragement, and punishment. They conclude by outlining an empirical framework for studying the nexus of learning, dignity, and educational rights from a social interactional perspective.
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In recent years, scholars have critiqued norms of neoliberal higher education (HE) by calling for embodied and anti-oppressive teaching and learning. Implicit in these accounts, but lacking elaboration, is a concern with reformulating the notion of ‘time’ and temporalities of academic life. Employing a coloniality perspective, this article argues that in order to reconnect our minds to our bodies and center embodied pedagogy in the classroom, we should disrupt Eurocentric notions of time that colonize our academic lives. I show how this entails slowing down and ‘being lazy’.
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In this open letter, Eve Tuck calls on communities, researchers, and educators to reconsider the long-term impact of "damage-centered" research—research that intends to document peoples' pain and brokenness to hold those in power accountable for their oppression. This kind of research operates with a flawed theory of change: it is often used to leverage reparations or resources for marginalized communities yet simultane-ously reinforces and reinscribes a one-dimensional notion of these people as depleted, ruined, and hopeless. Tuck urges communities to institute a moratorium on damage-centered research to reformulate the ways research is framed and conducted and to reimagine how findings might be used by, for, and with communities. Dear Readers, Greetings! I write to you from a little desk in my light-filled house in New York State, my new home after living in Brooklyn for the past eleven years. Today, New York does not seem so far from St. Paul Island, one of the Pribilof Islands of the Aleutian chain in Alaska, where my family is from and where my relations continue to live. Something about writing this letter closes the gap between these disparate places I call home. I write to you about home, about our communities. I write to identify a per-sistent trend in research on Native communities, city communities, and other disenfranchised communities—what I call damage-centered research. I invite you to join me in re-visioning research in our communities not only to recog-nize the need to document the effects of oppression on our communities but also to consider the long-term repercussions of thinking of ourselves as broken. This is an open letter addressed to educational researchers and practi-tioners concerned with fostering and maintaining ethical relationships with disenfranchised and dispossessed communities and all of those troubled by the possible hidden costs of a research strategy that frames entire communi-ties as depleted.
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The concept of solidarity is often evoked within projects of decolonization. More recently, however, the failure to construct solidary relationships that seriously engage the demands posed by decolonization has provoked scepticism as well as suspicion regarding the viability of solidarity. A consideration of the genealogy as well as the multifarious uses of the concept of solidarity reveals some of the ways in which the concept reinscribes colonial logics and operates to obscure complicity and continued colonization. At the same time, it is possible to articulate a set of parameters for solidary relations through which to imaginatively construct new ways of entering into relations with others. In fact, when informed by the failures of responses such as multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism to the problem of human difference, solidarity remains an important possibility. This article proposes three modes for a pedagogy of solidarity that is committed to decolonization. It argues for the possibilities of relational, transitive, and creative solidarity as a strategy for recasting not only human relations but also the very notion of what it means to be human, as crucial for decolonization.
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Critical race theory generally and intersectionality theory in particular have provided scholars and activists with clear accounts of how civil rights reforms centered in the antidiscrimination principle have failed to sufficiently change conditions for those facing the most violent manifestations of settler colonialism, heteropatriarchy, white supremacy, ableism, and xenophobia. These interventions have exposed how the discrimination principle’s reliance on individual harm, intentionality, and universalized categories of identity has made it ineffective at eradicating these forms of harm and violence and has obscured the actual operations of systems of meaning and control that produce maldistribution and targeted violence. This essay pushes this line of thinking an additional step to focus on the racialized-gendered distribution schemes that operate at the population level through programs that declare themselves race and gender neutral but are in fact founded on the production and maintenance of race and gender categories as vectors for distributing life chances. In the context of intensifying criminal and immigration enforcement and wealth disparity, it is essential to turn our attention to what Michel Foucault called “state racism”—the operation of population-level programs that target some for increased security and life chances while marking others for insecurity and premature death. This essay looks at how social movements resisting intersectional state violence are formulating demands (like the abolition of prisons, borders, and poverty) that exceed the narrow confines of the discrimination principle and take administrative systems as adversaries in ways that pull the nation-state form itself into crisis.
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The expert performance framework distinguishes between deliberate practice and less effective practice activities. The current longitudinal study is the first to use this framework to understand how children improve in an academic skill. Specifically, the authors examined the effectiveness and subjective experience of three preparation activities widely recommended to improve spelling skill. Deliberate practice, operationally defined as studying and memorizing words while alone, better predicted performance in the National Spelling Bee than being quizzed by others or reading for pleasure. Rated as the most effortful and least enjoyable type of preparation activity, deliberate practice was increasingly favored over being quizzed as spellers accumulated competition experience. Deliberate practice mediated the prediction of final performance by the personality trait of grit, suggesting that perseverance and passion for long-term goals enable spellers to persist with practice activities that are less intrinsically rewarding—but more effective—than other types of preparation.
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This classic text addresses one of the most important issues in modern social theory and policy: how social inequality is reproduced from one generation to the next. With the original 1987 publication of Ain?t No Makin? It Jay MacLeod brought us to the Clarendon Heights housing project where we met the ‘Brothers? and the ‘Hallway Hangers.? Their story of poverty, race, and defeatism moved readers and challenged ethnic stereotypes. MacLeod?s return eight years later, and the resulting 1995 revision, revealed little improvement in the lives of these men as they struggled in the labor market and crime-ridden underground economy. The third edition of this classic ethnography of social reproduction brings the story of inequality and social mobility into today?s dialogue. Now fully updated with thirteen new interviews from the original Hallway Hangers and Brothers, as well as new theoretical analysis and comparison to the original conclusions, Ain?t No Makin? It remains an admired and invaluable text. Contents Part One: The Hallway Hangers and the Brothers as Teenagers 1. Social Immobility in the Land of Opportunity 2. Social Reproduction in Theoretical Perspective 3. Teenagers in Clarendon Heights: The Hallway Hangers and the Brothers 4. The Influence of the Family 5. The World of Work: Aspirations of the Hangers and Brothers 6. School: Preparing for the Competition 7. Leveled Aspirations: Social Reproduction Takes Its Toll 8. Reproduction Theory ReconsideredPart Two: Eight Years Later: Low Income, Low Outcome 9. The Hallway Hangers: Dealing in Despair 10. The Brothers: Dreams Deferred 11. Conclusion: Outclassed and Outcast(e)Part Three: Ain?t No Makin? It? 12. The Hallway Hangers: Fighting for a Foothold at Forty 13. The Brothers: Barely Making It 14. Making Sense of the Stories, by Katherine McClelland and David Karen.
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Teaching Toward Democracy examines the contested space of schooling and school reform with a focus on the unique challenges and opportunities that teaching in a democratic society provides. Chapters are written in the spirit of notes, conversations and letters the nationally recognized team of authors wish they received in their journeys into teaching. Building on the conversational and accessible approach, this revised edition includes additional dialogues amongst the authors to further explore how they have individually and collectively reflected on the qualities of mind that teachers explore and work to develop as they become more effective educators. Inspiring and uplifting, Teaching Toward Democracy adds to the repertoire of skills teachers can access in their classrooms and encourages the confidence to locate themselves within the noble tradition of teaching as democratic work.
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Rooted in the initial struggle of community members who staged a successful hunger strike to secure a high school in their Chicago neighborhood, David Omotoso Stovall s Born Out of Struggle focuses on his first-hand participation in the process to help design the school. Offering important lessons about how to remain accountable to communities while designing a curriculum with a social justice agenda, Stovall explores the use of critical race theory to encourage its practitioners to spend less time with abstract theories and engage more with communities that make a concerted effort to change their conditions. Stovall provides concrete examples of how to navigate the constraints of working with centralized bureaucracies in education and apply them to real-world situations.
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What does diversity do? What are we doing when we use the language of diversity? Sara Ahmed offers an account of the diversity world based on interviews with diversity practitioners in higher education, as well as her own experience of doing diversity work. Diversity is an ordinary, even unremarkable, feature of institutional life. Yet diversity practitioners often experience institutions as resistant to their work, as captured through their use of the metaphor of the "brick wall." On Being Included offers an explanation of this apparent paradox. It explores the gap between symbolic commitments to diversity and the experience of those who embody diversity. Commitments to diversity are understood as "non-performatives" that do not bring about what they name. The book provides an account of institutional whiteness and shows how racism can be obscured by the institutionalization of diversity. Diversity is used as evidence that institutions do not have a problem with racism. On Being Included offers a critique of what happens when diversity is offered as a solution. It also shows how diversity workers generate knowledge of institutions in attempting to transform them.
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Every scholarly project begins with an inspiration-to uncover a pattern, to illuminate or explicate a time, place, or thing, to pose or solve a problem. Mine is this: to understand our ongoing embrace of racial inequality in the United States, despite the fact that we are a society that formally and colloquially decries racism and proclaims equality.
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The Black Revolution on Campus is the definitive account of an extraordinary but forgotten chapter of the black freedom struggle. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Black students organized hundreds of protests that sparked a period of crackdown, negotiation, and reform that profoundly transformed college life. At stake was the very mission of higher education. Black students demanded that public universities serve their communities; that private universities rethink the mission of elite education; and that black colleges embrace self-determination and resist the threat of integration. Most crucially, black students demanded a role in the definition of scholarly knowledge. Martha Biondi masterfully combines impressive research with a wealth of interviews from participants to tell the story of how students turned the slogan "black power" into a social movement. Vividly demonstrating the critical linkage between the student movement and changes in university culture, Biondi illustrates how victories in establishing Black Studies ultimately produced important intellectual innovations that have had a lasting impact on academic research and university curricula over the past 40 years. This book makes a major contribution to the current debate on Ethnic Studies, access to higher education, and opportunity for all.
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This book traces the origins of the "illegal alien" in American law and society, explaining why and how illegal migration became the central problem in U.S. immigration policy-a process that profoundly shaped ideas and practices about citizenship, race, and state authority in the twentieth century. Mae Ngai offers a close reading of the legal regime of restriction that commenced in the 1920s-its statutory architecture, judicial genealogies, administrative enforcement, differential treatment of European and non-European migrants, and long-term effects. She shows that immigration restriction, particularly national-origin and numerical quotas, remapped America both by creating new categories of racial difference and by emphasizing as never before the nation's contiguous land borders and their patrol.
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In the colorblind era of Post-Civil Rights America, race is often wrongly thought to be irrelevant or, at best, a problem of racist individuals rather than a systemic condition to be confronted. Race, Whiteness, and Education interrupts this dangerous assumption by reaffirming a critical appreciation of the central role that race and racism still play in schools and society. Author Zeus Leonardo's conceptual engagement of race and whiteness asks questions about its origins, its maintenance, and envisages its future. This book does not simply rehearse exhausted ideas on the relationship among race, class, and education, but instead offers new ways of understanding how multiple social relations interact with one another and of their impact in thinking about a more genuine sense of multiculturalism. By asking fundamental questions about whiteness in schools and society, Race, Whiteness, and Education goes to the heart of race relations and the common sense understandings that sustain it, thus painting a clearer picture of the changing face of racism.
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Social Death tackles one of the core paradoxes of social justice struggles and scholarship-that the battle to end oppression shares the moral grammar that structures exploitation and sanctions state violence. Lisa Marie Cacho forcefully argues that the demands for personhood for those who, in the eyes of society, have little value, depend on capitalist and heteropatriarchal measures of worth. With poignant case studies, Cacho illustrates that our very understanding of personhood is premised upon the unchallenged devaluation of criminalized populations of color. Hence, the reliance of rights-based politics on notions of who is and is not a deserving member of society inadvertently replicates the logic that creates and normalizes states of social and literal death. Her understanding of inalienable rights and personhood provides us the much-needed comparative analytical and ethical tools to understand the racialized and nationalized tensions between racial groups. Driven by a radical, relentless critique, Social Death challenges us to imagine a heretofore "unthinkable" politics and ethics that do not rest on neoliberal arguments about worth, but rather emerge from the insurgent experiences of those negated persons who do not live by the norms that determine the productive, patriotic, law abiding, and family-oriented subject.
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This book takes a close look at places of learning located outside of schools, yet deeply concerned with the experience of the learning self. It explores what it might mean to think of pedagogy not in relation to knowledge as a "thing made," but to knowledge in the making.
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In this theoretical essay, I argue that the current incidences of backlash to diversity are best understood as a dynamic of complicated, historic and intertwined desires for racial diversity and white entitlement to property. I frame this argument in the theories of critical race theory and settler colonialism, each of which provide necessary but incomplete analytic tools for understanding systemic racism and property rights. Situating universities and colleges as white settler property established on seizure contextualizes both the ways in which the desire for diversity is connected to white supremacy and leads to subsequent backlash to the presence of people of color, particularly those in positions of authority. I close with a discussion of the tension between property rights and potential cultural transformation.
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This book seeks to analyze the issue of race in America after the election of Barack Obama. For the author, the U.S. criminal justice system functions can act as a contemporary system of racial control, even as it adheres to the principle of color blindness.
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In this article, Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy explores how the experiences of Tom, Debbie, and Heather, three Native American students attending Ivy League universities in the 1990s, reflect larger societal beliefs and statements about the perceived place of Native Americans in higher education and U.S. society. Brayboy posits that Native Americans are visible in these institutions in ways that contribute to their marginalization, surveillance, and oppression. In response, the three Native American students exercise strategies that make them invisible to the largely White communities in which they attend school. These strategies help to preserve the students' sense of cultural integrity, but further serve to marginalize them on campus. At times, the students in the study make themselves visible to emphasize that they are a voice in the campus community. Brayboy argues that these strategies, while possibly confusing to the layperson, make sense if viewed from the perspective of the students preserving their cultural integrity.
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In this article, Dolores Delgado Bernal outlines a Chicana feminist epistemological framework that is new to the field of educational research. This framework, which draws from the existing work of Chicana feminists, questions the notions of objectivity and a universal foundation of knowledge. A Chicana feminist epistemology is also grounded in the life experiences of Chicanas and involves Chicana research participants in analyzing how their lives are being interpreted, documented, and reported, while acknowledging that many Chicanas lead lives with significantly different opportunity structures than men or White women. As part of this framework, Delgado Bernal also introduces the concept of cultural intuition to name a complex process that acknowledges the unique viewpoints that many Chicana scholars bring to the research process. In the latter half of the article, she illustrates the importance of this framework in educational research by describing an oral history project on Chicana student resistance and activism as seen from this framework. Her conceptual discussion and research example together demonstrate that employing a Chicana feminist epistemology in educational research is one means of resisting traditional paradigms that often distort or omit the experiences and knowledge of Chicanas.
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This article discusses the role of refusal in the analysis and communication of qualitative data, that is, the role of refusal in the work of making claims. Refusal is not just a no, but a generative stance, situated in a critical understanding of settler colonialism and its regimes of representation. Refusals are needed to counter narratives and images arising (becoming-claims) in social science research that diminish personhood or sovereignty, or rehumiliate when circulated. Refusal, in this article, refers to a stance or an approach to analyzing data within a matrix of commitments, histories, allegiances, and resonances that inform what can be known within settler colonial research frames, and what must be kept out of reach.
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W.E.B. Du Bois said, on the launch of his groundbreaking 1903 treatise The Souls of Black Folk, textquotedblleftfor the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color-linetextquotedblrighttextemdasha prescient statement. Setting out to show to the reader textquotedblleftthe strange meaning of being black here in the dawning of the Twentieth Century,textquotedblright Du Bois explains the meaning of the emancipation, and its effect, and his views on the role of the leaders of his race. (http://www.bartleby.com/114/)
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After Brown v. Board of Education was decided, Professor Herbert Wechsler questioned whether the Supreme Court's decision could be justified on the basis of "neutral" principles. To him Brown arbitrarily traded the rights of whites not to associate with blacks in favor of the rights of blacks to associate with whites. In this Comment, Prof. Derrick Bell suggests that no conflict of interest actually existed; for a brief period, the interests of the races converged to make the Brown decision inevitable. More recent Supreme Court decisions, however, suggest to Professor Bell a growing divergence of interests that makes integration less feasible. He suggests the interest of blacks in quality education might now be better served by concentration on improving the quality of existing schools, whether desegregated or all-black.
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Examining multicultural forms of settler colonialism, this essay examines settler colonialism within a transnational view of global imperial politics, pulling formations of settler colonialism and imperialism together. Responding to arguments against the critique of Asian settler colonialism, this essay argues that while migration in and of itself does not equate to colonialism, migration to a settler colonial space, where Native lands and resources are under political, ecological, and spiritual contestation, means the political agency of immigrant communities can bolster a colonial system initiated by White settlers. An analysis of White supremacy is thus argued to be critical to a settler of color critique of the US Empire. White settlers in the islands managed Kanaka ‘Ōiwi and various Asian settler differences not through one binary opposition but multiple binaries. Taken together these oppositions produced a pyramidal view of the world that helped diverse non-White settlers to see their interests as aligned with the formation of a liberal settler state. This developmental discourse was and remains framed around an alterity that disqualifies Indigenous sovereignty and histories. While not uncomplicated, placing Asian American and Native histories in conversation might create the conditions of possibility where social justice-oriented Asian Americans might conceptualize liberation in ways that are accountable to Native aims for decolonization. The essay ends with a self-critique, applying these framings through personal reflections of the author's family history in Hawai'i.
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: The U.S. higher education crisis has been well documented. College is overpriced, overvalued, and ripe for disruption (preferably, for some critics, by the outcome-driven private sector). At the same time, many Americans are flailing in the post-recession economy. With rising income inequality, persistent long-term unemployment, and declining real wages, Americans are searching for purchase on shifting ground. Not so long ago, the social contract between workers, government, and employers made college a calculable bet. But when the social contract was broken and policymakers didn’t step in, the only prescription for insecurity was the product that had been built on the assumption of security.
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There is nothing new about a federal focus on investing in science in US higher education (often through contracts and grants), but there is a new intimacy between grants and science. Increasingly, what happens and is valued in the name of research and knowledge production in universities is grant-science. In this article, I provide insight into grant-science by analyzing aspects of the proposal writing process on one of my own National Science Foundation (NSF) grants. This article provides a context-specific look at how broader impacts criteria (BIC) and ethics are re/produced through relations of power and consequently mis/interpreted and mitigated in the proposal writing process. Grant work may not seem explicitly feminist, but as a woman of color who is part of a generation of research/ers trained in feminist methodology by second- and third-wave feminist research/ers, I approach research with a feminist of color imaginary. I take up promiscuous feminism through the theoretical perspectives of Spivak to discuss how my feminist of color imaginary shapes my take on research and grant work. This analytical lens helps make visible how my interpretation and practice of NSF policies of BIC and ethics collide with the more technical ways that some other investigators on the grant projects interpret them.
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In this article, I use a Spivakian decolonizing perspective to take simplification to task in two ways—the simplification of methodology with/in grants and the simplification of critique that skirts the impossibility of noncomplicitous research and researchers. I posit that neoliberal scientism’s grants culture is colonizing research—narrowly defining what is and is not knowledge production and who are and are not researchers. I argue that qualitative research/ers might infiltrate grants culture and then work from within to make the messiness of science visible in a way that makes neoliberal scientism’s “(ab)-use” of science its own undoing (Spivak, 1999). In this sense, I reframe complicity as infiltration, but recognize that complicities are neither equal nor uniform across researchers, projects, or contexts.